World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article


Article Id: WHEBN0000028840
Reproduction Date:

Title: Sharia  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Political aspects of Islam, Taliban, Islam, Sufism, Criticism of Islam
Collection: Arabic Words and Phrases, Islam, Islamic Jurisprudence, Islamic Terminology, Legal Codes, Religious Law, Sharia
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia


To Arabic-speaking people, sharia (;[1] also shariah, shari'a, sharīʿah; Arabic: شريعةšarīʿah, IPA: , "legislation"), means the moral code and religious law of a prophetic religion.[2][3][4] The term "sharia" has been largely identified with Islam in English usage.[5]

Sharia (Islamic law) deals with many topics addressed by secular law, including crime, politics, and economics, as well as personal matters such as sexual intercourse, hygiene, diet, prayer, everyday etiquette and fasting. Adherence to Islamic law has served as one of the distinguishing characteristics of the Muslim faith historically, and through the centuries Muslims have devoted much scholarly time and effort on its elaboration.[6] Human interpretations of sharia (fiqh) vary between Islamic sects and respective schools of jurisprudence, yet in its strictest and most historically coherent definition, sharia is considered the infallible law of God.[7]

Sharia Law is a significant source of legislation in various Muslim countries, namely Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Iran, Brunei, United Arab Emirates and Qatar. In those countries, harsh physical punishments such as flogging and stoning are said to be legally-acceptable according to Sharia. There are two primary sources of sharia law: the precepts set forth in the Quranic verses (ayahs), and the example set by the Islamic prophet Muhammad in the Sunnah.[8] Where it has official status, sharia is interpreted by Islamic judges (qadis) with varying responsibilities for the religious leaders (imams). For questions not directly addressed in the primary sources, the application of sharia is extended through consensus of the religious scholars (ulama) thought to embody the consensus of the Muslim Community (ijma). Islamic jurisprudence will also sometimes incorporate analogies from the Quran and Sunnah through qiyas, though many scholars also prefer reasoning ('aql) to analogy.[7][8]

The introduction of Sharia is a longstanding goal for Islamist movements globally, including in Western countries, but attempts to impose sharia have been accompanied by controversy,[9] violence,[10] and even warfare.[11] Most countries do not recognize sharia; however, some countries in Asia, Africa and Europe recognize sharia and use it as the basis for divorce, inheritance and other personal affairs of their Islamic population.[12] In Britain, the Muslim Arbitration Tribunal makes use of sharia family law to settle disputes, and this limited adoption of sharia is controversial.[13]

The concept of crime, judicial process, justice and punishment embodied in sharia is different from that of secular law.[14] The differences between sharia and secular laws have led to an on-going controversy as to whether sharia is compatible with secular forms of government, the human right "freedom of thought," and in general "women's rights."[15][16][17]

In secular jurisprudence, sharia is classified as religious law, which is one of the three major categories that individual legal systems generally fall under, alongside civil law and common law.


  • Etymology and origins 1
  • History 2
  • Definitions and descriptions 3
    • Sources of sharia law 3.1
      • Islamic jurisprudence (Fiqh) 3.1.1
      • Areas of Islamic law 3.1.2
  • Application 4
    • Legal and court proceedings 4.1
    • Application by country 4.2
    • Enforcement 4.3
  • Support 5
  • Criticism 6
    • Compatibility with democracy 6.1
    • Human rights 6.2
    • Freedom of speech 6.3
    • Freedom of thought, conscience and religion 6.4
    • LGBT rights 6.5
    • Women 6.6
      • Domestic violence 6.6.1
      • Personal status laws and child marriage 6.6.2
      • Women's role in the clergy 6.6.3
      • Women's right to property 6.6.4
  • Parallels with Western legal systems 7
  • See also 8
  • References 9
  • Sources 10
  • Further reading 11
  • External links 12

Etymology and origins

Scholars describe the word sharia as an archaic Arabic word denoting "pathway to be followed",[19][20] or "path to the water hole".[23] The latter definition comes from the fact that the path to water is the whole way of life in an arid desert environment.[21]

The etymology of sharia as a "path" or "way" comes from the Quranic verse[Quran 45:18]: "Then we put thee on the (right) Way of religion so follow thou that (Way), and follow not the desires of those who know not."[20] Malik Ghulam Farid in his Dictionary of the Holy Quran, believes the "Way" in 45:18 (quoted above) derives from shara'a (as prf. 3rd. p.m. sing.), meaning "He ordained". Other forms also appear: shara'u[Quran 45:13] as (prf. 3rd. p.m. plu.), "they decreed (a law)"[Quran 42:21]; and shir'atun (n.) meaning "spiritual law"[Quran 5:48].[24]

