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Robert Walpole

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Robert Walpole

The Right Honourable
The Earl of Orford
Prime Minister of Great Britain
In office
4 April 1721 – 11 February 1742
Monarch George I
George II
Preceded by Office created
Succeeded by The Earl of Wilmington
Chancellor of the Exchequer
In office
4 April 1727 – 12 February 1740
Monarch George I
George II
Preceded by Sir John Pratt
Succeeded by Samuel Sandys
In office
12 October 1715 – 15 April 1717
Monarch George I
Preceded by Sir Richard Onslow, Bt
Succeeded by The Viscount Stanhope
Personal details
Born (1676-08-26)26 August 1676
Houghton, Norfolk, England
Died 18 March 1745(1745-03-18) (aged 68)
St James's, Middlesex, Great Britain
Nationality English/British
Political party Whig
Spouse(s) Catherine (1700–37)
Maria (1738)
Children 6
Alma mater King's College, Cambridge
Profession Statesman,
Religion Church of England
Armorial of Walpole: Or, on a fesse between two chevrons sable three crosses crosslet of the field[1]

Robert Walpole, 1st Earl of Orford, KG, KB, PC (26 August 1676 – 18 March 1745), known before 1742 as Sir Robert Walpole, was a British statesman who is generally regarded as the first Prime Minister of Great Britain. Although the exact dates of his dominance are a matter of scholarly debate, 1721–1742 are often used. He dominated the Walpole–Townshend Ministry and the Ministry and holds the record as the longest serving Prime Minister in British history. Critics called his system the "Robinocracy." Speck says that Walpole's uninterrupted run of 20 years as Prime Minister "is rightly regarded as one of the major feats of British political history.... Explanations are usually offered in terms of his expert handling of the political system after 1720, [and] his unique blending of the surviving powers of the crown with the increasing influence of the Commons.[2]

He was a Whig from the gentry class, who was first elected to parliament in 1701, and held many senior positions. He was a country squire and looked to country gentlemen for his political base. Historian Frank O'Gorman says his leadership in Parliament reflected his "reasonable and persuasive oratory, his ability to move both the emotions as well as the minds of men, and, above all, his extraordinary self-confidence."[3] Hoppit says Walpole's policies sought moderation: he worked for peace, lower taxes, growing exports, and allowed a little more tolerance for Protestant Dissenters. He avoided controversy and high-intensity disputes, as his middle way attracted moderates from both the Whig and Tory camps.[4]

Dickinson sums up his historical role:

Walpole was one of the greatest politicians in British history. He played a significant role in sustaining the Whig party, safeguarding the Hanoverian succession, and defending the principles of the Glorious Revolution (1688)....He established a stable political supremacy for the Whig party and taught succeeding ministers how best to establish an effective working relationship between Crown and Parliament.[5]

Early life

Walpole was born in Houghton, Norfolk, in 1676. One of 19 children, he was the third son and fifth child of Robert Walpole, a member of the local gentry and a Whig politician who represented the borough of Castle Rising in the House of Commons, and his wife Mary Walpole, the daughter and heiress of Sir Geoffrey Burwell of Rougham, Suffolk. Horatio Walpole, 1st Baron Walpole was his younger brother.[6]


As a child, Walpole attended a private school at Massingham, Norfolk.[7] Walpole entered Eton College in 1690[8] where he was considered "an excellent scholar". He left Eton on 2 April 1696[7] and matriculated at King's College, Cambridge on the same day.[8] On 25 May 1698 he left Cambridge after the death of his only remaining elder brother, Edward, so that he could help his father administer the family estate to which he had become the heir. Walpole had planned to become a clergyman but as he was now the eldest surviving son in the family, he abandoned the idea. In November 1700 his father died, and Walpole succeeded to the estate. A paper in his father's handwriting, dated 9 June 1700, shows the family estate in Norfolk and Suffolk to have been nine manors in Norfolk and one in Suffolk.[9]

Early political career

Walpole's political career began in January 1701 when he won the general election in Castle Rising. He left Castle Rising in 1702 so that he could represent the neighbouring borough of King's Lynn, a pocket borough that would re-elect him for the remainder of his political career.[9]

