Abu Mansur Sabuktigin
Sultan of the Ghaznavid Empire
Reign 977–997
Born c. 942
Birthplace Barskhan district, Kyrgyzstan[1]
Died August 997
Place of death Between Balkh and Ghazni in Afghanistan
Buried Ghazni, Afghanistan
Predecessor Ishaq ibn Alptigin
Successor Ismail of Ghazni
Royal House Ghaznavids
Religious beliefs Sunni Islam

Abu Mansur Sabuktigin (Persian: ابو منصور سبکتگین‎) (ca 942 – August 997), also spelled as Sabuktagin, Sabuktakin, Sebüktegin and Sebük Tigin, also known as Nasir-ud-din Sabuktigin,[2] is regarded as the founder of the Ghaznavid Empire in what is now Afghanistan during the late 10th century.[3] He lived as a slave during his teens and later married the daughter of his master Alptigin, the man who seized the region of Ghazna (modern Ghazni Province in Afghanistan) in a political fallout for the throne of the Samanids of Bukhara.[4]

When his father-in-law Alptigin died, Sebuktigin became the new ruler and expanded the kingdom after defeating Jayapala to cover the territory as far as the Neelum River in Kashmir and the Indus River in what is now Pakistan.[5]

Early years

Sebuktigin was born around 942 CE in what is today Barskon district (Barskhan district), Kyrgyzstan.[1] Around the age of twelve, Sebuktigin was taken prisoner by a neighbouring warring tribe and sold as a slave to a merchant named Nasr the Haji. He was eventually purchased by Alptigin, the chamberlain of the Samanids of Bukhara.
"A mer­chant of the name of Nusr-Hajy having purchased Subooktugeen while yet a boy, brought him from Toorkistan to Bokhara, where he was sold to Aluptugeen, who, perceiving in him the promise of future greatness, raised him by degrees to posts of confidence and distinction, till, at length, on his establishing his independence at Ghizny, he con­ferred on him the title of Ameer-ool-Omra (chief of the nobles), and also that of Vakeel-i-Mootluk, or Representative."[2]

When Alptigin later rebelled against the Samanid rule, capturing Zabulistan and Ghazna south of the Hindu Kush in modern-day Afghanistan, he raised Sebuktigin to the position of a general and gave his daughter in marriage to him. Subuktigin served Alptigin, and his two successors Ishaq and Balkatigin. He later succeeded another slave of Alptigin to the throne, and in 977 became the popular ruler of the Ghazna region south of the Hindu Kush.

Sebuktigin enlarged upon Alptigin's conquests, extending his domain from Ghazna to Balkh in the north, Helmand in the west, and the Indus River in what is today Pakistan.[2]

Sebuktigin was recognized by the Caliph in Baghdad as governor of his dominions. He died in 997, and was succeeded by his younger son Sultan Ismail of Ghazni. Sebuktigin's older son, Mahmud, rebelled against his younger brother and took over Ghazna as the new Sultan.

Ferishta records Sebuktigin's genealogy as descended from the Sassanid emperors: "Subooktu-geen, the son of Jookan, the son of Kuzil-Hukum, the son of Kuzil-Arslan, the son of Ferooz, the son of Yezdijird, king of Persia."[2] Some doubt has been cast on this due the lineage having been reckoned as too short to account for the 320 intervening years. What is known about Sebuktigin is that he was of Turkic origin.[1] According to Grousset,
"The Turkic mercenary army which Alptigin had raised in Ghazni, and which was already profoundly influenced by Islam, was from 977 onward led by another Turkic ex-slave -another Mameluke- named Sebuktigin, who made himself master of Tokharistan (Balkh-Kunduz) and Kandahar, and embarked upon the conquest of Kabul."[6]

Military career

Sebuktegin grew up in the court circles of Alptigin and was conferred the titles of Amīr al-umara (Chief of the Nobles), and Wakīl-e Mūtlak (Representative), ultimately being made general. He was then heavily involved in the defence of Ghazna's independence for the next 15 years, until Alptigin's death in 975.

Upon Alptigin's death, both Sebuktegin and Alptigin's son Abu Ishaq went to Bukhara to mend fences with the Samanids. Mansur I of Samanid then officially conferred upon Abu Ishaq the governorship of Ghazna and acknowledged Sebuktegin as the heir. Abu Ishaq died soon after in 977 and Sabuktigin succeeded him in the governorship of Ghazna; subsequently marrying Alptigin's daughter.

In 977 he marched against Toghan, who had opposed his succession. Toghan fled to Bost, so Sebuktigin marched upon it and captured Kandahar and its surrounding area. This prompted the Shahi King Jayapala to launch an attack on Ghazna. Despite the fact that Jayapala amassed about 100,000 troops for the battle, Sebuktigin was soundly victorious.[7] The battle was fought at Laghman (near Kabul) and Jayapala was forced to pay a large tribute. He defaulted upon the payments, imprisoned Sebuktigin's collectors, and assembled a more larger army of 100,000 horse and an innumerable host of foot, allied with forces from the kingdoms of Delhi, Ajmer, Kalinjar, and Kannauj, which was defeated in battle with Sebuktigin's Ghaznavids at the banks of the Neelum River in Kashmir.[2] Sebuktegin then annexed the regions of Afghanistan, Peshawar, and all the lands west of the Neelum River.
"The Afghans and Khiljies who resided among the mountains having taken the oath of allegiance to Subooktugeen, many of them were enlisted in his army, after which he returned in triumph to Ghizny."[5]

In 994 he was involved in aiding Nuh II of the Samanids against internal uprisings and defeated the rebels at Balkh and then at Nishapur, thereby earning for himself the title of Nāsir ud-Dīn ("Hero of the Faith") and for his son Mahmud the title of Governor of Khorasan and Saif ud-Dawlah ("Sword of the State").[8]

Sebuktigin had increased upon Alptigin's domains by extending his domain to cover the area south of the Hindu Kush in Afghanistan and east to the Indus River in what is today Pakistan; he was eventually recognized by the Caliph in Baghdad as governor of his dominions.

Censuring the people of innovation

A pious ruler, Sebuktegin grew concerned over the increasing amount of innovation (commonly known as bidah) in the Islamic creed, and consequently censured those who he believed were promulgating heretical doctrines or beliefs that contravened orthodox Sunni principles.[9] Ibn Taymiyyah duly eulogizes Sebüktegin, stating that he:
"commanded that Ahlul Bidah be publicly cursed on the minbars, and as a result the Jahmiyyah, Rafida, Hulooliyah, Mu'tazilah, and Qadariyah were all publicly cursed, along with the Asharites."[10]

Death and legacy

After becoming sick during one of his campaigns, Sultan Sebuktigin died in August 997 while travelling from Balkh to Ghazni in Afghanistan. The nature of his illness is unknown and the exact location of his death is uncertain. Minhaj al-Siraj Juzjani, a 13th-century historian, stated that "Subuktageen died in the village of (Bermel Madwari, or Madar wa Moi, or Madawri, or Madraiwi, or Barmel Maderwi)." In modern times, Henry George Raverty has also mentioned Termez in his translations of the village name. Abdul Hai Habibi believes that Sebuktigin's place of death is Marmal, Mazar-i-Sharif.[11] He was buried in a tomb in Ghazni which can be visited by tourists. He was succeeded by his younger son, Ismail. Sebuktegin is generally regarded as the architect of the Ghaznavid Empire.

See also


External links

  • History of Iran: Ghaznavid Dynasty
  • [1]
Preceded by:
Alp Tigin
Ghaznavid Sultan
Followed by:
Ismail of Ghazni
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