World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Religion in Europe

Article Id: WHEBN0004163014
Reproduction Date:

Title: Religion in Europe  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Religion in Spain, Religion in Sweden, Religion in Europe, Christianity in Europe, Heaven
Collection: Europe, European Culture, Religion in Europe
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

Religion in Europe

Religion in Europe has been a major influence on today's society art, culture, philosophy and law. The largest religion in Europe for at least a millennium and a half has been Christianity. Three countries in Southeastern Europe have Muslim majorities. Ancient European religions included veneration for deities such as Zeus and Odin. Modern revival movements of these religions include Heathenism, Rodnovery, Romuva, Druidry, Wicca, and others. Smaller religions include Buddhism, Judaism, Indian religions, and some East Asian religions, which are found in their largest groups in Britain, France, and Kalmykia.


  • History 1
  • Religiosity 2
    • Gallup poll 2007–2008 2.1
    • Eurobarometer poll 2010 2.2
    • Eurobarometer poll 2012 2.3
      • Maps 2.3.1
  • Abrahamic religions 3
    • Baha'i Faith 3.1
    • Christianity 3.2
      • Christian Denominations 3.2.1
    • Islam 3.3
    • Judaism 3.4
  • Deism 4
  • Irreligion 5
    • Agnosticism 5.1
    • Atheism 5.2
  • Neopaganism 6
    • Wicca 6.1
    • Neo-Druidry 6.2
    • Germanic Neo-Paganism 6.3
  • Indian religions 7
    • Buddhism 7.1
    • Hinduism 7.2
    • Jainism 7.3
    • Sikhism 7.4
  • Other religions 8
  • Official religions 9
  • See also 10
  • References 11


Little is known about the prehistoric religion of Neolithic Europe. Bronze and Iron Age religion in Europe as elsewhere was predominantly polytheistic (Ancient Greek religion, Ancient Roman religion, Basque mythology, Finnish paganism, Celtic polytheism, Germanic paganism, etc.). The Roman Empire officially adopted Christianity in AD 380. During the Early Middle Ages, most of Europe underwent Christianization, a process essentially complete with the Christianization of Scandinavia in the High Middle Ages. The emergence of the notion of "Europe" or "Western World" is intimately connected with the idea of "Christendom", especially since Christianity in the Middle East was marginalized by the rise of Islam from the 8th century, a constellation that led to the Crusades, which although unsuccessful militarily were an important step in the emergence of a religious identity of Europe. At all times, traditions of folk religion existed largely independent from official denomination or dogmatic theology.

The Great Schism of the 11th century and Reformation of the 16th century were to tear apart Christendom into hostile factions, and following the Age of Enlightenment of the 18th century, atheism and agnosticism have spread across Europe. 19th-century Orientalism contributed to a certain popularity of Buddhism, and the 20th century brought increasing syncretism, New Age, and various new religious movements divorcing spirituality from inherited traditions for many Europeans. The latest history brought increased secularisation, and religious pluralism.[2]


European countries have experienced a decline in church membership and church attendance.[3][4] A relevant example of ongoing trend is Sweden where the church of Sweden, previously the state-church until 2000, claimed to have 82.9% of the Swedish population as its flock in 2000. Surveys showed this had dropped to 72.9% by 2008.[5] However in the 2005 eurobarometer poll only 23%[6] and in the 2010 eurobarometer poll only 18%[1] of the Swedish population said they believed in a personal God.

