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România  (Romanian)
Flag Coat of arms
Anthem: Deșteaptă-te, române!
(Awaken thee, Romanian!)

Location of  Romania  (dark green)

– in Europe  (green & dark grey)
– in the European Union  (green)  –  [Legend]

and largest city
Official languages Romanian[1]
Ethnic groups (2011[2])
Demonym Romanian
Government Unitary semi-presidential
 -  President Klaus Iohannis
 -  Prime Minister Victor Ponta
Legislature Parliament
 -  Upper house Senate
 -  Lower house Chamber of Deputies
 -  Principality of Wallachia 1330 
 -  Principality of Moldavia 1346 
 -  Principality of Transylvania 1570 
 -  United Principalitiesa 24 January 1859 
 -  Independence from
the Ottoman Empire
1877 / 1878b 
 -  Kingdom of Romania 14 March 1881 
 -  Great Unionc 1 December 1918 
 -  Proclamation of the Romanian People's Republic 30 December 1947 
 -  Romanian Revolution 16–27 December 1989 
 -  Current republic 21 November 1991 
 -  Accession to the European Union 1 January 2007 
 -  Total 238,391 km2 (83rd)
92,043 sq mi
 -  Water (%) 3
 -  2014 estimate 19,942,642[3] (58th)
 -  2011 census 20,121,641[2] (58th)
 -  Density 84.4/km2 (118th)
218.6/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2015 estimate
 -  Total $403.579 billion (46th)[4]
 -  Per capita $20,355 (61st)[5]
GDP (nominal) 2015 estimate
 -  Total $215.302 billion [6] (51st)
 -  Per capita $10,859 [7] (72nd)
Gini (2013) Steady 34[8]
HDI (2013) Increase 0.785[9]
high · 54th
Currency Romanian Leu (RON)
Time zone EET (UTC+2)
 -  Summer (DST) EEST (UTC+3)
Drives on the right
Calling code +40
Patron saint Saint Andrew
ISO 3166 code RO
Internet TLD .rod
a. The double election of Alexandru Ioan Cuza in Moldavia and Wallachia (respectively, 5 and 24 January 1859).
b. Independence proclaimed on 9 May 1877, internationally recognised in 1878.
c. The union of Romania with Bessarabia, Bukovina and Transylvania in 1918.
d. Also .eu, shared with other European Union member states.

Romania[1] ( ; Romanian: România ) is a unitary semi-presidential republic located in Southeastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between Bulgaria and Ukraine. It also borders Hungary, Serbia, and Moldova. It covers 238,391 square kilometres (92,043 sq mi) and has a temperate-continental climate. With its 19.94 million inhabitants, it is the seventh most populous member state of the European Union. Its capital and largest city, Bucharest, is the sixth largest city in the EU. [3] The River Danube, which is Europe's second longest river after the Volga, rises in Germany and flows southeastwards for a distance of 2,857 km course through ten countries before emptying in Romania's Danube Delta. Some of its 1,075 km length bordering the country drains the whole of it. The Carpathian Mountains (the tallest peak is Moldoveanu at 2,544 m, 8346 ft) cross Romania from the north to the southwest.[10]

Modern Romania emerged within the territories of the ancient Roman province of Dacia, and was formed in 1859 through a personal union of the Danubian Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia. The new state, officially named Romania since 1866, gained independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1877. At the end of World War I, Transylvania, Bukovina and Bessarabia united with the sovereign Kingdom of Romania. During World War II, Romania was an ally of Nazi Germany against the Soviet Union, fighting side by side with the Wehrmacht until 1944, then it joined the Allied powers after being occupied by the Red Army forces. After the war, Romania became a socialist republic and member of the Warsaw Pact. After the 1989 Revolution, Romania began a transition back towards democracy and a capitalist market economy.

Following rapid economic growth in the 2000s, Romania has an economy predominantly based on services, and is a producer and net exporter of machines and electric energy, featuring companies like Automobile Dacia and OMV Petrom. It has been a member of NATO since 2004, and part of the European Union since 2007. Around 90% of the population identify themselves as Eastern Orthodox Christians, and are native speakers of Romanian, a Romance language. With a rich cultural history, Romania has been the home of influential artists, musicians, inventors and sportsmen, and features a variety of tourist attractions.


  • Etymology 1
  • History 2
    • Early history 2.1
    • Middle Ages 2.2
    • Independence and monarchy 2.3
    • World Wars and Greater Romania 2.4
    • Communism 2.5
    • Democracy 2.6
  • Geography 3
  • Governance 4
    • Foreign relations 4.1
    • Military 4.2
    • Administrative divisions 4.3
  • Economy 5
    • Infrastructure 5.1
    • Tourism 5.2
    • Science and technology 5.3
  • Demographics 6
    • Languages 6.1
    • Religion 6.2
    • Urbanization 6.3
    • Education 6.4
    • Healthcare 6.5
  • Culture 7
    • Arts and monuments 7.1
    • Holidays, traditions and cuisine 7.2
    • Sports 7.3
  • See also 8
  • Notes 9
  • References 10
  • Sources 11
    • Primary sources 11.1
    • Secondary sources 11.2
  • External links 12


Romania derives from the Latin romanus, meaning "citizen of Rome".[11] The first known use of the appellation was attested in the 16th-century by Italian humanists travelling in Transylvania, Moldavia, and Wallachia.[12][13][14][15]

Neacșu's letter from 1521, the oldest surviving document written in Romanian.

The oldest surviving document written in Romanian, a 1521 letter known as the "Letter of Neacșu from Câmpulung",[16] is also notable for including the first documented occurrence of the country's name: Wallachia is mentioned as Țeara Rumânească (old spelling for "The Romanian Land"; țeara from the Latin terra, "land"; current spelling: Țara Românească).

