Samariumneodymium dating is useful for determining the age relationships of rocks and meteorites, based on radioactive decay of a longlived samarium (Sm) isotope to a radiogenic neodymium (Nd) isotope. Nd isotope ratios are used to provide information on the source of igneous melts as well as to provide age data. The various reservoirs within the solid earth will have different values of initial ^{143}Nd/^{144}Nd ratios, especially with reference to the mantle.
The usefulness of SmNd dating is the fact that these two elements are rare earths. They are thus, theoretically, not particularly susceptible to partitioning during melting of silicate rocks. The fractionation effects of crystallisation of felsic minerals (see above) changes the Sm/Nd ratio of the resultant materials. This, in turn, influences the ^{143}Nd/^{144}Nd ratios with ingrowth of radiogenic ^{143}Nd.
The mantle is assumed to have undergone chondritic evolution, and thus deviations in initial ^{143}Nd/^{144}Nd ratios can provide information as to when a particular rock or reservoir was separated from the mantle within the Earth's past.
In many cases, SmNd and RbSr isotope data are used together.
Contents

SmNd radiometric dating 1

Sm and Nd geochemistry 2

The CHUR model 3

Epsilon notation 3.1

Nd Model Ages 3.2

The Depleted Mantle model 4

References 5
SmNd radiometric dating
Samarium has five naturally occurring isotopes and neodymium has seven. The two elements are joined in a parentdaughter relationship by the alphadecay of ^{147}Sm to ^{143}Nd with a half life of 1.06×10^{11} years. ^{146}Sm is an almostextinct nuclide which decays via alpha emission to produce ^{142}Nd, with a halflife of 1.08×10^{8} years. ^{146}Sm is itself produced by the decay of ^{150}Gd via alphadecay with a halflife of 1.79×10^{6} years.
An isochron is calculated normally. As with RbSr and PbPb isotope geochemistry, the initial ^{143}Nd/^{144}Nd ratio of the isotope system provides important information on crustal formation and the isotopic evolution of the solar system.
Sm and Nd geochemistry
The concentration of Sm and Nd in silicate minerals increase with the order in which they crystallise from a magma according to Bowen's reaction series. Samarium is accommodated more easily into mafic minerals, so a mafic rock which crystallises mafic minerals will concentrate neodymium in the melt phase faster relative to samarium. Thus, as a melt undergoes fractional crystallization from a mafic to a more felsic composition, the abundance of Sm and Nd changes, as does the ratio between Sm and Nd.
Thus, ultramafic rocks have high Sm and low Nd and therefore high Sm/Nd ratios. Felsic rocks have low concentrations of Sm and high Nd and therefore low Sm/Nd ratios (komatiite has 1.14 parts per million (ppm) Sm and 3.59 ppm Nd versus 4.65 ppm Sm and 21.6 ppm Nd in rhyolite).
The importance of this process is apparent in modeling the age of continental crust formation.
The CHUR model
Through the analysis of isotopic compositions of neodymium, DePaolo and Wasserburg ^{[1]} discovered that terrestrial igneous rocks closely followed the Chondritic Uniform Reservoir (CHUR) line. Chondritic meteorites are thought to represent the earliest (unsorted) material that formed in the solar system before planets formed. They have relatively homogeneous trace element signatures and therefore their isotopic evolution can model the evolution of the whole solar system and of the ‘Bulk Earth’. After plotting the ages and initial ^{143}Nd/^{144}Nd ratios of terrestrial igneous rocks on a Nd evolution vs. time diagram, DePaolo and Wasserburg determined that Archean rocks had initial Nd isotope ratios very similar to that defined by the CHUR evolution line.
Epsilon notation
Since ^{143}Nd/^{144}Nd departures from the CHUR evolution line are very small, DePaolo and Wasserburg argued that it would be useful to create a form of notation that described ^{143}Nd/^{144}Nd in terms of their deviations from the CHUR evolution line. This is called the epsilon notation whereby one epsilon unit represents a one part per 10,000 deviation from the CHUR composition.^{[2]} Algebraically, epsilon units can be defined by the equation:


\varepsilon_{Nd(t)} = \left[\frac{\left(\frac{^{143}Nd}{^{144}Nd}\right)_{sample(t)}}{\left(\frac{^{143}Nd}{^{144}Nd}\right)_{CHUR(t)}}1\right]* 10000
Since epsilon units are larger and therefore a more tangible representation of the initial Nd isotope ratio, by using these instead of the initial isotopic ratios, it is easier to comprehend and therefore compare initial ratios of crust with different ages. In addition, epsilon units will normalize the initial ratios to CHUR, thus eliminating any effects caused by various analytical mass fractionation correction methods applied.^{[2]}
Nd Model Ages
Since CHUR defines initial ratios of continental rocks through time, it was deduced that measurements of ^{143}Nd/^{144}Nd and ^{147}Sm/^{144}Nd, with the use of CHUR, could produce model ages for the segregation from the mantle of the melt which formed any crustal rock. This has been termed ‘tCHUR’.^{[3]} In order for a T_{CHUR} age to be calculated, fractionation between Nd/Sm would have to have occurred during magma extraction from the mantle to produce a continental rock. This fractionation would then cause a deviation between the crustal and mantle isotopic evolution lines. The intersection between these two evolution lines then indicates the crustal formation age. The T_{CHUR} age is defined by the following equation:


T_{CHUR}=(\frac{1}{\lambda})ln \left[1+ \frac{\left(\frac{^{143}Nd}{^{144}Nd}\right)_{sample}\left(\frac{^{143}Nd}{^{144}Nd}\right)_{CHUR}}{\left(\frac{^{147}Sm}{^{144}Nd}\right)_{sample}\left(\frac{^{147}Sm}{^{144}Nd}\right)_{CHUR}}\right]
The T_{CHUR} age of a rock, can yield a formation age for the crust as a whole if the sample has not suffered disturbance after its formation. Since Sm/Nd are rareearth elements (REE), their characteristic immobility enables their ratios to resist partitioning during metamorphism and melting of silicate rocks. This therefore allows for crustal formation ages to be calculated, despite any metamorphism the sample has undergone.
The Depleted Mantle model
Graph to show the depleted mantle model of DePaolo (1981)
Despite the good fit of Archean plutons to the CHUR Nd isotope evolution line, DePaolo & Wasserburg (1976) observed that the majority of young oceanic volcanics (Mid Ocean Ridge basalts and Island Arc basalts) lay +7 to +12 ɛ units above the CHUR line (see figure). This led to the realization that Archaen continental igneous rocks that plotted within the error of the CHUR line could instead lie on a depleted mantle evolution line characterized by increasing Sm/Nd and ^{143}Nd/^{144}Nd ratios over time. To further analyze this gap between the Archean CHUR data and the young volcanic samples, a study was conducted on the Proterozoic metamorphic basement of the Colorado Front Ranges (the Idaho Springs Formation). ^{[4]} The initial ^{143}Nd/^{144}Nd ratios of the samples analyzed are plotted on a ɛNd versus time diagram shown in the figure. DePaolo (1981) fitted a quadratic curve to the Idaho Springs and average ɛNd for the modern oceanic island arc data, thus representing the neodymium isotope evolution of a depleted reservoir. The composition of the depleted reservoir relative to the CHUR evolution line, at time t, is given by the equation:
ɛNd(T) = 0.25T^{2} – 3T + 8.5
SmNd model ages calculated using this curve are denoted as TDM ages. DePaolo (1981) argued that these TDM model ages would yield a more accurate age for crustal formation ages than TCHUR model ages – for example an anomalously low TCHUR model age of 0.8 byr from McCulloch and Wasserburg’s Grenville composite was revised to a TDM age of 1.3Byr, typical for juvenile crust formation during the Grenville orogeny.
References

^ Depaolo, D. J.; Wasserburg, G. J. (1976). "Nd isotopic variations and petrogenetic models". Geophysical Research Letters 3 (5): 249.

^ ^{a} ^{b} Dickin, A.P., 2005. Radiogenic Isotope Geology, 2nd ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521823161 pp. 76–77

^ McCulloch, M. T.; Wasserburg, G. J. (1978). "SmNd and RbSr Chronology of Continental Crust Formation". Science 200 (4345): 1003–11.

^ DePaolo, D.J. (1981). Neodymium isotopes in the Colorado Front Range and crust – mantle evolution in the Proterozoic. Nature 291, 1937.
This article was sourced from Creative Commons AttributionShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, EGovernment Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a nonprofit organization.