Like his father, Robert Walpole was a member of the Lord High Admiral. After having been singled out in a struggle between the Whigs and the government, Walpole became the intermediary for reconciling the government to the Whig leaders. His abilities were recognised by Lord Godolphin (the Lord High Treasurer and leader of the Cabinet) and he was subsequently appointed to the position of Secretary at War in 1708; for a short period of time in 1710 he also simultaneously held the post of Treasurer of the Navy.[11]

Despite his personal clout, however, Walpole could not stop Lord Godolphin and the Whigs from pressing for the prosecution of Henry Sacheverell, a minister who preached anti-Whig sermons. The trial was extremely unpopular with much of the country, causing the Sacheverell riots, and was followed by the downfall of the Duke of Marlborough and the Whig Party in the general election of 1710. The new ministry, under the leadership of the Tory Robert Harley, removed Walpole from his office of Secretary at War but he remained Treasurer of the Navy until 2 January 1711. Harley had first attempted to entice him and then threatened him to join the Tories, but Walpole rejected the offers, instead becoming one of the most outspoken members of the Whig Opposition. He effectively defended Lord Godolphin against Tory attacks in parliamentary debate, as well as in the press.[12]

In 1712, Walpole was accused of venality and corruption in the matter of two forage contracts for Scotland. Although it was proven that he had retained none of the money, Walpole was pronounced "guilty of a high breach of trust and notorious corruption".[13] He was impeached by the House of Commons and found guilty by the House of Lords; he was then imprisoned in the Tower of London for six months and expelled from Parliament. While in the Tower he was regarded as a political martyr, and visited by all the Whig leaders. After he was released, Walpole wrote and published anonymous pamphlets attacking the Harley ministry and assisted Sir Richard Steele in crafting political pamphlets. Walpole was re-elected for King's Lynn in 1713.[13]

Stanhope–Sunderland Ministry

Sir Robert Walpole

Queen Anne died in 1714. Under the Privy Councillor and rose to the position of Paymaster of the Forces[14] in a Cabinet nominally led by Lord Halifax, but actually dominated by Lord Townshend (Walpole's brother-in-law) and James Stanhope. Walpole was also appointed chairman of a secret committee formed to investigate the actions of the previous Tory ministry in 1715. Lord Oxford was impeached, and Lord Bolingbroke suffered from an act of attainder.[14]

Lord Halifax, the titular head of the administration, died in 1715. Walpole was appointed to the posts of Northern Secretary and put in the lesser office of Lord Lieutenant of Ireland.[16] Even this change did not appease Stanhope and Sunderland who secured the dismissal of Townshend from the Lord-Lieutenancy in April 1717.[16] On the next day, Walpole resigned from the Cabinet to join the Opposition "because I could not connive at some things that were carrying on",[17] and by joining the opposition he did not intend "to make the king uneasy or to embarrass his affairs."[18] In the new Cabinet, Sunderland and Stanhope (who was created an Earl) were the effective heads.

Soon after Walpole's resignation, a bitter family quarrel between the King and the Prince of Wales split the Royal Family. Walpole and others who opposed the Government often congregated at Leicester House, the home of the Prince of Wales, to form political plans. Walpole also became an adviser and close friend of the Prince of Wales's wife, Caroline.[19] In 1720 he improved his position by bringing about a reconciliation between the Prince of Wales and the King.

Walpole continued to be an influential figure in the House of Commons. He was especially active in opposing one of the Government's more significant proposals, the South Sea Bubble.[19] The Government had established a plan whereby the South Sea Company would assume the national debt of Great Britain in exchange for lucrative bonds. It was widely believed that the Company would eventually reap an enormous profit through international trade in cloth, agricultural goods, and slaves. Many in the country, including Walpole himself (who sold at the top of the market and made 1,000 percent profit), frenziedly invested in the company. By the latter part of 1720, however, the company had begun to collapse as the price of its shares plunged.. [19]

In 1721 a committee investigated the scandal, finding that there was corruption on the part of many in the Cabinet. Among those implicated were John Aislabie[19] (the Chancellor of the Exchequer), James Craggs the Elder (the Postmaster General), James Craggs the Younger (the Southern Secretary), and even Lords Stanhope and Sunderland (the heads of the Ministry). Both Craggs the Elder and Craggs the Younger died in disgrace; the remainder were impeached for their corruption. Aislabie was found guilty and imprisoned, but the personal influence of Walpole saved both Stanhope and Sunderland. For his role in preventing these individuals and others from being punished, Walpole gained the nickname of "The Screen",[21] or "Screenmaster-General".