Two spelling forms: român and rumân were used interchangeably [2] until sociolinguistic developments in the late 17th century led to semantic differentiation of the two forms: rumân came to mean "bondsman", while român retained the original ethnolinguistic meaning.[17] After the abolition of serfdom in 1746, the word rumân gradually fell out of use and the spelling stabilised to the form român.[3] Tudor Vladimirescu, a revolutionary leader of the early 19th century, used the term Rumânia to refer exclusively to the principality of Wallachia."[18]

The use of the name Romania to refer to the common homeland of all Romanians—its modern-day meaning—is first documented in the early 19th century.[4] The name has been officially in use since 11 December 1861.[19]

In English, the name of the country was formerly spelled Rumania or Roumania, corresponding to the now obsolete Romanian spelling Rumânia.[20] Romania became the predominant spelling around 1975.[21] Romania is also the official English-language spelling used by the Romanian government.[22] Other languages, however, continue to prefer forms with u, e.g. French Roumanie, German Rumänien, and Russian Румыния (Rumyniya).


Early history

Map of Roman Dacia
Roman Dacia in the 2nd century AD, now forming Romania

The human remains found in Peștera cu Oase ("The Cave with Bones"), radiocarbon dated as being from circa 40,000 years ago, represent the oldest known Homo sapiens in Europe.[23][24] The Neolithic-Age Cucuteni area in northeastern Romania was the western region of the earliest European civilization, known as the Cucuteni-Trypillian culture.[25] Also the earliest known salt works in the world is at Poiana Slatinei, near the village of Lunca in Romania; it was first used in the early Neolithic, around 6050 BC, by the Starčevo culture, and later by the Cucuteni-Trypillian culture in the Pre-Cucuteni period.[26] Evidence from this and other sites indicates that the Cucuteni-Trypillian culture extracted salt from salt-laden spring water through the process of briquetage.

Prior to the Roman conquest of Dacia, the territories between Danube and Dniester rivers were inhabited by various Thracian peoples, including the Dacians and the Getae.[27] Herodotus, in his work "Histories", notes the religious difference between the Getae and other Thracians,[28] however, according to Strabo, the Dacians and the Getae spoke the same language.[27] Dio Cassius draws attention to the cultural similarities between the two people.[27] There is a scholarly dispute whether the Dacians and the Getae were the same people.[29][30]

Roman incursions under Emperor Trajan between 101–102 AD and 105–106 AD resulted in half of the Dacian kingdom becoming a province of the Roman Empire called "Dacia Felix". The Roman rule lasted for 165 years. During this period the province was fully integrated in the Roman Empire, and a sizeable part of the population were newcomers from other provinces.[31] The Roman colonists introduced the Latin language. According to followers of the continuity theory, the intense Romanization gave birth to the Proto-Romanian language.[32][33] The province was rich of ore deposits (especially gold and silver in places like Alburnus Maior). Roman troops pulled out of Dacia around 271 AD.[34][35] The territory was later invaded by various migrating peoples.[36][37][38][39]

Burebista, Decebalus and Trajan are considered the Romanians' forefathers in Romanian historiography.[40][41][42]

Middle Ages

The three Romanian principalities of Wallachia, Moldavia and Transylvania in under Michael the Brave.
Writ issued on 14 October 1465 by Radu cel Frumos, from his residence in Bucharest, indicating Ottoman victory.

In the Middle Ages, Romanians lived in three Romanian principalities: Wallachia (Romanian: Țara Românească – "The Romanian Land"), Moldavia (Romanian: Moldova) and in Transylvania.[43] The existence of independent Romanian voivodeships in Transylvania as early as the 9th century is mentioned in Gesta Hungarorum,[44] but by the 11th century, Transylvania had become a largely autonomous part of the Kingdom of Hungary.[45] In the other parts, many small local states with varying degrees of independence developed, but only under Basarab I and Bogdan I the larger principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia would emerge in the 14th century to fight the threat of the Ottoman Empire.[46][47]

By 1541, as with the entire Balkan peninsula and most of Hungary, Moldavia, Wallachia, and Transylvania were under Ottoman suzerainty, preserving partial or full internal autonomy until the mid-19th century (Transylvania until 1711[48]). This period featured several prominent rulers such as: Stephen the Great, Vasile Lupu, Alexander the Good and Dimitrie Cantemir in Moldavia; Vlad the Impaler, Mircea the Elder, Matei Basarab, Neagoe Basarab and Constantin Brâncoveanu in Wallachia; and Gabriel Bethlen in the Principality of Transylvania, as well as John Hunyadi and Matthias Corvinus in Transylvania, while it was still a part of the Kingdom of Hungary.[49][50] In 1600, all three principalities were ruled simultaneously by the Wallachian prince Michael the Brave (Mihai Viteazul), who was considered, later on, the precursor of modern Romania and became a point of reference for nationalists, as well as a catalyst for achieving a single Romanian state.[51]

Independence and monarchy

Changes in Romania's territory since 1859.

During the period of the Austro-Hungarian rule in Transylvania and of Ottoman suzerainty over Wallachia and Moldavia, most Romanians were given few rights[52] in a territory where they formed the majority of the population.[53][54] Nationalistic themes became principal during the Wallachian uprising of 1821, and the 1848 revolutions in Wallachia and Moldavia. The flag adopted for Wallachia by the revolutionaries was a blue-yellow-red horizontal tricolour (with blue above, in line with the meaning "Liberty, Justice, Fraternity"),[55] while Romanian students in Paris hailed the new government with the same flag "as a symbol of union between Moldavians and Wallachians".[56][57] The same flag, with the tricolour being mounted vertically, would later be officially adopted as the national flag of Romania.[58]

After the failed 1848 revolutions not all the Great Powers supported the Romanians' expressed desire to officially unite in a single state.[59] But in the aftermath of the Crimean War, the electors in both Moldavia and Wallachia voted in 1859 for the same leader, Alexandru Ioan Cuza, as Domnitor ("ruling prince" in Romanian), and the two principalities became a personal union formally under the suzerainty of the Ottoman Empire.[60] Following a coup d'état in 1866, Cuza was exiled and replaced with Prince Carol I of Romania of the House of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen. During the 1877–1878 Russo-Turkish War Romania fought on the Russian side,[61] and in the aftermath, it was recognized as an independent state both by the Ottoman Empire and the Great Powers by the Treaty of San Stefano and the Treaty of Berlin.[62][63] The new Kingdom of Romania underwent a period of stability and progress until 1914, and also acquired Southern Dobruja from Bulgaria after the Second Balkan War.[64]

World Wars and Greater Romania

A 1917 British map showing territories with majority Romanian populations.
Romanian dictator Ion Antonescu meeting with Adolf Hitler in June 1941. Romania was a main source of oil for the Axis powers in World War II and also a military ally for Nazi Germany