Gallup poll 2007–2008

Lack of Importance of Religion in Europe by Gallup poll (2007–2008)
Country Percentage
 Czech Republic
 United Kingdom
 Bosnia and Herzegovina

During 2007–2008, a Gallup poll asked in several countries the question "Does religion occupy an important place in your life?" The table on right shows percentage of people who answered "No".[7]

Eurobarometer poll 2010

The Eurobarometer Poll 2010[1] found that, on average, 51% of the citizens of EU member states state that they "believe in God", 26% "believe there is some sort of spirit or life force" while 20% "do not believe there is any sort of spirit, God or life force". 3% declined to answer. According to a recent study (Dogan, Mattei, Religious Beliefs in Europe: Factors of Accelerated Decline), 47% of Frenchmen declared themselves as agnostic in 2003. This situation is often called "Post-Christian Europe". A decrease in religiousness and church attendance in Denmark, Belgium, France, Germany, the Netherlands, and Sweden has been noted, despite a concurrent increase in some countries Greece (2% in 1 year) . The Eurobarometer poll must be taken with caution, however, as there are discrepancies between it and national census results. For example in the United Kingdom, the 2001 census revealed over 70% of the population regarded themselves as "Christian" with only 15% professing to have "no religion", though the wording of the question has been criticized as "leading" by the British Humanist Association.[8] Romania, one of the most religious countries in Europe, witnessed a threefold increase in the number of atheists between 2002 and 2011, as revealed by the most recent national census.[9]

Eurobarometer Poll 2005 chart results
The following is a list of European countries ranked by religiosity, based on belief in a God, according to the Eurobarometer Poll 2010.[1] The 2010 Eurobarometer Poll asked whether the person believed "there is a God", believed "there is some sort of spirit of life force", or "didn't believe there is any sort of spirit, God or life force".
Eurobarometer Poll 2010[1]
Country "I believe
there is a God"
"I believe there is some
sort of spirit or life force"
"I don't believe there is any sort
of spirit, God or life force"
Malta 94% 4% 2%
Romania 92% 7% 1%
Cyprus 88% 8% 3%
Greece 79% 16% 4%
Poland 79% 14% 5%
Italy 74% 20% 6%
Ireland 70% 20% 7%
Portugal 70% 15% 12%
Slovakia 63% 23% 13%
Spain 59% 20% 19%
Lithuania 47% 37% 12%
Luxembourg 46% 22% 24%
Hungary 45% 34% 20%
Austria 44% 38% 12%
Germany 44% 25% 27%
Latvia 38% 48% 11%
United Kingdom 37% 33% 25%
Belgium 37% 31% 27%
Bulgaria 36% 43% 15%
Finland 33% 42% 22%
Slovenia 32% 36% 26%
Denmark 28% 47% 24%
Netherlands 28% 39% 30%
France 27% 27% 40%
Estonia 18% 50% 29%
Sweden 18% 45% 34%
Czech Republic 16% 44% 37%
EU27 51% 26% 20%
Croatia (joined EU in 2013) 69% 22% 7%
Switzerland (EFTA) 44% 39% 11%
Iceland (EEA, not EU) 31% 49% 18%
Norway (EEA, not EU) 22% 44% 29%

The decrease in theism is illustrated in the 1981 and 1999 according to the World Values Survey,[10] both for traditionally strongly theist countries (Spain: 86.8%:81.1%; Ireland 94.8%:93.7%) and for traditionally secular countries (Sweden: 51.9%:46.6%; France 61.8%:56.1%; Netherlands 65.3%:58.0%). Some countries nevertheless show increase of theism over the period, Italy 84.1%:87.8%, Denmark 57.8%:62.1%. For a comprehensive study on Europe, see Mattei Dogan's "Religious Beliefs in Europe: Factors of Accelerated Decline" in Research in the Social Scientific Study of Religion. Malta and Romania are the most religious countries and Estonia and Czech Republic are the least religious countries in Europe.