The resignation of Sunderland and the death of Stanhope in 1721 left Walpole as the most important figure in the administration. In April 1721 he was appointed First Lord of the Treasury, Chancellor of the Exchequer and Leader of the House of Commons. Walpole's de facto tenure as "Prime Minister" is often dated to his appointment as First Lord of the Treasury in 1721.[19] His brother-in-law Lord Townshend, served as Secretary of State for the Northern Department and controlled the nation's foreign affairs. The two also had to contend with the Secretary of State for the Southern Department, Lord Carteret. Townshend and Walpole were thus restored to power and "annihilated the opposing faction".[19]

Premiership under George I

Under the guidance of Walpole, Parliament attempted to deal with the financial crisis brought on by the South Sea Bubble. The estates of the directors of the South Sea Company were used to relieve the suffering of the victims, and the stock of the company was divided between the Bank of England and East India Company.[19] The crisis had significantly damaged the credibility of the King and of the Whig Party, but Walpole defended both with skilful oratory in the House of Commons.

Walpole's first year as Prime Minister was also marked by the discovery of a plot formed by Francis Atterbury, the Bishop of Rochester.[22] The exposure of the scheme crushed the hopes of the Jacobites whose previous attempts at rebellion (most notably the risings of 1715 and 1719) had also failed. The Tory Party was equally unfortunate even though Lord Bolingbroke, a Tory leader who fled to France to avoid punishment for his Jacobite sympathies, was permitted to return to Britain in 1723.

During the remainder of George I's reign, Walpole's ascendancy continued; the political power of the monarch was gradually diminishing and that of his ministers gradually increasing. In 1724 the primary political rival of Walpole and Townshend in the Cabinet, Lord Carteret, was dismissed from the post of Southern Secretary and once again appointed to the lesser office of Lord Lieutenant of Ireland. In Ireland, Lord Carteret used his power to secretly aid in the controversy over Wood's Halfpence and support Drapier's Letters behind the scenes and cause harm to Walpole's power.[23][24] Walpole was able to recover from these events by removing the patent. However, Irish sentiment was situated against the English control.[25]

Townshend, working with the king, helped keep Great Britain at peace, especially by negotiating a treaty with France and Knight of the Bath,[26] and in 1726 a Knight of the Garter, earning him the nickname "Sir Bluestring".[26] Moreover, his eldest son was granted a barony.

Premiership under George II

Walpole's position was threatened in 1727 when George I died and was succeeded by Queen Caroline, the King agreed to keep him in office. Although the King disliked Townshend, he retained him as well. Over the next years Walpole continued to share power with Townshend but the two clashed over British foreign affairs, especially over policy regarding Austria. Gradually Walpole became the clearly dominant partner in government. His colleague retired on 15 May 1730 and this date is sometimes given as the beginning of Walpole's unofficial tenure as Prime Minister. Townsend's departure enabled Walpole to conclude the Treaty of Vienna, creating the Anglo-Austrian alliance.


Walpole, a polarising figure, had many opponents, the most important of whom were in the Country Party, such as Lord Bolingbroke (who had been his political enemy since the days of Queen Anne)[27] and William Pulteney (a capable Whig statesman who felt snubbed when Walpole failed to include him in the Cabinet).[28] Bolingbroke and Pulteney ran a periodical called The Craftsman in which they incessantly denounced the Prime Minister's policies.[29] Walpole was also satirised and parodied extensively; he was often compared to the criminal Jonathan Wild as, for example, John Gay did in his farcical Beggar's Opera. Walpole's other enemies included Jonathan Swift,[30] Alexander Pope, Henry Fielding, and Dr Samuel Johnson.