Romania remained neutral for the first two years of World War I. Following the secret Treaty of Bucharest, according to which Romania would acquire territories with a majority of Romanian population from Austria-Hungary, it joined the Entente Powers and declared war on 27 August 1916.[65] After initial advances the Romanian military campaign quickly turned disastrous for Romania as the Central Powers occupied two-thirds of the country within months, before reaching a stalemate in 1917. The October Revolution and Russian withdrawal from the War left Romania alone and surrounded, and a ceasefire was negotiated at Focșani that December. Romania was occupied and a harsh peace treaty was signed in May 1918. In November, Romania reentered the conflict. Total military and civilian losses from 1916 to 1918, within contemporary borders, were estimated at 748,000.[66] After the war, the transfer of Bukovina from Austria was acknowledged by the 1919 Treaty of Saint Germain,[67] of Banat and Transylvania from Hungary by the 1920 Treaty of Trianon,[68] and of Bessarabia from Russian rule by the 1920 Treaty of Paris.[69] All cessations made to the Central Powers in the ceasefire and treaty were nullified and renounced.

The following interwar period is referred as Greater Romania, as the country achieved its greatest territorial extent at that time (almost 300,000 km2 or 120,000 sq mi).[70] The application of radical agricultural reforms and the passing of a new constitution created a democratic framework and allowed for quick economic growth. With oil production of 7.2 million tons in 1937, Romania ranked second in Europe and seventh in the world.[71][72] and was Europe's second-largest food producer.[73] However, the early 1930s were marked by social unrest, high unemployment, and strikes, as there were over 25 separate governments throughout the decade. On several occasions in the last few years before World War II, the democratic parties were squeezed between conflicts with the fascist and chauvinistic Iron Guard and the authoritarian tendencies of king Carol II.

The Antonescu fascist regime played a major role in The Holocaust in Romania,[74] and copied the Nazi policies of oppression and genocide of Jews and Roma, mainly in the Eastern territories reoccupied by the Romanians from the Soviet Union. In total between 280,000 and 380,000 Jews in Romania (including Bessarabia, Bukovina and the Transnistria Governorate) were murdered during the war[75][76] and at least 11,000 Romanian Gypsies ("Roma") were also killed.[77] Ion Antonescu was convicted of war crimes and executed in the end. 9 October is now the National Day of Commemorating the Holocaust in Romania.[78]

During World War II, Romania tried again to remain neutral, but on 28 June 1940, it received a Soviet ultimatum with an implied threat of invasion in the event of non-compliance.[79] Again foreign powers created heavy pressure on Romania, by means of the Soviet-Nazi Ribbentrop-Molotov Pact of non-aggression from 23 August 1939. As a result of it the Romanian government and the army were forced to retreat from Bessarabia as well as from northern Bukovina in order to avoid war with the Soviet Union.[80] The king was compelled to abdicate and appointed general Ion Antonescu as the new Prime-Minister with full powers in ruling the state by royal decree.[81] Romania was prompted to join the Axis military campaign. Thereafter, southern Dobruja was ceded to Bulgaria, while Hungary received Northern Transylvania as result of an Axis powers' arbitration.[82] Romanian contribution to Operation Barbarossa was enormous, with the Romanian Army of over 1.2 million men in the summer of 1944, fighting in numbers second only to Nazi Germany.[83] Romania was the main source of oil for the Third Reich,[84] and thus became the target of intense bombing by the Allies. Growing discontent among the population eventually peaked in August 1944 with King Michael's Coup, and the country switched sides to join the Allies. It is estimated that the coup shortened the war by as much as six months.[85] Even though the Romanian Army had suffered 170,000 casualties after switching sides,[86] Romania's role in the defeat of Nazi Germany was not recognized by the Paris Peace Conference of 1947,[87] as the Soviet Union annexed Bessarabia and other territories corresponding roughly to present-day Republic of Moldova.


Nicolae Ceaușescu ruled Romania as its Communist leader from 1965 until 1989.

During the King Michael I to abdicate and leave the country, and proclaimed Romania a people's republic.[90][91] Romania remained under the direct military occupation and economic control of the USSR until the late 1950s. During this period, Romania's vast natural resources were continuously drained by mixed Soviet-Romanian companies (SovRoms) set up for unilateral exploitative purposes.[92][93][94]

In 1948, the state began to nationalize private firms and to collectivize agriculture.[95] Until the early 1960s, the government severely curtailed political liberties and vigorously suppressed any dissent with the help of the Securitate (the Romanian secret police). During this period the regime launched several campaigns of purges in which numerous "enemies of the state" and "parasite elements" (among them many Jewish zionist activists) were targeted for different forms of punishment, such as deportation, internal exile and internment in forced labour camps and prisons, sometimes for life, as well as extrajudicial killing.[96] Nevertheless, anti-communist resistance was one of the most long-lasting in the Eastern Bloc.[97] A 2006 Commission estimated the number of direct victims of the communist repression at two million people.[98]

The Romanian Revolution in 1989 was one of the few violent revolutions in Europe that brought an end to communist rule (around 4,500 casualties).

In 1965, IMF and the World Bank) grew, gradually conflicting with Ceaușescu's autocratic rule. The latter eventually initiated a policy of total reimbursement of the foreign debt by imposing austerity steps that impoverished the population and exhausted the economy. At the same time, Ceaușescu greatly extended the authority of the Securitate secret police and imposed a severe cult of personality, which led to a dramatic decrease in the dictator's popularity and culminated in his overthrow and eventual execution, together with his wife, in the violent Romanian Revolution of December 1989.


Romania joined the European Union in 2007 and signed the Treaty of Lisbon.
Romania joined NATO in 2003 and hosted its 2008 summit in Bucharest.