Eurobarometer poll 2012

According to new polls about Religiosity in the European Union in 2012 by Eurobarometer, Christianity is the largest religion in the European Union accounting 72% of EU citizens. Catholics are the largest Christian group in EU, accounting for 48% EU citizens, while Protestants make up 12%, and Eastern Orthodox make up 8%, and other Christians account for 4% of the EU population. Non believer/Agnostic account 16%, Atheist account's 7%, and Muslim 2%.[11]


Belief "there is a God" per country based on Eurobaromer 2005 poll 
Belief "there is some sort of spirit or life force" per country based on Eurobarometer 2005 poll 
No belief in "any sort of spirit, God or life force" per country based on Eurobarometer 2005 poll 

Abrahamic religions

Baha'i Faith

The first newspaper reference to the religious movement began with coverage of the Báb, whom Bahá'ís consider the founder of a precursor religion, occurred in The Times on 1 November 1845, only a little over a year after the Báb first started his mission.[12] British, Russian, and other diplomats, businessmen, scholars, and world travelers also took note of the precursor Bábí religion[13] most notably in 1865 by Frenchman Arthur de Gobineau who wrote the first and most influential account. In April 1890 Edward G. Browne of Cambridge University met Bahá'u'lláh and left the only detailed description by a Westerner.[14]

Starting in the 1890s Europeans began to convert to the religion. In 1910 Bahá'u'lláh's son and appointed successor, `Abdu'l-Bahá embarked on a three-year journey to including Europe and North America[15] and then wrote a series of letters that were compiled together in the book titled Tablets of the Divine Plan which included mention of the need to spread the religion in Europe following the war.[16]

A 1925 list of "leading local Bahá'í Centres" of Europe listed organized communities of many countries - the largest being in Germany.[17] However the religion was soon banned in a couple countries: in 1937 Heinrich Himmler disbanded the Bahá'í Faith's institutions in Germany because of its 'international and pacifist tendencies'[18] and in Russia in 1938 "monstrous accusations" against Bahá'ís[18] and a Soviet government policy of oppression of religion resulted in Bahá'í communities in 38 cities across Soviet territories ceasing to exist.[19] However the religion recovered in both countries. The religion has generally spread such that in recent years the Association of Religion Data Archives estimated the Bahá'ís in European countries to number in hundreds to tens of thousands.[20]


View of St. Peter's Basilica in Rome, the largest European Roman Catholic Church
Cathedral of Saint Sava in Serbia is the largest Orthodox church in the world
The Alexander Nevsky Cathedral in Sofia is one of the largest Orthodox cathedrals
The St John's Church, Bergen is a Lutheran church in Norway
Calvinist Temple Saint-Étienne (Protestant St. Stephen's Church) in France

The majority of Europeans describe themselves as Christians, divided into a large number of denominations.[21] Christian denominations are usually classed in three categories: Catholicism, Orthodoxy and Protestantism (a diverse group including Lutheranism, Zwinglianism-Calvinism-Presbyterianism, and Anglicanism as well as numerous minor denominations, including Baptism, Methodism, Evangelicalism, Pentecostalism, etc.).

Christianity, more specifically the Catholic Church, which played an important part in the shaping of Western civilization since at least the 4th century.[22][23]

European culture, throughout most of its recent history, has been heavily influenced by Christian belief and has been nearly equivalent to Christian culture.[24] The Christian culture was one of the more dominant forces to influence western civilization, concerning the course of philosophy, art, music, science, social structure and architecture.[24][25] The Civilizing influence of Christianity includes social welfare,[26] founding hospitals,[27] economics (as the Protestant work ethic),[28][29] politics[30] architecture,[31] literature[32] and family life.[33]

Christianity is still the largest religion in Europe according to a 2011 survey, 76.2% of Europeans considered themselves Christians at that time.[34][35] According to a 2012 study about Religiosity in the European Union in 2012 by Eurobarometer Christianity is the largest religion in the European Union (account 72% of EU population), Catholics were the largest Christian group in EU, and accounted for 48% of the EU population, While Protestants made up 12%, and Eastern Orthodoxs made up 8%, and other Christians 4%.[36]

Christian Denominations

Roman Catholicism is the largest denomination with adherents mostly existing in Latin Europe (which includes France,[37] Italy,[37] Spain,[37] southern [Wallon] Belgium,[37] Portugal),[37] Ireland,[37] Lithuania,[37] Poland,[37] Hungary,[37] Slovakia,[37] Slovenia,[37] Croatia,[37] western Ukraine, and the Czech Republic, but also the southern parts of Germanic Europe (which includes Austria, Luxembourg, northern [Flemish] Belgium, southern and western Germany, and Liechtenstein).