Despite such opposition, Walpole secured the support of the people and of the House of Commons with a policy of avoiding war which, in turn, allowed him to impose low taxes. He used his influence to prevent George II from entering a European conflict in 1733 when the War of the Polish Succession broke out.[31] In the same year, however, his influence was seriously threatened by a taxation scheme he introduced. The revenue of the country had been severely diminished by smugglers so Walpole proposed that the tariff on wine and tobacco be replaced by an excise tax. To countervail the threat of smuggling, the tax was to be collected not at ports but at warehouses. This new proposal, however, was extremely unpopular and aroused the opposition of the nation's merchants.[32] Walpole agreed to withdraw the bill before Parliament voted on it,[32] but he dismissed the politicians who had dared to oppose it in the first place. Thus, Walpole lost a considerable element of his Whig Party to the Opposition.

After the general elections of 1734, Walpole's supporters still formed a majority in the House of Commons although they were less numerous than before. Though he maintained his parliamentary supremacy, his popularity began to wane.[33] In 1736 an increase in the tax on gin inspired riots in London. The even more serious Porteous Riots broke out in Edinburgh after the King pardoned a captain of the guard (John Porteous) who had commanded his troops to shoot a group of protesters. Though these events diminished Walpole's popularity,[33] they failed to shake his majority in Parliament. Walpole's domination over the House of Commons was highlighted by the ease with which he secured the rejection of Sir John Barnard's plan to reduce the interest on the national debt. Walpole was also able to persuade Parliament to pass the Licensing Act of 1737 under which London theatres were regulated.[34] The Act revealed a disdain for Swift, Pope, Fielding, and other literary figures who had attacked his government in their works.

While the "country party" attacked Walpole relentlessly, he subsidised writers who spoke up in his behalf. William Arnall and others defended Walpole from the charge of evil political corruption by arguing that corruption is the universal human condition. Furthermore, they argued, political divisiveness was also universal and inevitable because of selfish passions that were integral to human nature. Arnall argued that government must be strong enough to control conflict, and in that regard Walpole was quite successful. This style of "court" political rhetoric continued through the 18th century.[35]


1740 political cartoon depicting Walpole as the Colossus of Rhodes, alluding to his reluctance to engage Spain and France militarily

The year 1737 saw the death of Walpole's close friend Patriot Boys" and joined the Prince of Wales in opposition.[36]

Walpole's failure to maintain a policy of avoiding military conflict eventually led to his fall from power.[37] Under the Treaty of Seville (1729), Great Britain agreed not to trade with the Spanish colonies in North America. Spain claimed the right to board and search British vessels to ensure compliance with this provision. Disputes, however, broke out over trade with the West Indies. Walpole attempted to prevent war but was opposed by the King, the House of Commons, and by a faction in his own Cabinet. In 1739 Walpole abandoned all efforts to stop the conflict and commenced the War of Jenkins' Ear (so called because Robert Jenkins, a Welsh mariner, claimed that a Spaniard inspecting his vessel had severed his ear).

Walpole's influence continued to dramatically decline even after the war began. In the 1741 general election his supporters secured an increase in votes in constituencies that were decided by mass electorates but failed to win in many pocket boroughs (constituencies subject to the informal but strong influence of patrons). In general the government made gains in England and Wales but this was not enough to overturn the reverses of the 1734 election and further losses in Cornwall where many constituencies were obedient to the will of the Prince of Wales (who was also Duke of Cornwall). These constituencies returned members of parliament hostile to the Prime Minister. Similarly, the influence of the Duke of Argyll secured the election of members opposed to Walpole in some parts of Scotland. Walpole's new majority was difficult to determine because of the uncertain loyalties of many new members, but contemporaries and historians estimated it as low as fourteen to eighteen.[38]