After the revolution, the National Salvation Front (NSF), led by Ion Iliescu, took partial multi-party democratic and free market measures.[103][104] In April 1990 a sit-in protest contesting the results of the elections and accusing the NSF, including Iliescu, of being made up of former Communists and members of the Securitate, rapidly grew to become what was called the Golaniad. The peaceful demonstrations degenerated into violence, prompting the intervention of coal miners summoned by Iliescu. This episode has been documented widely by both local[105] and foreign media,[106] and is remembered as the June 1990 Mineriad.[107][108]

The subsequent disintegration of the Front produced several political parties including the Social Democratic Party, and the Democratic Party. The former governed Romania from 1990 until 1996 through several coalitions and governments with Ion Iliescu as head of state. Since then there have been several democratic changes of government: in 1996 Emil Constantinescu was elected president, in 2000 Iliescu returned to power, while Traian Băsescu was elected in 2004 and narrowly re-elected in 2009.[109]

After the Cold War Romania developed closer ties with Western Europe and the United States, eventually joining NATO in 2004, and hosting the 2008 summit in Bucharest.[110] The country applied in June 1993 for membership in the European Union and became an Associated State of the EU in 1995, an Acceding Country in 2004, and a full member on 1 January 2007.[111] Following the "free travel agreement" with the EU and the economic instability throughout the 1990s, a large number of Romanians emigrated to North America and Western Europe, with particularly large communities in Italy and Spain. Currently, the Romanian diaspora is estimated at over two million people.[112]

During the 2000s, Romania enjoyed one of the highest economic growth rates in Europe and has been referred at times as "the Tiger of Eastern Europe".[113] This has been accompanied by a significant improvement in living standards as the country successfully reduced internal poverty and established a functional democratic state.[114][115] However, Romania's development suffered a major setback during the late-2000s recession leading to a large gross domestic product contraction and budget deficit in 2009.[116] This led to Romania borrowing from the International Monetary Fund.[117] Worsening economic conditions led to unrest and triggered a political crisis in 2012.[118] Romania still faces issues related to infrastructure,[119] medical services,[120] education,[121] and corruption.[122] Eventually, The Economist wrote at the end of 2013 that Romania is again booming with an economic growth at 4.1%, wages rising fast and lower unemployment than in Britain. The economy is accelerated by a government in the midst of liberalising, which is opening up new sectors (most notably, energy and telecoms) to competition and investment.[123]


Topographic map of Romania

With an area of 238,391 square kilometres (92,043 sq mi), Romania is the largest country in Southeastern Europe and the twelfth-largest in Europe.[124] It lies between latitudes 43° and 49° N, and longitudes 20° and 30° E. The terrain is distributed roughly equally between mountains, hills and plains. The Carpathian Mountains dominate the centre of Romania, with 14 mountain ranges reaching above 2,000 m or 6,600 ft, and the highest point at Moldoveanu Peak (2,544 m or 8,346 ft).[124] They are surrounded by the Moldavian and Transylvanian plateaus and Carpathian Basin and Wallachian plains. The Danube river forms a large part of the border with Serbia and Bulgaria and flows into the Black Sea forming the Danube Delta, the second largest and best preserved delta in Europe, and also a biosphere reserve and a biodiversity World Heritage Site.[125]

Romania's population of [126]

Owing to its distance from open sea and position on the Southeastern portion of the European continent, Romania has a climate that is temperate and continental, with four distinct seasons. The average annual temperature is 11 °C (52 °F) in the south and 8 °C (46 °F) in the north.[127] In summer, average maximum temperatures in Bucharest rise to 28 °C (82 °F), and temperatures over 35 °C (95 °F) are fairly common in the lower-lying areas of the country.[128] In winter, the average maximum temperature is below 2 °C (36 °F).[128] Precipitation is average, with over 750 mm (30 in) per year only on the highest western mountains, while around Bucharest it drops to around 600 mm (24 in).[129]

A high percentage (47% of the land area) of the country is covered with natural and semi-natural ecosystems.[130] Romania has one of the largest areas of undisturbed forest in Europe covering almost 27% of the territory.[131] The fauna consists of 33,792 species of animals, 33,085 [126] and 20% of its wolves.[134] Some 3,700 plant species have been identified in the country, from which to date 23 have been declared natural monuments, 74 missing, 39 endangered, 171 vulnerable and 1,253 rare.[132] There are almost 10,000 km2 (3,900 sq mi) (about 5% of the total area) of protected areas in Romania covering 13 national parks and three biosphere reserves.[135] The Danube Delta, at 5,800 km2 (2,200 sq mi),[136] is the largest continuous marshland in Europe,[137] and supports 1,688 different plant species alone.[138]


Palace of the Parliament of Romania is the second largest building in the world after The Pentagon.

The Constitution of Romania is based on the Constitution of France's Fifth Republic and was approved in a national referendum on 8 December 1991, and amended in October 2003 to bring it into conformity with the EU legislation. The country is governed on the basis of multi-party democratic system and of the segregation of the legislative, executive and judicial powers. It is a semi-presidential republic where executive functions are held by both government and the president.[139] The latter is elected by popular vote for a maximum of two terms of five years and appoints the prime minister, who in turn appoints the Council of Ministers. The legislative branch of the government, collectively known as the Parliament (residing at the Palace of the Parliament), consists of two chambers (Senate and Chamber of Deputies) whose members are elected every four years by simple plurality.[140][141]

The justice system is independent of the other branches of government, and is made up of a hierarchical system of courts culminating in the High Court of Cassation and Justice, which is the supreme court of Romania.[142] There are also courts of appeal, county courts and local courts. The Romanian judicial system is strongly influenced by the French model, considering that it is based on civil law and is inquisitorial in nature. The Constitutional Court (Curtea Constituțională) is responsible for judging the compliance of laws and other state regulations to the constitution, which is the fundamental law of the country and can only be amended through a public referendum.[140][143] The 2007 entry into the EU has been a significant influence on its domestic policy, and including judicial reforms, increased judicial cooperation with other member states, and measures to combat corruption.

Foreign relations

Klaus Iohannis, the current President of Romania since December 2014.

Since December 1989, Romania has pursued a policy of strengthening relations with the West in general, more specifically with the United States and the

  • Romanian Tourism Website – Attractions and Travel Info
  • Official Romanian Tourism Website
  • Photos from Romania
  • Treasures of the national library of Romania
  • Historic Houses of Romania
Culture and history links
  • Romanian Presidency
  • Romanian Parliament

External links

Secondary sources

  • The Ancient History of Herodotus (Translated by William Beloe) (1859). Derby & Jackson.
  • Eutropius, Abridgment of Roman History (Translated by John Selby Watson) (1886). George Bell and Sons.