The Arabic word sharīʿa has origins in the concept of ‘religious law’; the word is commonly used by Arabic-speaking peoples of the Middle East and designates a prophetic religion in its totality. Thus, sharīʿat Mūsā means religious law of Moses (Judaism), sharīʿat al-Masīḥ means religious law of Christianity, sharīʿat al-Madjūs means religious law of Zoroastrianism.[3] The Arabic expression شريعة الله (God’s Law) is a common translation for תורת אלוהים (‘God’s Law’ in Hebrew) and νόμος τοῦ θεοῦ (‘God’s Law’ in Greek in the New Testament [Rom. 7: 22]).[25] In contemporary Islamic literature, sharia refers to divine law of Islam as revealed by prophet Muhammad, as well as in his function as model and exemplar of the law.[3]

Sharia in the Islamic world is also known as Qānūn-e Islāmī (قانون اسلامی).


The origin of sharia is the Qu'ran, and traditions gathered from the life of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad (born ca. 570 CE in Mecca).[26]

Sharia underwent fundamental development, beginning with the reigns of caliphs Abu Bakr (632–34) and Umar (634–44) and imam Ali, during which time many questions were brought to the attention of Muhammad's closest comrades for consultation.[27] During the reign of Muawiya b. Abu Sufyan ibn Harb, ca. 662 CE, Islam undertook an urban transformation, raising questions not originally covered by Islamic law.[27] Since then, changes in Islamic society have played an ongoing role in developing sharia, which branches out into fiqh and Qanun respectively.

The formative period of fiqh stretches back to the time of the early Muslim communities. In this period, jurists were more concerned with pragmatic issues of authority and teaching than with theory.[28] Progress in theory happened with the coming of the early Muslim jurist Muhammad ibn Idris ash-Shafi'i (767–820), who laid down the basic principles of Islamic jurisprudence in his book Al-Risala. The book details the four roots of law (Quran, Sunnah, ijma, and qiyas) while specifying that the primary Islamic texts (the Quran and the hadith) be understood according to objective rules of interpretation derived from careful study of the Arabic language.[29]

A number of important legal concepts and institutions were developed by Islamic jurists during the classical period of Islam, known as the Islamic Golden Age, dated from the 7th to 13th centuries.[30][31][32][33]

Among some Muslims, tribal laws were adapted to conform to sharia "for they could not form part of the tribal law unless and until they were generally accepted as such."[34] Additionally, Noel James Coulson, Lecturer in Islamic law of the University of London, states that "to the tribe as a whole belonged the power to determine the standards by which its members should live. But here the tribe is conceived not merely as the group of its present representatives but as a historical entity embracing past, present, and future generations."[34] So, while "each and every law must be rooted in either the Quran or the Sunnah,"[35] without contradiction, tribal life brought about a sense of participation. Such participation was further reinforced by Muhammad who stated, "My community will never agree in error".[35]

The Umayyads initiated the office of appointing qadis, or Islamic judges. The jurisdiction of the qadi extended only to Muslims, while non-Muslim populations retained their own legal institutions.[36] The qadis were usually pious specialists in Islam. As these grew in number, they began to theorize and systemize Islamic jurisprudence.[37] The Abbasid made the institution of qadi independent from the government, but this separation wasn't always respected.[38]

Both the Umayyad caliph Umar II and the Abbasids had agreed that the caliph could not legislate contrary to the Quran or the sunnah. Imam Shafi'i declared: "a tradition from the Prophet must be accepted as soon as it become known...If there has been an action on the part of a caliph, and a tradition from the Prophet to the contrary becomes known later, that action must be discarded in favor of the tradition from the Prophet." Thus, under the Abbasids the main features of sharia were definitively established and sharia was recognized as the law of behavior for Muslims.[39]

In modern times, the Muslim community became divided into groups reacting differently to the change: secularists believe that the law of the state should be based on secular principles, not on Islamic legal doctrines; traditionalists believe that the law of the state should be based on the traditional legal schools;[40] reformers believe that new Islamic legal theories can produce modernized Islamic law[41] and lead to acceptable opinions in areas such as women's rights.[42] This division persists until the present day (Brown 1996, Hallaq 2001, Ramadan 2005, Aslan 2006, Safi 2003, Nenezich 2006).