There are numerous minor Protestant movements, including various Evangelical congregations.


The East London Mosque in London, which is the first mosque in European Union to use loudspeakers to broadcast the adhan.

Islam came to parts of European islands and coasts on the Mediterranean during the 8th-century Muslim conquests. In the Iberian Peninsula and parts of southern France, various Muslim states existed before the Reconquista; Islam spread in southern Italy briefly through the Emirate of Sicily and Emirate of Bari. During the Ottoman expansion, Islam was spread from Turkey into the Balkans and even part of central Europe. Muslims have also been historically present in Ukraine (Crimea and vicinity, with the Crimean Tatars), as well as modern-day Russia, beginning with Volga Bulgaria in the 10th century and the conversion of the Golden Horde to Islam. In recent years, Muslims have migrated to Europe as residents and temporary workers.

According to the Pew Forum, the total number of Muslims in Europe in 2010 was about 44 million (6%).[38] excluding Turkey. While the total number of Muslims in the European Union in 2007 was about 16 million (3.2%).[39]

Muslims make up 99% of the population in Northern Cyprus,[40] over 98% in Turkey,[41] 90% in Kosovo, 40% in Bosnia and Herzegovina,[42] 56% in Albania,[43][44] 33% in Macedonia,[45] 19% in Montenegro,[46] between 10 and 15% in Russia,[47] 9% in France,[48][49][50] 8% in Bulgaria,[51] 6% in the Netherlands, 5% in Denmark, just over 4% in Switzerland and Austria, between 3 and 4% in Greece and almost 5% in the United Kingdom and Germany.[52][53][54]


The Jews were dispersed within the Roman Empire from the 2nd century. At one time Judaism was practiced widely throughout the European continent; throughout the Middle Ages, Jews were accused of ritual murder and faced pogroms and legal discrimination. The Holocaust perpetrated by Nazi Germany decimated Jewish population, and today, France is the home of largest Jewish community in Europe with 1% of the total population (between 483,000 and 500,000 Jews).[55][56] Other European countries with notable Jewish populations include Germany, the United Kingdom (291,000 Jewish),[56] and Russia (194,000) which the home for the Eastern Europe's largest Jewish community.[56]


During the Enlightenment, Deism became influential especially in England, the Netherlands, Germany and France. Biblical concepts were challenged by concepts such as a heleocentric universe and other scientific challenges to the Bible.[57] Notable early deists include Erasmus, Voltaire, Kant and Spinoza.[58]


The trend towards secularism during the 20th century has a number of reasons, depending on the individual country:

  • France society overall is still secular. [59]
  • Some parts of Eastern Europe were secularized as a matter of state doctrine under communist rule in the countries of the former Eastern Bloc. Albania was an officially (and constitutionally binding) atheist state from 1967 to 1991.[60] The countries where the fewest people reported a religious belief were the Czech Republic (19%, traditionally Catholic) and Estonia (16%, traditionally Lutheran).[61] The region of Eastern Germany, which was also under communist rule, is believed to be the least religious region in Europe.[62][63] Other post-communist countries, however, have seen the opposite effect, with religion being very important in countries such as Romania, Lithuania and Poland.
  • The traditionally Protestant countries have seen a general decrease in church attendance since the 1970s. This concerns Germany, the UK, the Netherlands, and Scandinavia.[64]