Primary sources


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  1. ^ In English, Romania was formerly often spelled Rumania or sometimes Roumania. See the etymology section.
  2. ^ "am scris aceste sfente cǎrți de învățături, sǎ fie popilor rumânesti... sǎ înțeleagǎ toți oamenii cine-s rumâni creștini" "Întrebare creștineascǎ" (1559), Bibliografia româneascǎ veche, IV, 1944, p. 6.
    "...că văzum cum toate limbile au și înfluresc întru cuvintele slǎvite a lui Dumnezeu numai noi românii pre limbă nu avem. Pentru aceia cu mare muncǎ scoasem de limba jidoveascǎ si greceascǎ si srâbeascǎ pre limba româneascǎ 5 cărți ale lui Moisi prorocul si patru cărți și le dăruim voo frați rumâni și le-au scris în cheltuială multǎ... și le-au dăruit voo fraților români,... și le-au scris voo fraților români" Palia de la Orǎștie (1581–1582), București, 1968.
    În Țara Ardealului nu lăcuiesc numai unguri, ce și sași peste seamă de mulți și români peste tot locul..., Grigore Ureche, Letopisețul Țării Moldovei, p. 133–134.
  3. ^ In his well known literary testament Ienăchiță Văcărescu writes: "Urmașilor mei Văcărești!/Las vouă moștenire:/Creșterea limbei românești/Ș-a patriei cinstire."
    In the "Istoria faptelor lui Mavroghene-Vodă și a răzmeriței din timpul lui pe la 1790" a Pitar Hristache writes: "Încep după-a mea ideie/Cu vreo câteva condeie/Povestea mavroghenească/Dela Țara Românească.
  4. ^ In 1816, the Greek scholar Dimitrie Daniel Philippide published in Leipzig his work The History of Romania, followed by The Geography of Romania.
    On the Avrig (built in 1823) there is the inscription: "Precum Hristos pe Lazăr din morți a înviat/Așa tu România din somn ai deșteptat."
  5. ^ 2002 census data, based on Population by ethnicity, gave a total of 535,250 Roma in Romania. Many ethnicities not recorded at all, since they do not have ID cards. International sources give higher figures than the official census(UNDP's Regional Bureau for Europe, World Bank,


See also

Romania participated in the Olympic Games for the first time in 1900 and has taken part in 18 of the 24 summer games. It has been one of the more successful countries at the Summer Olympic Games, with a total of 301 medals won throughout the years, of which 88 gold ones, ranking 15th overall, and second (behind neighbour Hungary) of the nations that have never hosted the game. It participated at the 1984 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles in defiance of a Warsaw Pact boycott and finished second in gold medals (20) and third in total medal count (53).[296] Almost a quarter of all the medals and 25 of the gold ones were won in gymnastics, with Nadia Comăneci becoming the first gymnast ever to score a perfect ten in an Olympic event at the 1976 Summer Olympics.[297] Romanian competitors have won gold medals in other Olympic sports: rowing, athletics, canoeing, wrestling, shooting, fencing, swimming, weightlifting, boxing, and judo. At the Winter Olympic Games, Romania has won only a bronze medal in bobsleigh at the 1968 Winter Olympics.

Other popular team sport clubs are Rugby Union and Team Handball.[292] The rugby national team has competed in every Rugby World Cup, while both the men's and women's handball national teams are multiples world champions. On 13 January 2010, Cristina Neagu became the first Romanian in handball to win the IHF World Player of the Year award.[294] Popular individual sports include athletics, chess, judo, dancesport, table tennis and combat sports (Lucian Bute, Leonard Dorin Doroftei, Mihai Leu aka Michael Loewe, Daniel Ghiță, Benjamin Adegbuyi, Andrei Stoica, etc.).[292] While it has a limited popularity nowadays, oină is a traditional Romanian sporting game similar to baseball that has been continuously practiced since at least the 14th century.[295]

Tennis is the second most popular sport, with over 15,000 registered players.[292] Romania reached the Davis Cup finals three times (1969, 1971, 1972). The tennis player Ilie Năstase won several Grand Slam titles, and was the first player to be ranked as number 1 by ATP between 1973 and 1974. Virginia Ruzici won the French Open in 1978, and was runner-up in 1980, Simona Halep played the final in 2014 and is currently ranked 2nd by the WTA.[293]

Nadia Comăneci was the first gymnast to score a perfect ten in an Olympic event.

The most famous successful club is Steaua București and was the first Eastern European team to win the European Champions Cup in 1986, and were runners-up in 1989. Dinamo București reached the European Champions' Cup semifinal in 1984 and the Cup Winners' Cup semifinal in 1990. Other important Romanian football clubs are Rapid București, UTA Arad, Universitatea Craiova, CFR Cluj and Petrolul Ploiești.

Adrian Mutu, Cristian Chivu, Dan Petrescu or Cosmin Contra.

Simona Halep is among the top-ranked female tennis players in the world.


Romanian cuisine shares some similarities with other Balkan cuisines such as Greek, Bulgarian and Turkish cuisine.[282] Ciorbă includes a wide range of sour soups, while mititei, mămăligă (similar to polenta), and sarmale are featured commonly in main courses. Pork, chicken and beef are the preferred meats, but lamb and fish are also popular. [283] Certain traditional recipes are made in direct connection with the holidays: chiftele, tobă and tochitura at Christmas; drob, pască and cozonac at Easter and other Romanian holidays.[284] Țuică is a strong plum brandy reaching a 70% alcohol content which is the country's traditional alcoholic beverage, taking as much as 75% of the national production (Romania is one of the largest plum producers in the world).[285][286] Traditional alcoholic beverages also include wine, rachiu, palincă and vișinată, but beer consumption has increased dramatically over the recent years.[287]

There are 12 non-working public holidays, including the Great Union Day, celebrated on 1 December in commemoration of the 1918 union of Transylvania with Romania.[276] Winter holidays include the Christmas festivities and the New Year during which, various unique folklore dances and games are common: pluguşorul, sorcova, ursul, and capra.[277][278] The traditional Romanian dress that otherwise has largely fell out of use during the 20th century, is a popular ceremonial vestment worn on these festivities, especially in the rural areas.[279] Sacrifices of live pigs during Christmas and lambs during Easter has required a special derogation from EU law after 2007.[280] During Easter, painted eggs are very common, while on 1 March features mărțișor gifting, a tradition likely of Thracian origin.[281]

Traditionally painted Easter eggs.
Folkloric dance group wearing Romanian traditional costumes from Bistrița-Năsăud county.

