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Salvador Luria

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Salvador Luria

Salvador Luria
Born Salvatore Edoardo Luria
August 13, 1912
Turin, Italy
Died February 6, 1991(1991-02-06) (aged 78)
Lexington, Massachusetts
Citizenship Italy (1912–1991)
United States (1950–1991)
Nationality Italy
Fields Molecular biology
Institutions Columbia University
Indiana University
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Alma mater Università degli Studi di Torino
Doctoral students James D. Watson
Notable awards Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (1969)
Louisa Gross Horwitz Prize (1969)
Spouse Zella Hurwitz (m. 1945; 1 child)

Salvador Edward Luria (August 13, 1912 – February 6, 1991) was an Italian microbiologist, later a naturalized American citizen. He won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1969, with Max Delbrück and Alfred Hershey, for their discoveries on the replication mechanism and the genetic structure of viruses.[1] Salvador Luria showed that bacterial resistance to viruses (phages) is genetically inherited.

Contents

  • Biography 1
  • Phage research 2
  • Later work 3
  • See also 4
  • References 5
  • External links 6

Biography

Luria was born Salvatore Edoardo Luria, in Turin, Italy to an influential Italian Sephardic Jewish family. His parents were Ester (Sacerdote) and Davide Luria.[2] He attended the medical school at the University of Turin studying with Giuseppe Levi. There, he met two other future Nobel laureates: Rita Levi-Montalcini and Renato Dulbecco. He graduated from the University of Turin in 1935. From 1936 to 1937, Luria served his required time in the Italian army as a medical officer. He then took classes in radiology at the University of Rome. Here, he was introduced to Max Delbrück's theories on the gene as a molecule and began to formulate methods for testing genetic theory with the bacteriophages, viruses that infect bacteria.

In 1938, he received a fellowship to study in the United States, where he intended to work with Delbrück. Soon after Luria received the award Benito Mussolini's fascist regime banned Jews from academic research fellowships. Without funding sources for work in the U.S. or Italy, Luria left his home country for Paris, France in 1938. As the Nazi German armies invaded France in 1940, Luria fled on bicycle to Marseilles where he received an immigration visa to the United States.

Phage research

Luria arrived in New York City on September 12, 1940, and soon changed his first and middle names. With the help of physicist Enrico Fermi, whom he knew from his time at the University of Rome, Luria received a Rockefeller Foundation fellowship at Columbia University. He soon met Delbrück and Hershey, and they collaborated on experiments at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory and in Delbrück's lab at Vanderbilt University.

His famous experiment with Delbrück in 1943, known as the Luria-Delbrück experiment, demonstrated statistically that inheritance in bacteria must follow Darwinian rather than Lamarckian principles and that mutant bacteria occurring randomly can still bestow viral resistance without the virus being present. The idea that natural selection affects bacteria has profound consequences, for example, it explains how bacteria develop antibiotic resistance.

From 1943 to 1950, he worked at Indiana University. His first graduate student was James D. Watson, who went on to discover the structure of DNA with Francis Crick. In January 1947, Luria became a naturalized citizen of the United States.

In 1950, Luria moved to the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. He discovered that a culture of E. coli was able to significantly reduce the production of phages grown in other strains. However once the phage become established in that strain, they also become restricted in their ability to grow in other strains.[3] It was later discovered by other researchers that bacteria produce enzymes that cut viral DNA at particular sequences but not the bacteria's own DNA, which is protected by methylation. These enzymes became known as restriction enzymes and developed into one of the main molecular tools in molecular biology.

Salvador Luria with Esther Lederberg at the 1953 Cold Spring Harbor Symposium. In the background are Aaron Novick, Bruce Stocker, Haig Papazian and Geraldine Lindegren.

Later work

In 1959, he became chair of Microbiology at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). At MIT, he switched his research focus from phages to cell membranes and bacteriocins. While on sabbatical in 1963 to study at the Institut Pasteur in Paris, he found that bacteriocins impair the function of cell membranes. Returning to MIT, his lab discovered that bacteriocins achieve this impairment by forming holes in the cell membrane, allowing ions to flow through and destroy the electrochemical gradient of cells. In 1972, he became chair of The Center for Cancer Research at MIT. The department he established included future Nobel Prize winners David Baltimore, Susumu Tonegawa, Phillip Allen Sharp and H. Robert Horvitz.

In addition to the Nobel Prize, Luria received a number of awards and recognitions. He was named a member of the National Academy of Sciences in 1960. From 1968 to 1969, he served as president of the American Society for Microbiology. In 1969, he was awarded the Louisa Gross Horwitz Prize from Columbia University together with Max Delbrück, co-winner with Luria of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1969. In the U.S. he won the 1974 National Book Award in Science for his popular science book Life: the Unfinished Experiment[4] and received the National Medal of Science in 1991.[5]

Throughout his career, Luria was an outspoken political advocate. He joined with genetic engineering, advocating a compromise position of moderate oversight and regulation rather than the extremes of a complete ban or full scientific freedom. Due to his political involvement, he was blacklisted from receiving funding from the National Institutes of Health for a short time in 1969.

He died in Lexington, Massachusetts of a heart attack.

See also

References

  1. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1969". Nobel Foundation. 
  2. ^ http://www.directessays.com/viewpaper/78978.html
  3. ^ Roberts RJ (April 2005). "How restriction enzymes became the workhorses of molecular biology". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102 (17): 5905–8.  
  4. ^ "National Book Awards – 1974". National Book Foundation. Retrieved 2012-03-07.
  5. ^ "Salvador E. Luria". The President's National Medal of Science: Recipient Details. National Science Foundation. Retrieved 2012-03-07.
  • "The Salvador E. Luria Papers". Profiles in Science. National Library of Medicine. Retrieved 2007-09-22. 
  • "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1969". Nobel Foundation. 1969. Retrieved 2007-09-22. 

External links

  • The Official Site of Louisa Gross Horwitz Prize
  • The Salvador E. Luria Papers - Profiles in Science, National Library of Medicine
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