The trend towards secularism has been less pronounced in the traditionally Catholic countries of Mediterranean Europe. Greece as the only traditionally Eastern Orthodox country in Europe which has not been part of the communist Eastern Bloc also retains a very high religiosity, with in excess of 95% of Greeks adhering to the Greek Orthodox Church. The trend is also visible in the decrease of the importance of marriage: in 2011, 39.5% of births in the European Union were outside of marriage.[65] Several countries in Europe recorded a majority of births outside of marriage in 2011 - these include Iceland (65.0%), Estonia (59.7%), Slovenia (56.8%), Bulgaria (56.1%), France (55.8%), Norway (55.0%), Sweden (54.3%).[65] These countries tend to be less religious ones (less than half of the population believing in a God) whereas half of the European population believes in a God.[66]

According to Pew Research Center survey in 2012 religiously unaffiliated (include agnostic and atheist) make up about 18.2% of Europeans population.[67] According to the same survey religiously unaffiliated make up a majority of the population only in two European countries: Czech Republic (75%) and Estonia (60%).[67]


During the late 20th and early 21st centuries, atheism or agnosticism has increased, with falling church attendance and membership in various European countries.[68] The 2010 eurobarometer poll found that on total average, of the EU27 population, 51% "believe in a God", 26% believe in "some sort of spirit or life force" and 20% had neither of these forms of belief.[1] Across the EU, belief was higher among women, increased with age, those with strict upbringing, those with the lowest levels of formal education and those leaning towards right-wing politics.[61]:10–11


A 2010 Eurostat Eurobarometer poll, revealed that 51% of European Union citizens responded that "they believe there is a God", whereas 26% answered that "they believe there is some sort of spirit or life force" and 20% that "they do not believe there is a spirit, a God, nor life force". Results were varied widely between different countries, on the one end 94% of Maltese respondents stating that they believe in a God and on the other end only 16% of the people of Czech Republic stating the same.[1]

According to new polls about Religiosity in the European Union in 2012 by Eurobarometer, Atheists account 7% of EU citizens.[69]



Wiccans gather for a handfasting ceremony at Avebury in England.

A study by the United Kingdom, roughly equivalent to the national Hindu community.[70]


The religious development of Forn Siðr was formed in 1999, and was officially recognized in 2003[77] The Norwegian Åsatrufellesskapet Bifrost was formed in 1996; as of 2011, the fellowship has some 300 members. Foreningen Forn Sed was formed in 1999, and has been recognized by the Norwegian government as a religious organization.

Indian religions

Jain temple in Antwerp, Belgium


Buddhism is thinly spread throughout Europe, and the fastest growing religion in recent years[78][79] with about 3 million adherents.[80][81] In Kalmykia, Tibetan Buddhism is prevalent.[82]


Hinduism mainly among Indian immigrants. Growing rapidly in recent years, notably in the United Kingdom, France, and the Netherlands.[83][84] In 1998, there were an estimated 1.4 million Hindu adherents in Europe.[85]


Jainism, small membership rolls, mainly among Indian immigrants in Belgium and the United Kingdom, as well as several converts from western and northern Europe.[86][87]


Sikhism has nearly 1 million adherents in Europe. Most of the community live in United Kingdom (750,000) and Italy (70,000).[88][89] Around 10,000 in Belgium and France.[90] Netherlands and Germany have a Sikh population of 12,000.[91][92] All other countries have 5,000 or fewer Sikhs.

Other religions

Other religions represented in Europe include:

Official religions

A number of countries in Europe have official religions, including Liechtenstein,[93] Malta,[94] Monaco,[95] the Vatican City (Catholic);[96] Greece (Eastern Orthodox);[97] Armenia (Apostolic Orthodoxy) ; Denmark,[98] Iceland[99][100] and the United Kingdom (England alone) (Anglican).[101] In Switzerland, some cantons are officially Catholic, others Reformed Protestant. Some Swiss villages even have their religion as well as the village name written on the signs at their entrances.

privileged status. Much the same applies in Germany with the Evangelical Church and the Roman Catholic Church, and the Jewish community. In Finland, both the Finnish Orthodox Church and the Lutheran Church are official. England, a part of the United Kingdom, has Anglicanism as its official religion. Scotland, another part of the UK, has Presbyterianism as its national church, but it is no longer "official". In Sweden, the national church used to be Lutheranism, but it is no longer "official" since 2000. Azerbaijan, France, Ireland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Spain and Turkey are officially "secular".