In the new Parliament, many Whigs thought the aging Prime Minister incapable of leading the military campaign. Moreover, his majority was not as strong as it used to be, his detractors being approximately as numerous as his supporters. In 1742 when the House of Commons was prepared to determine the validity of an allegedly rigged by-election in Chippenham, Walpole and others agreed to treat the issue as a Motion of No Confidence. As Walpole was defeated on the vote, he agreed to resign from the Government. The news of the naval disaster against Spain in the Battle of Cartagena de Indias also prompted the end of his political career. As part of his resignation the King agreed to elevate him to the House of Lords as the Earl of Orford and this occurred on 6 February 1742. Five days later he formally relinquished the seals of office.[39]

Later years

Lord Orford was succeeded as Prime Minister by Henry Pelham whom he regarded as a political protégé. He advised Pelham to make use of his seat in the Commons to serve as a bridge between the King and Parliament, just as Walpole had done.[40][41]

His health, never good, deteriorated rapidly toward the end of 1744; Lord Orford died in London in 1745, aged nearly sixty-nine years; he was buried in the Horace Walpole (a famous writer and friend of poet Thomas Gray), who died without heirs in 1797.


Walpole's reign – political satire

Walpole exercised a tremendous influence on the politics of his day. The Tories became a minor, insignificant faction, and the Whigs became a dominant and largely unopposed party. His influence on the development of the uncodified constitution of Great Britain was less momentous even though he is regarded as Great Britain's first Prime Minister. He relied primarily on the favour of the King rather than on the support of the House of Commons. His power stemmed from his personal influence instead of the influence of his office. Most of his immediate successors were, comparatively speaking, extremely weak; it would take several decades more for the premiership to develop into the most powerful and most important office in the country.

Walpole's strategy of keeping Great Britain at peace contributed greatly to the country's prosperity. Walpole also managed to secure the position of the Hanoverian Dynasty, and effectively countervailed Jacobitism. The Jacobite threat ended, soon after Walpole's term ended, with the defeat of the rebellion of 1745. Later in the century, the Whig MP Edmund Burke "admitted him into the whig pantheon".[42] Burke wrote:

He was an honorable man and a sound Whig. He was not, as the Jacobites and discontented Whigs of his time have represented him, and as ill-informed people still represent him, a prodigal and corrupt minister. They charged him in their libels and seditious conversations as having first reduced corruption to a system. Such was their cant. But he was far from governing by corruption. He governed by party attachments. The charge of systematic corruption is less applicable to him, perhaps, than to any minister who ever served the crown for so great a length of time. He gained over very few from the Opposition. Without being a genius of the first class, he was an intelligent, prudent, and safe minister. He loved peace; and he helped to communicate the same disposition to nations at least as warlike and restless as that in which he had the chief direction of affairs...With many virtues, public and private, he had his faults; but his faults were superficial. A careless, coarse, and over familiar style of discourse, without sufficient regard to persons or occasions, and an almost total want of political decorum, were the errours by which he was most hurt in the public opinion: and those through which his enemies obtained the greatest advantage over him. But justice must be done. The prudence, steadiness, and vigilance of that man, joined to the greatest possible lenity in his character and his politics, preserved the crown to this royal family; and with it, their laws and liberties to this country.[43]

Lord Chesterfield expressed scepticism as to whether "an impartial Character of Sr Robert Walpole, will or can be transmitted to Posterity, for he governed this Kingdom so long that the various passions of Mankind mingled, and in a manner incorporated themselves, with every thing that was said or writt concerning him. Never was Man more flattered nor more abused, and his long power, was probably the chief cause of both".[44] Chesterfield claimed he was "much acquainted with him both in his publick and his private life":

In private life he was good natured, Chearfull, social. Inelegant in his manners, loose in his morals. He had a coarse wit, which he was too free of for a Man in his Station, as it is always inconsistent with dignity. He was very able as a Minister, but without a certain Elevation of mind...He was both the ablest Parliament man, and the ablest manager of a Parliament, that I believe ever lived...Money, not Prerogative, was the chief Engine of his administration, and he employed it with a success that in a manner disgraced humanity...When he found any body proof, against pecuniary temptations, which alass! was but seldom, he had recourse to still a worse art. For he laughed at and ridiculed all notions of Publick virtue, and the love of one's Country, calling them the Chimerical school boy flights of Classical learning; declaring himself at the same time, No Saint, no Spartan, no reformer. He would frequently ask young fellows at their first appearance in the world, while their honest hearts were yet untainted, well are you to be an old Roman? a Patriot? you will soon come off of that, and grow wiser. And thus he was more dangerous to the morals, than to the libertys of his country, to which I am persuaded that he meaned no ill in his heart...His Name will not be recorded in History among the best men, or the best Ministers, but much much less ought it to be ranked among the worst.[45]