Holidays, traditions and cuisine

The list of World Heritage Sites includes six cultural sites located within Romania, including eight Painted churches of northern Moldavia, eight Wooden Churches of Maramureș, seven Villages with fortified churches in Transylvania, the Horezu Monastery, and the Historic Centre of Sighișoara. [272] The city of Sibiu, with its Brukenthal National Museum, was selected as the 2007 European Capital of Culture.[273] Multiple castles exist in Romania, including popular tourist attractions of Peleș Castle,[274] Corvin Castle, and "Dracula's Castle".[275]

[271] Romanian singers have achieved third place in 2005 and 2010.Eurovision Song Contest and many others have achieved various levels of international acclaim. At the [270]Alexandra Stan [269],Inna [268][267] The annual

In cinema, several movies of the Romanian New Wave have achieved international acclaim. At the Cannes Film Festival, 4 Months, 3 Weeks and 2 Days by Cristian Mungiu won Palme d'Or in 2007.[264] At the Berlin International Film Festival, Child's Pose by Călin Peter Netzer won the Golden Bear in 2013.[265]

The topic of the Ioan Slavici, Mihail Kogălniceanu, Vasile Alecsandri, Nicolae Bălcescu, Ion Luca Caragiale, Ion Creangă, and Mihai Eminescu, the later being considered the greatest and most influential Romanian poet, particularly for the poem Luceafărul.[259] In the 20th century, Romanian artists reached international acclaim, including Tristan Tzara, Marcel Janco,[260] Mircea Eliade, Nicolae Grigorescu, Marin Preda, Liviu Rebreanu,[261] Eugène Ionesco, Emil Cioran, and Constantin Brâncuși. The latter has a sculptural ensemble in Târgu Jiu, while his sculpture Bird in Space, was auctioned in 2005 for $27.5 million.[262][263] Romanian-born Holocaust survivor Elie Wiesel received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1986, while writer Herta Müller received the Nobel Prize in Literature in 2009.

Arts and monuments

Mihai Eminescu is the national poet of Romania and Moldova.


Romania has a universal health care system, and total health expenditures by the government are roughly 5% of the GDP.[252] It covers medical examinations, any surgical interventions, and any post-operator medical care, and provides free or subsidized medicine for a range of diseases. The state is obliged to fund public hospitals and clinics. The most common causes of death are cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Transmissible diseases, such as tuberculosis, syphilis or viral hepatitis, are more common than in Western Europe.[253] In 2010, Romania had 428 state and 25 private hospitals,[254] with 6.2 hospital beds per 1,000 people,[255] and over 200,000 medical staff, including over 52,000 doctors.[256] As of 2013, the emigration rate of doctors was 9%, higher than the European average of 2.5%.[257]


Higher education is aligned with the European higher education area. The results of the PISA assessment study in schools for the year 2012 placed Romania on the 45th rank out of 65 participant countries,[247] though Romania often wins medals in the mathematical olympiads[248][249][250] and not only. Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iași, Babeș-Bolyai University of Cluj-Napoca, University of Bucharest, and West University of Timișoara have been included in the QS World University Rankings' top 800.[251]

Since the Romanian Revolution of 1989, the Romanian educational system has been in a continuous process of reform that has received mixed criticism.[242] In 2004, some 4.4 million of the population were enrolled in school. Out of these, 650,000 in kindergarten (3–6 years), 3.11 million in primary and secondary level, and 650,000 in tertiary level (universities).[243] In the same year, the adult literacy rate was 97.3% (45th worldwide), while the combined gross enrollment ratio for primary, secondary and tertiary schools was 75% (52nd worldwide).[244] Kindergarten is optional between 3 and 6 years. Schooling starts at age 7 (sometimes at 6) and is compulsory until tenth grade.[245] Primary and secondary education is divided into 12 or 13 grades. There also exists a semi-legal, informal private tutoring system used mostly during secondary school, which has prospered during the Communist regime.[246]

Illiteracy rate by county (2011). Lighter colors indicate a very high literacy, and darker colors indicate a higher rate of illiteracy. The national average is 1.22%.
University of Bucharest was opened in 1864.


have been constituted for most of these cities. Metropolitan areas [165] with over 200,000 inhabitants.Ploiești and Galați, Brașov, Craiova, Constanța, Iași of slightly more than 300,000 inhabitants, and Timișoara and Cluj-Napoca Another 19 cities have a population of over 100,000, with [240][239][238].city proper up to 20 times the area of the metropolitan area which are planned to be included into a [237] has a population of almost 2.2 million,larger urban zone is the capital and the largest city in Romania, with a population of over 1.8 million in 2011. Its Bucharest [2].Teleorman and Giurgiu (30.06%) and Dâmbovița, while with less than a third are Constanța and Brașov, Hunedoara Counties with over 2/3 urban population are [236] this percentage has been on the decline since 1996.[2],urban areas Although 54.0% of the population lived in 2011 in


The Romanian Orthodox Church is an autocephalous Eastern Orthodox Church in full communion with other Orthodox churches, with a Patriarch as its leader. It is the only Orthodox church using a Romance language and the second-largest in size after the Russian Orthodox Church. Its jurisdiction covers the territory of Romania, with dioceses for Romanians living in nearby Moldova, Serbia and Hungary, as well as diaspora communities in Central and Western Europe, North America and Oceania.

Romania is a secular state and has no state religion. An overwhelming majority of the population identify themselves as Christians. At the country's 2011 census, 86.5% of respondents for whom data is available identified as Orthodox Christians belonging to the Romanian Orthodox Church. Other denominations include Protestantism (6.9%), Roman Catholicism (4.6%), and Greek Catholicism (0.8%). The remaining 2.2% of the population include 64,337 Muslims (mostly of Turkish and Tatar ethnicity), 3,519 Jews, and 39,660 people who are of no religion or atheist.[235]

Religion in Romania (2011 census)
Religion Percentage
Eastern Orthodox
Roman Catholic
Greek Catholic
Seventh-day Adventist
The Iași Metropolitan Cathedral, founded in 1833, is the largest Orthodox church in Romania.


