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Shaddadids

Shaddadids
951–1174
Shaddadid territories during their rule in Ani, 1072–1174.
Capital Dvin, Janza,[1] Ani
Government Emirate
Historical era Middle Ages
 •  Established 951
 •  Disestablished 1174
Today part of

The Shaddadids were a dynasty of Kurdish origin[2][3][4] who ruled in various parts of Armenia and Arran from 951 to 1174 AD. They were established in Dvin. Through their long tenure in Armenia, they often intermarried with the Bagratuni royal family of Armenia.

They began ruling in the city of Dvin, and eventually ruled other major cities, such as Bardha'a and Ganja. A cadet line of the Shaddadids were given the cities of Ani and Tbilisi[5] as a reward for their service to the Seljuqs, to whom they became vassals.[6][7] From 1047 to 1057, the Shaddadids were engaged in several wars against the Byzantine army. The area between the rivers Kura and Arax was ruled by a Shaddadid dynasty.

Contents

  • History 1
  • Shaddadid rulers 2
    • Emirs in Dvin and Ganja 2.1
    • Emirs in Ani 2.2
  • See also 3
  • Notes 4
  • References 5

History

In 951, Muhammad bin Shaddadid established himself at Dvin. Unable to hold Dvin against Musafirid incursion, he fled to the Armenian Kingdom of Vaspurakan. His son, Ali Lashkari bin Muhammad, ended Musafirid influence in Arran by taking Ganja in 971. He later expanded into Transcaucasia as far north as Shamkur and as far east as Bardha'a. The reign of his brother, Marzuban bin Muhammad, also lasted only a few years.

Muhammad bin Shaddadid's third son, al-Fadl I ibn Muhammad, expanded his territory during his lengthy reign. He took Dvin from Armenian Bagratids in 1022, and his campaigns against them met with varying degrees of success. He also raided the Khazars in 1030, while holding parts of Azerbaijan.[8] Later that year, while returning from a successful campaign in Georgia, his army encountered Georgian and Armenian forces and was decisively defeated.

Following al-Fadl I's defeat, the entire region became chaotic, with the Alp Arslan annexed the last of the Shaddadid territories. A cadet branch of Shaddadids continued to rule in Ani and Tbilisi[9] as vassals of the Great Seljuq Empire until 1175, when Malik-Shah I deposed al-Fadl III.[10][11]

Shaddadid rulers

Emirs in Dvin and Ganja

Emirs in Ani

The ruins of Manuchihr Mosque, an 11th-century Shaddadid mosque built among the ruins of Ani

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Andrew C. S. Peacock, Nomadic Society and the Seljūq Campaigns in Caucasia, Iran & the Caucasus, Vol. 9, No. 2, 2005:210.
  2. ^ Andrew C. S. Peacock, Nomadic Society and the Seljūq Campaigns in Caucasia, 209.
  3. ^ Shaddadids, C.E. Bosworth, The Encyclopedia of Islam, Vol.IX, Ed. C.E.Bosworth, E. van Donzel, W.P.Heinrichs and G.Lecomte, (Brill, 1997), 169.
  4. ^ Lokman I. Meho,Kelly L. Maglaughli (1968). Kurdish culture and society: an annotated bibliography. Greenwood Publishing Group.  
  5. ^ Caucasica in the History of Mayyāfāriqīn, V. Minorsky, Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, Vol.13, No.1, 1949, Cambridge University Press, 29.
  6. ^ Shaddadids, C.E. Bosworth, The Encyclopedia of Islam, Vol.IX, 169.
  7. ^ Andrew C. S. Peacock, Nomadic Society and the Seljūq Campaigns in Caucasia, 216.
  8. ^ Shabankara, C.E. Bosworth and V.F.Buchner, The Encyclopedia of Islam, Vol.IX, Ed. C.E.Bosworth, E. van Donzel, W.P.Heinrichs and G.Lecomte, (Brill, 1997), 157.
  9. ^ Caucasica in the History of Mayyāfāriqīn, V. Minorsky, 29.
  10. ^ Surveyor versus Epigrapher, Sheila S. Blair, Muqarnas, Vol. 8, 1991, Brill, 68.
  11. ^ Shaddadids, C.E. Bosworth, The Encyclopedia of Islam, Vol.IX, 170.

References

  • Diplomacy gone to seed: a history of Byzantine foreign relations, A.D. 1047-57, By Paul A. Blaum, International Journal of Kurdish Studies, Jan. 2005.
  • , from Home of Tour ArmeniaKurds
  • A Chronology of World Political History (801 - 1000 C.E.)
  • Arran, By: C. E. Bosworth, From Encyclopaedia Iranica, page 522.
  • The Caucasus (Contains a list of the early Shaddadid Kings)
  • Minorsky, Vladimir (1953). Studies in Caucasian History. New York: Taylor’s Foreign Press.  
  • Shaddadid Coinage at forumancientcoins.com
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