See also


  1. ^ a b c d e f g "Special Eurobarometer, biotechnology, page 381" (PDF). Fieldwork: Jan-Feb 2010. 
  2. ^ Henkel, Reinhard; Knippenberg, Hans (2005). Knippenberg, ed. The Changing Religious Landscape of Europe. Amsterdam:  
  3. ^,25AU8,7NASEK,7WVXM,1
  4. ^ Church attendance faces decline almost everywhere retrieved 3 July 2011
  5. ^ (Swedish) Svenska Kyrkan Statistiek pagina Medlemmar 1972-2008 excel file
  6. ^ Eurobarometer Poll 2005
  7. ^ Gallup Poll
  8. ^ Census 2011
  9. ^ "Tot mai mulți români "s-au lepădat" de Dumnezeu. HARTA ATEILOR din România Citiţi mai mult: Tot mai mulți români "s-au lepădat" de Dumnezeu. HARTA ATEILOR din România - Social >". December 4, 2012. Retrieved April 4, 2013. 
  10. ^ World Values Survey, Religion and morale: Believe in God. Accessed 2007-07-25
  11. ^ "Discrimination in the EU in 2012",   The question asked was "Do you consider yourself to be...?" With a card showing: Catholic, Orthodox, Protestant, Other Christian, Jewish, Muslim, Sikh, Buddhist, Hindu, Atheist, and Non-believer/Agnostic. Space was given for Other (SPONTANEOUS) and DK. Jewish, Sikh, Buddhist, Hindu did not reach the 1% threshold.
  12. ^ Bahá'í Information Office (United Kingdom) (1989). "First Public Mentions of the Bahá'í Faith". Archived from the original on 26 February 2008. Retrieved 2008-02-18. 
  13. ^ Momen, Moojan (1981), The Babi and Baha'i Religions, 1844-1944: Some Contemporary Western Accounts, Oxford, England: George Ronald,  
  14. ^ U.K. Bahá'í Heritage Site. "The Bahá'í Faith in the United Kingdom -A Brief History". Archived from the original on 26 February 2008. Retrieved 2008-02-18. 
  15. ^ Alessandro Bausani; Dennis MacEoin (1989). "‘Abd-al-Bahā’". Encyclopædia Iranica. 
  16. ^ Abbas, 'Abdu'l-Bahá; Mirza Ahmad Sohrab; trans. and comments (April 1919). Tablets, Instructions and Words of Explanation. 
  17. ^ Hassall, Graham; Fazel, Seena. "100 Years of the Bahá'í Faith in Europe". Bahá’í Studies Review 1998 (8). pp. 35–44. 
  18. ^ a b  
  19. ^ "Notes on the Bábí and Bahá'í Religions in Russia and its Territories", by Graham Hassall, Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 5.3 (Sept.-Dec. 1993)
  20. ^ "Most Baha'i Nations (2010)". QuickLists > Compare Nations > Religions >. The Association of Religion Data Archives. 2010. Retrieved Oct 26, 2013. 
  21. ^ britannica
  22. ^ Orlandis, A Short History of the Catholic Church (1993), preface.
  23. ^ How The Catholic Church Built Western Civilization. Retrieved 2014-09-07. 
  24. ^ a b Koch, Carl (1994). The Catholic Church: Journey, Wisdom, and Mission. Early Middle Ages: St. Mary's Press.  
  25. ^ Dawson, Christopher; Glenn Olsen (1961). Crisis in Western Education (reprint ed.).  
  26. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica Church and social welfare
  27. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica Care for the sick
  28. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica Property, poverty, and the poor,
  29. ^ Weber, Max (1905). The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism. 
  30. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica Church and state
  31. ^ Sir Banister Fletcher, History of Architecture on the Comparative Method.
  32. ^ Buringh, Eltjo; van Zanden, Jan Luiten: "Charting the “Rise of the West”: Manuscripts and Printed Books in Europe, A Long-Term Perspective from the Sixth through Eighteenth Centuries", The Journal of Economic History, Vol. 69, No. 2 (2009), pp. 409–445 (416, table 1)