[234], English is spoken by 31% of Romanians, French is spoken by 17%, and Italian by 7%.Eurobarometer According to the 2012 [233] The official language is


The number of Romanians and individuals with ancestors born in Romania living abroad is estimated at around 12 million.[112] After the Romanian Revolution of 1989, a significant number of Romanians emigrated to other European countries, North America or Australia.

The total fertility rate (TFR) in 2013 was estimated at 1.31 children born per woman, which is below the replacement rate of 2.1, and one of the lowest in the world.[224] In 2012, 31% of births were to unmarried women.[225] The birth rate (9.49‰, 2012) is much lower than the mortality rate (11.84‰, 2012), resulting in a shrinking (−0.26% per year, 2012) and aging population (median age: 39.1, 2012), with approximately 14.9% of total population aged 65 years and over.[226][227][228] The life expectancy in 2013 was estimated at 74.45 years (70.99 years male, 78.13 years female).[224]

According to the [114]

Ethnic map of Romania based on 2011 census data.


The nuclear physics facility of the European Union's proposed Extreme Light Infrastructure (ELI) laser will be built in Romania.[218] In early 2012, Romania launched its first satellite from the Centre Spatial Guyanais in French Guyana.[219] Starting December 2014, Romania is a co-owner of the International Space Station.[220]

During the 1990s and 2000s, the development of research was hampered by several factors, including corruption, low funding and a considerable CERN and the European Space Agency.[215][216] Overall, the situation has been characterized as "rapidly improving", albeit from a low base.[217]

Historically, Romanian researchers and inventors have made notable contributions to several fields. In the history of flight, Spiru Haret, Grigore Moisil, and Ștefan Odobleja; physicists and inventors: Șerban Țițeica, Alexandru Proca, and Ștefan Procopiu.

Coandă-1910 was an early aircraft with ducted fan propulsion.

Science and technology

More than 60% of the foreign visitors in 2007 were from other EU countries.[203] Popular summer attractions of Mamaia and other Black Sea Resorts attracted 1.3 million tourists in 2009.[204][205] Most popular skiing resorts are along the Valea Prahovei and in Poiana Brașov. Castles in Transylvanian cities such as Sibiu, Brașov, and Sighișoara. Rural tourism, focusing on folklore and traditions, has become an important alternative,[206] and is targeted to promote such sites as Bran and its Dracula's Castle, the Painted churches of Northern Moldavia, and the Wooden churches of Maramureș.[207] Other attractions include Danube Delta, and Sculptural Ensemble of Constantin Brâncuși at Târgu Jiu.[208][209]

Tourism is a significant contributor to the Romanian economy, generating around 5% of GDP.[199] According to the World Travel and Tourism Council, Romania was estimated to have the fourth fastest growing travel and tourism total demand in the world, with an estimated potential growth of 8% per year from 2007 to 2016.[200] The number of tourist has been rising, reaching 3.5 million in the first half of 2014.[201] Tourism in Romania attracted €400 million in investments in 2005.[202]

Bran Castle near Brașov, sometimes advertised as "Dracula's Castle", is a popular attraction for tourists.


There were almost 18,3 million connections to the Internet in June 2014.[196] According to Bloomberg, in 2013 Romania ranked 5th in the world and 2nd in Europe in terms of internet connection speed,[197] with Timișoara ranked among the highest in the world.[198]

Romania is a net exporter of electrical energy and is 46th worldwide in terms of consumption of electric energy.[191] Around a third of the produced energy comes from renewable sources, mostly as hydroelectric power.[192] In 2010, the main sources were coal (36%), hydroelectric (33%), nuclear (19%), and hydrocarbons (11%).[193] It has one of the largest refining capacities in Eastern Europe, even though oil- and natural gas production has been decreasing for more than a decade.[191] With one of the largest reserves of crude oil and shale gas in Europe,[191] it is among the most energy-independent countries in the European Union,[194] and is looking to further expand its nuclear power plant at Cernavodă.[195]

According to the CIA Factbook, Romania's total road network was estimated in 2009 at 81,713 kilometres (50,774 mi) (excluding urban areas), out of which 66,632 km (41,403 mi) was paved roads.[186] There are plans to build a 2,262.7 km (1,406.0 mi) long motorway system, consisting of six main motorways and six bypass motorways, but as of July 2015, 707 km (439.3 mi) have been laid down, with 230 km (143 mi) under construction or in tendering.[187] The World Bank estimates the railway network at 22,298 kilometres (13,855 mi) of track, the fourth-largest railroad network in Europe.[188] Rail transport experienced a dramatic decline after 1989, and was estimated at 99 million passenger journeys in 2004; but has experienced a recent (2013) revival due to infrastructure improvements and partial privatization of lines,[140] accounting for 45% of all passenger and freight movements in the country.[140] Bucharest Metro, the only underground railway system, was opened in 1979 and measures 61.41 km (38.16 mi) with an average ridership in 2007 of 600,000 passengers during the workweek.[189] There are sixteen international commercial airports in service today, with five of them (Henri Coandă International Airport, Aurel Vlaicu International Airport, Timișoara International Airport, Constanta International Airport and Sibiu International Airport) being capable of handling wide-body aircraft. Over 7.6 million passengers flew through Bucharest's Henri Coandă International Airport in 2013.[190]

Electricity supply mix 2010.
Romania's road network.


At 1 July 2015, Romanian's external debt was €90.59 billion.[185]

Since 1867 the official currency has been the Romanian leu ("lion") and following a denomination in 2005, it has been valued at €0.2–0.3. After joining the EU in 2007, Romania is expected to adopt the euro sometime around 2020.[184]

[183] Since 2000, Romania has attracted increasing amounts of foreign investment, becoming the single largest investment destination in Southeastern and Central Europe.

After a series of privatizations and reforms in the late 1990s and 2000s, government intervention in the Romanian economy is somewhat lower than in other European economies.[178] In 2005, the government replaced Romania's progressive tax system with a flat tax of 16% for both personal income and corporate profit, among the lowest rates in the European Union.[179] The economy is predominantly based on services, which account for 51% of GDP, even though industry and agriculture also have significant contributions, making up 36% and 13% of GDP, respectively. Additionally, 30% of the Romanian population was employed in 2006 in agriculture and primary production, one of the highest rates in Europe.[180]

Industrial output growth reached 6.5% year-on-year in February 2013, the highest in the EU-27.[175] The largest local companies include car maker [177]

Romania is part of the EU single market.