10 Downing Street represents another part of Walpole's legacy. George II offered this home to Walpole as a personal gift in 1732, but Walpole accepted it only as the official residence of the First Lord of the Treasury, taking up his residence there on 22 September 1735. His immediate successors did not always reside in Number 10 (preferring their larger private residences) but the home has nevertheless become established as the official residence of the Prime Minister (in his or her capacity as First Lord of the Treasury).

Walpole is immortalised in St Stephen's Hall, where he and other notable Parliamentarians look on at visitors to Parliament.[46]

Walpole built as his country seat Houghton Hall in Norfolk.

Walpole also left behind a famous the 3rd Earl of Orford, sold many of the works in this collection to the Russian Empress Catherine II in 1779. This collection — then regarded as one of the finest in Europe — now lies in the State Hermitage Museum in Saint Petersburg, Russia. In 2013 the Hermitage loaned the collection to Houghton for display following the original William Kent hanging plan, recently discovered at Houghton.

The nursery rhyme, "Who Killed Cock Robin?", may allude to the fall of Walpole, who carried the popular nickname "Cock Robin".[47] (Contemporaries satirised the Walpole regime as the "Robinocracy" or as the "Robinarchy".[48])

The town of Walpole, Massachusetts, USA, founded in 1724, takes its name from Sir Robert Walpole.

The town of Orford, New Hampshire, USA, incorporated in 1761, takes its name from Robert Walpole, Earl of Orford.

Walpole Street in Wolverhampton is named after Sir Robert Walpole.

Walpole Island, named for Sir Robert Walpole, comprises an island and an Indian reserve in southwestern Ontario, Canada, on the border between Ontario and Michigan. It lies at the mouth of the St. Clair River on Lake St. Clair, approximately thirty miles (50 km) northeast of Detroit, Michigan, and of Windsor, Ontario.

Marriage and children

Catherine Shorter

On 30 July 1700, Walpole married Catherine, daughter of John Shorter of Bybrook in Ashford, Kent. She was described as "a woman of exquisite beauty and accomplished manners".[9] Her £20,000 dowry was, according to her brother-in-law Horatio Walpole, spent on the wedding, christenings and jewels.[49] Together they had two daughters and three sons:[50]

Walpole's first wife Catherine died on 20 August 1737 and was buried in Henry VII Chapel, Westminster Abbey.[50]

Maria Skerritt

Prior to the death of his first wife, Walpole took on a mistress, Maria, daughter of Thomas Skerrett (died 1734; an Irish merchant living in Dover Street, London).[57] She was a fashionable socialite of wit and beauty, with an independent fortune of £30,000.[58] Walpole had married her by March 1738. They had been living openly together in Richmond Park and Houghton Hall before 1728.[50] Maria had borne him a daughter,[50] also called Maria, who was no longer illegitimate after her parents' marriage and, as the daughter of an Earl, became Lady Maria Walpole.[59] In 1746, this daughter married Colonel Charles Churchill of Chalfont (1720–1812), illegitimate son of General Charles Churchill and became the housekeeper of Windsor Castle.[50][60][1] Their daughter Mary became the second wife of Charles Cadogan, 1st Earl Cadogan, and had issue. The second Lady Orford died of a miscarriage on 4 June 1739. Walpole considered her "indispensable to his happiness", and her loss plunged him into a "deplorable and comfortless condition", which ended in a severe illness.[62]

Styles from birth to death

  • Mr Robert Walpole (1676–1701)
  • Mr Robert Walpole, MP (1701–1714)
  • The Rt Hon. Robert Walpole, MP (1714–1725)
  • The Rt Hon. Sir Robert Walpole, KB, MP (1725–1726)
  • The Rt Hon. Sir Robert Walpole, KG, KB, MP (1726–1742)
  • The Rt Hon. The Earl of Orford, KG, KB, PC (1742–1745)