  33. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica The tendency to spiritualize and individualize marriage
  34. ^ Global Christianity A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World’s Christian Population Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life, p.15
  35. ^ The Global Religious Landscape A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World’s Major Religious Groups as of 2010 Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life, p.18
  36. ^ "Discrimination in the EU in 2012",  
  37. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Predominant Religions
  38. ^ Pew Forum, The Future of the Global Muslim Population, January 2011, [1][2][3], [4], [5]
  39. ^ In Europa leben gegenwärtig knapp 53 Millionen Muslime
  40. ^ LAU General Information on North Cyprus
  41. ^ KONDA Research and Consultancy (2007-09-08). "Religion, Secularism and the Veil in daily life" (PDF). Milliyet. 
  42. ^ CIA - The World Factbook - Bosnia and Herzegovina - People
  43. ^ CIA - The World Factbook - Albania - People
  44. ^ Miller, Tracy, ed. (October 2009), Mapping the Global Muslim Population: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World’s Muslim Population (PDF),  
  45. ^ CIA - The World Factbook - Macedonia
  46. ^ "Popis stanovništva, domaćinstava i stanova u Crnoj Gori 2011. godine" [Census of Population, Households and Dwellings in Montenegro 2011] (PDF) (Press release) (in Serbo-Croatian and English). Statistical office, Montenegro. 12 July 2011. Retrieved 2013-02-24. 
  47. ^ CIA - The World Factbook - Russia
  48. ^  
  49. ^ Minister of the Interior (France), FigaroArticle du , 28th June 2010
  50. ^ Minister of the Interior (France), LibérationArticle de
  51. ^ CIA - The World Factbook - Bulgaria
  52. ^
  53. ^ Muslims in Europe: Country guide, BBC News, 23 December 2005, accessed 3 May 2007
  54. ^ Number of Muslims in Germany, accessed 13 October 2014
  55. ^ CIA The World Factbook -- France
  56. ^ a b c  
  57. ^ Encyclopedia Of The Enlightenment Ellen Judy Wilson, Peter Hanns Reill - 2004
  58. ^ The Founders' Facade R. L. Worthy - 2004
  59. ^
  60. ^ Gallagher, Amelia (1997). "The Albanian atheist state, 1967–1991". 
  61. ^ a b "Eurobarometer 225: Social values, Science & Technology" (PDF).  
  62. ^ "WHY EASTERN GERMANY IS THE MOST GODLESS PLACE ON EARTH". Die Welt. 2012. Retrieved 2009-05-24. 
  63. ^ "East Germany the "most atheistic" of any region". Dialog International. 2012. Retrieved 2009-05-24. 
  64. ^ Zuckerman (2005), p. 24.
  65. ^ a b Eurostat - Tables, Graphs and Maps Interface (TGM) table. (2013-06-14). Retrieved on 2013-07-28.
  66. ^ Evolution on the family in Europe page 42 out of 82
  67. ^ a b Religiously Unaffiliated
  68. ^ Zuckerman, Phil (2005). "Atheism: Contemporary Rates and Patterns".  
  69. ^ "Discrimination in the EU in 2012",   The question asked was "Do you consider yourself to be...?" With a card showing: Catholic, Orthodox, Protestant, Other Christian, Jewish, Muslim, Sikh, Buddhist, Hindu, Atheist, and Non-believer/Agnostic. Space was given for Other (SPONTANEOUS) and DK. Jewish, Sikh, Buddhist, Hindu did not reach the 1% threshhold.
  70. ^ Hutton 1999.
  71. ^ Grimoire for the Apprentice Wizard - Page 353, Oberon Zell-Ravenheart - 2004