After 1989 the country experienced a decade of economic instability and decline, led in part by an obsolete industrial base and a lack of structural reform. From 2000 onward, however, the Romanian economy was transformed into one of relative macroeconomic stability, characterized by high growth, low unemployment and declining inflation. In 2006, according to the Romanian Statistics Office, GDP growth in real terms was recorded at 7.7%, one of the highest rates in Europe.[169] However, a recession following the global financial crisis of 2008–2009 forced the government to borrow externally, including an IMF €20bn bailout program.[170] GDP has been growing by over 2% each year since.[171] According to IMF, the GDP per capita purchasing power parity grew from $14,875 in 2007 to an estimated $19,397 in 2014.[166] Romania still has one of the lowest net average monthly wage in the EU of €540 in 2012,[172] and an inflation of 3.7% in 2013.[173] Unemployment in Romania was at 7% in 2012, which is very low compared to other EU countries.[174]

In 2013, Romania had a GDP (PPP) of around $386 billion and a GDP per capita (PPP) of $19,397.[166] According to CIA's The World Factbook, Romania is an upper-middle income country economy.[167] According to Eurostat, Romania's GDP per capita (PPS) was at 55% of the EU average in 2013, an increase from 42% in 2007 (the year of Romania's accession to the EU).[168]

Dacia Duster concept at the Geneva Motor Show (2009).


Development region Area (km2) Population (2011)[164] Most populous urban center*[165]
Northwest 34,159 2,600,132 Cluj-Napoca (411,379)
Center 34,082 2,360,805 Brașov (369,896)
Northeast 36,850 3,302,217 Iași (382,484)
Southeast 35,762 2,545,923 Constanța (425,916)
South 34,489 3,136,446 Ploiești (276,279)
Bucharest-Ilfov 1,811 2,272,163 Bucharest (2,272,163)
Southwest 29,212 2,075,642 Craiova (285,098)
West 32,028 1,828,313 Timișoara (384,809)

The NUTS-3 (Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics) level divisions of European Union reflect Romania's administrative-territorial structure, and correspond to the 41 counties plus Bucharest.[162] The cities and communes correspond to the NUTS-5 level divisions, but there are no current NUTS-4 level divisions. The NUTS-1 (four macroregions) and NUTS-2[163] (eight development regions) divisions exist but have no administrative capacity, and are instead used for coordinating regional development projects and statistical purposes.[162]

Romania is divided into 41 counties (județi, pronounced judets) and the municipality of Bucharest. Each county is administered by a county council, responsible for local affairs, as well as a prefect responsible for the administration of national affairs at the county level. The prefect is appointed by the central government but cannot be a member of any political party.[160] Each county is further subdivided into cities and communes, which have their own mayor and local council. There are a total of 319 cities and 2,686 communes in Romania.[161] A total of 103 of the larger cities have municipality statuses, which gives them greater administrative power over local affairs. The municipality of Bucharest is a special case as it enjoys a status on par to that of a county. It is further divided into six sectors and has a prefect, a general mayor (primar), and a general city council.[161]

Administrative divisions

In December 2011, the Romanian Senate unanimously adopted the draft law ratifying the Romania-United States agreement signed in September of the same year that would allow the establishment and operation of a US land-based ballistic missile defence system in Romania as part of NATO's efforts to build a continental missile shield.[159]

The Land Forces have overhauled their equipment in the past few years, and are actively participating in the War in Afghanistan.[153] The Air Force currently operates modernized Soviet MiG-21 Lancer fighters which are due to be replaced by twelve F-16s, recently purchased.[154] The Air Force purchased seven new C-27J Spartan tactical airlifters,[155] while the Naval Forces acquired two modernized Type 22 frigates from the Royal Navy.[156] Romanian troops participated in the occupation of Iraq, reaching a peak of 730 soldiers before being slowly drawn down to 350 soldiers. Romania terminated its mission in Iraq and withdrew its last troops on 24 July 2009, among the last countries to do so. Romania currently has some 1,900 troops deployed in Afghanistan.[157] The Regele Ferdinand frigate participated in the 2011 military intervention in Libya.[158]

Romanian soldiers in Afghanistan during a joint operation in 2003.

The Romanian Armed Forces consist of Land, Air, and Naval Forces, and are led by a Commander-in-chief under the supervision of the Ministry of Defense, and by the president as the Supreme Commander during wartime. The Armed Forces consist of approximately 15,000 civilians and 75,000 are military personnel—45,800 for land, 13,250 for air, 6,800 for naval forces, and 8,800 in other fields.[151] The total defence spending in 2007 accounted for 2.05% of total national GDP, or approximately US$2.9 billion, with a total of $11 billion spent between 2006 and 2011 for modernization and acquisition of new equipment.[152]


Relations with Moldova are a special case, considering that the two countries share the same language and a common history.[145] A movement for unification of Romania and Moldova appeared in the early 1990s after both countries achieved emancipation from communist rule,[148] but lost ground in the mid-1990s when a new Moldovan government pursued an agenda towards preserving a Moldovan republic independent of Romania.[149] Romania remains interested in Moldovan affairs and has officially rejected the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact,[148] and after the 2009 protests in Moldova and subsequent removal of Communists from power, relations between the two countries have improved considerably.[150]

In December 2005, President Traian Băsescu and United States Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice signed an agreement that would allow a U.S. military presence at several Romanian facilities primarily in the eastern part of the country.[146] In May 2009, Hillary Clinton, US Secretary of State, declared that "Romania is one of the most trustworthy and respectable partners of the USA."[147]

in September 2011. EU Council in June 2011, but was rejected by the European Parliament, and its bid to join was approved by the Schengen Area. Romania opted on 1 January 2007, to adhere the Hungary with strong relations Because it has a large Hungarian minority, Romania has also developed [145] joining the European Union.Croatia, and Turkey Romania also declared its public support for [145].Caucasus Romania has also made clear since the late 1990s that it supports NATO and EU membership for the democratic former Soviet republics in Eastern Europe and the [145] The current government has stated its goal of strengthening ties with and helping other countries (in particular


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