See also


  1. ^ Daughter of Maria Walpole Churchill and Charles, Sophia Churchill, married Horatio Walpole, a great-grandson of Robert Walpole.[61]



  1. ^ "Baron Walpole", Debrett's Peerage, 1968, p. 1128 
  2. ^ W.A. Speck, Stability and Strife: England 1714–1760 (1977) p 203
  3. ^ Frank O'Gorman, The Long Eighteenth Century: British Political and Social History 1688–1832 (1997) p 71
  4. ^ Julian Hoppit, A Land of Liberty? England 1689–1727 (2000) p 410
  5. ^ H. P. Dickinson, "Walpole, Sir Robert," in David Loads, editor, Readers Guide to British History (2003) p 1338
  6. ^ Leadam 1899, pp. 178–179.
  7. ^ a b Leadam 1899, p. 179.
  8. ^ a b ACAD WLPL695R.
  9. ^ a b c Leadam 1899, p. 180.
  10. ^ Leadam 1899, p. 180, 181.
  11. ^ Leadam 1899, pp. 181–82.
  12. ^ Speck, Stability and Strife: England 1714–1760 (1977) pp 206–9
  13. ^ a b Leadam 1899, p. 183.
  14. ^ a b Leadam 1899, p. 184.
  15. ^ Leadam 1899, pp. 184, 186.
  16. ^ a b Leadam 1899, p. 185.
  17. ^ Leadam 1899, p. 185 cites Parl. Hist. vii. 460; 9 May 1717.
  18. ^ Leadam 1899, p. 185 cites Parl. Hist. vii. 449, 16 April 1717.
  19. ^ a b c d e f g h i Leadam 1899, p. 187.
  20. ^ Leadam 1899, p. 186.
  21. ^ Leadam 1899, p. 187 cites Coxe, ii. 216.
  22. ^ Leadam 1899, p. 188.
  23. ^ Ferguson, Oliver W., Jonathan Swift and Ireland 
  24. ^ Ehrenpreis, Irvin, Jonathan Swift III 
  25. ^ Coxe, William (1978), Memoirs of the Life and Administration of Sir Robert Walpole, Earl of Orford, pp.  
  26. ^ a b c Leadam 1899, p. 190.
  27. ^ Kramnick, Isaac (1992), Bolingbroke and His Circle: The Politics of Nostalgia in the Age of Walpole 
  28. ^ Handley, Stuart; Rowe, M. J.; McBryde, W. H. (October 2007), "Pulteney, William, earl of Bath (1684–1764)",   (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  29. ^ Varey, Simon (April 1993), "The Craftsman", Prose Studies 16 (1): 58–77,  
  30. ^ Downie, J. A. (1986), Jonathan Swift: Political Writer, pp.  
  31. ^ Leadam 1899, pp. 194–195.
  32. ^ a b Leadam 1899, p. 194.
  33. ^ a b Leadam 1899, pp. 195–196.
  34. ^ Leadam 1899, pp. 195–196 10 Geo. II, c. 28.
  35. ^ Horne, Thomas (October–December 1980), "Politics in a Corrupt Society: William Arnall's Defense of Robert Walpole", Journal of the History of Ideas 41 (4): 601–614,  
  36. ^ Laybourn, Keith (2001), British Political Leaders: A Biographical Dictionary, ABC-CLIO, pp. 319–20 
  37. ^ Plumb, J.H. (1960), Sir Robert Walpole; the Making of a Statesman: The King's Minister, Cresset Press, p.  
  38. ^ Speck, W. A. (1977), Stability and Strife: England, 1714–1760, Harvard UP, pp. 235–38 
  39. ^ Langford, Paul (1998), A Polite and Commercial People: England, 1727–1783, Oxford University Press, p. 56 
  40. ^ Browning 1975, p. 117.
  41. ^ Aotes, Jonathan (April 2006), "Sir Robert Walpole after his Fall from Power, 1742–1745", History 91 (302): 218–230,  
  42. ^ Taylor, Stephen (January 2008) [2004], "Walpole, Robert, first earl of Orford (1676–1745)]",   (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  43. ^ Burke, Edmund (1962), An Appeal from the New to the Old Whigs, The Library of Liberal Arts, pp. 62–63 
  44. ^ Franklin 1993, p. 114.
  45. ^ Franklin 1993, pp. 114–115.
  46. ^ "Architecture of the Palace – St Stephen's Hall"
  47. ^ Opie, Iona Archibald; Opie, Peter (1997), Oxford Dictionary of Nursery Rhymes, Oxford University Press, p. ,  
  48. ^  
  49. ^ Leadam 1899, p. 180 cites Horace Walpole's Letters, viii. 423
  50. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Leadam 1899, p. 205.
  51. ^ Leadam 1899, pp. 188, 205.
  52. ^ Toynbee, Helen ("Mrs. Paget Toynbee") (1903), The Letters of Horace Walpole, p. 81 
  53. ^ Burke, John (1833), A General and Heraldic Dictionary of the Peerage and Baronetage of the British Empire, H. Colburn and R. Bentley, p. 262 
  54. ^ Eller, George (1861), Memorials: Archaeological and Ecclesiastical of the West Winch Manors from the Earliest Ages to the Present Period, Thew & Son, p. 100 
  55. ^ Edmondson, Joseph (1785), The Present Peerages: With Plates of Arms, and an Introduction to Heraldry; Together with Several Useful Lists Incident to the Work, J. Dodsley, p. 58] 
  56. ^ Debrett, John; Collen, G.W. (1840), Debrett's Peerage of England, Scotland, and Ireland. revised, corrected and continued by G.W. Collen, p. 159 
  57. ^ Leadam 1899, p. 205 cites Gent. Mag.,1734, p. 50; Hervey, Memoirs, i. 115; Pope, Works, iii. 141 n. 1; Gent. Mag. 1738, p. 324.
  58. ^ Leadam 1899, p. 205 cites Bishop Hare to F. Naylor, 9 March 1738, Hare MSS. p. 238).
  59. ^ Farrer, Edmund (1908), Portraits in Suffolk houses (West), B. Quaritch, p. 88 
  60. ^ Clark, J. C. D. (July 2002), The Memoirs and Speeches of James, 2nd Earl Waldegrave 1742–1763, Cambridge University Press, pp. 46, 87, 250,  
  61. ^ Debrett, John (1814), The Peerage of the United Kingdom of Great Britain & Ireland: In Two Volumes. England, G. Woodfall, p. 327, retrieved 30 June 2013 
  62. ^ Leadam 1899, p. 205–206.