  72. ^ Bonewits 2006. pp. 128-140.
  73. ^ a b Blain 2005, p. 191.
  74. ^ Office for National Statistics, 11 December 2012, 2011 Census, Key Statistics for Local Authorities in England and Wales. Accessed 12 December 2012.
  75. ^ Strmiska & Sigurvinsson 2005, p. 168.
  76. ^ Strmiska & Sigurvinsson 2005, p. 174.
  77. ^ Forklaring til Forn Siðr´s ansøgning om godkendelse som trossamfund.
  78. ^
  79. ^ Buddhism fastest growing religion in West. Asian Tribune (2008-04-07). Retrieved on 2013-07-28.
  80. ^ "Vipassana Foundation - Buddhists around the world". 
  81. ^ "BuddhaNet - Buddhism in the West". 
  82. ^ Contemporary Buddhist Revival in Kalmykia: Survey of the Present State of Religiosity | AsiaPortal - Infocus. (2012-02-06). Retrieved on 2013-07-28.
  83. ^ Curtis, Polly (29 November 2007). "Hindu school is first to make vegetarianism a condition of entry". UK: The Guardian. Retrieved 2012-07-30. 
  84. ^ "Adherents by Location". Retrieved 2012-07-30. 
  85. ^ "Hinduism". Retrieved 2012-07-30. 
  86. ^ [6]
  87. ^ A Brief Introduction to Jainism | religion | resources. Retrieved on 2013-07-28.
  88. ^ UK | Wales | South East Wales | Sikhs celebrate harvest festival. BBC News (2003-05-10). Retrieved on 2013-07-28.
  89. ^ NRI Sikhs in Italy. (2004-11-15). Retrieved on 2013-07-28.
  90. ^ [7]
  91. ^ Sikhs in Nederland - Introduction. Retrieved on 2013-07-28.
  92. ^ Sikhs in Germany Seek Meeting with German Leaders on Turban Issue. (2004-05-20). Retrieved on 2013-07-28.
  93. ^ Constitution Religion at the Wayback Machine (archived March 26, 2009) (archived from the original on 2009-03-26).
  94. ^ "Constitution of Malta (Article 2)". 
  95. ^ CONSTITUTION DE LA PRINCIPAUTE at the Wayback Machine (archived September 27, 2011) (French): Art. 9., Principaute De Monaco: Ministère d'Etat (archived from the original on 2011-09-27).
  96. ^ "Vatican City". Retrieved 12 August 2013. 
  98. ^ Denmark – Constitution: Section 4 State Church, International Constitutional Law.
  99. ^ Constitution of the Republic of Iceland: Article 62, Government of Iceland.
  100. ^ "Statistics Iceland - Statistics » Population » Religious organisations". 2011. Retrieved 2011-05-27. 
  101. ^ "The History of the Church of England". The Archbishops' Council of the Church of England. Retrieved 2006-05-24. 
In Sweden, the

Ásatrúarfélagið was recognized as an official religion by the Icelandic government in 1973. For its first 20 years it was led by farmer & poet Sveinbjörn Beinteinsson. By 2003, it had 777 members,[75] and by 2008, it had 1,270 members, corresponding to 0.4% of Iceland's population. In Iceland, Germanic Paganism has an impact larger that the number of its adherents.[76]

In the United Kingdom Census 2001, 300 people registered as Heathen in England and Wales.[73] However, many Heathens followed the advice of the Pagan Federation (PF) and simply described themselves as "Pagan", while other Heathens did not specify their religious beliefs.[73] In the 2011 census, 1,958 people self-identified as Heathen in England and Wales. A further 251 described themselves as Reconstructionist and may include some people reconstructing Germanic paganism.[74]

An Odinist wedding in Spain, 2010

Germanic Neo-Paganism

[72] Modern practises aim to imitate the practises of the Celtic peoples of the Iron Age.[71]

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.