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Political offices
Preceded by
Henry St John
Secretary at War
Succeeded by
George Granville
Preceded by
Sir Thomas Littleton, Bt
Treasurer of the Navy
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Charles Caesar
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John Howe
Paymaster of the Forces
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The Earl of Lincoln
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The Earl of Carlisle
First Lord of the Treasury
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The Viscount Stanhope
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Sir Richard Onslow, Bt
Chancellor of the Exchequer
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The Earl of Lincoln
Paymaster of the Forces
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The Lord Cornwallis
None recognised before
Prime Minister of Great Britain
4 April 1721 – 11 February 1742
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The Earl of Wilmington
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First Lord of the Treasury
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Samuel Sandys
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Parliament of England
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Robert Walpole
Thomas Howard
Member of Parliament for Castle Rising
with Thomas Howard 1701
Robert Cecil 1701
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Sir Thomas Littleton, Bt
Horatio Walpole
Parliament of Great Britain
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Sir Charles Turner, Bt
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with Sir Charles Turner, Bt

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Sir Charles Turner, Bt
Sir John Turner, Bt
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Sir Charles Turner, Bt
Sir John Turner, Bt
Member of Parliament for King's Lynn
with Sir Charles Turner, Bt 1713–1739
Sir John Turner, Bt 1739–1742

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Sir John Turner, Bt
Edward Bacon
Peerage of Great Britain
New creation Earl of Orford
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Robert Walpole
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