There has been a growing religious revival in Islam, beginning in the eighteenth century and continuing today. This movement has expressed itself in various forms ranging from wars to efforts towards improving education.[43]

Definitions and descriptions

Sharia, in its strictest definition, is a divine law, as expressed in the Quran and Muhammad's example (often called the sunnah). As such, it is related to but different from fiqh, which is emphasized as the human interpretation of the law.[44][45] Many scholars have pointed out that the sharia is not formally a code,[46] nor a well-defined set of rules.[47] The sharia is characterized as a discussion on the duties of Muslims[46] based on both the opinion of the Muslim community and extensive literature.[48] Hunt Janin and Andre Kahlmeyer thus conclude that the sharia is "long, diverse, and complicated."[47]

From the 9th century onward, the power to interpret and refine law in traditional Islamic societies was in the hands of the scholars (ulema). This separation of powers served to limit the range of actions available to the ruler, who could not easily decree or reinterpret law independently and expect the continued support of the community.[49] Through succeeding centuries and empires, the balance between the ulema and the rulers shifted and reformed, but the balance of power was never decisively changed.[50] At the beginning of the nineteenth century, the Industrial Revolution and the French Revolution introduced an era of European world hegemony that included the domination of most of the lands of Islam.[51][52] At the end of the Second World War, the European powers found themselves too weakened to maintain their empires.[53] The wide variety of forms of government, systems of law, attitudes toward modernity and interpretations of sharia are a result of the ensuing drives for independence and modernity in the Muslim world.[54][55]

According to Jan Michiel Otto, Professor of Law and Governance in Developing Countries at Leiden University, "Anthropological research shows that people in local communities often do not distinguish clearly whether and to what extent their norms and practices are based on local tradition, tribal custom, or religion. Those who adhere to a confrontational view of sharia tend to ascribe many undesirable practices to sharia and religion overlooking custom and culture, even if high-ranking religious authorities have stated the opposite." Otto's analysis appears in a paper commissioned by the Netherlands Ministry of Foreign Affairs.[56]

Sources of sharia law

There are two sources of Sharia (understood as the divine law): the Quran and Sunnah. The Quran is viewed as the unalterable word of God. It is considered in Islam as infallible part of Sharia. Quran covers a host of topics including God, personal laws for Muslim men and Muslim women, laws on community life, laws on expected interaction of Muslims with non-Muslims, apostates and ex-Muslims, laws on finance, morals, eschatology, and others.[57][58] The Sunnah is the life and example of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. The Sunnah's importance as a source of Sharia, is confirmed by several verses of the Quran (e.g. [Quran 33:21]).[59] The Sunnah is primarily contained in the hadith or reports of Muhammad's sayings, his actions, his tacit approval of actions and his demeanor. While there is only one Quran, there are many compilations of hadith, with the most authentic ones forming during the sahih period (850 to 915 CE). The six acclaimed Sunni collections were compiled by (in order of decreasing importance) Muhammad al-Bukhari, Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj, Abu Dawood, Tirmidhi, Al-Nasa'i, Ibn Majah. The collections by al-Bukhari and Muslim, regarded the most authentic, contain about 7,000 and 12,000 hadiths respectively (although the majority of entries are repetitions). The hadiths have been evaluated on authenticity, usually by determining the reliability of the narrators that transmitted them.[60] For Shias, the Sunnah may also include anecdotes The Twelve Imams.[61]

Islamic jurisprudence (Fiqh)

The process of interpreting the two primary sources of Islamic law is called fiqh (literally meaning "intelligence") or Islamic jurisprudence. While the above two sources are regarded as infallible, the fiqh standards may change in different contexts. Fiqh covers all aspects of law, including religious, civil, political, constitutional and procedural law.[62] Fiqh depends on 4 sources:[62]

  1. Interpretations of the Quran
  2. Interpretations of the Sunnah
  3. Ijma, consensus amongst scholars ("collective reasoning")
  4. Qiyas/Ijtihad analogical deduction ("individual reasoning")

Amongst the sources unique to fiqh, i.e. ijma and qiyas/ijtihad, the former is preferred.[62] In Shi'a jurisprudence the fourth source may be expanded to include formal logic (mantiq).[63] Historically the fiqh also came to include comparative law,[61] local customs (urf)[64] and laws motivated by public interest, so long as they were allowed by the above four sources.[64] Because of the involvement of human interpretation, the fiqh is considered fallible, and thus not a part of Sharia (although scholars categorize it as Islamic law).[62]

Schools of law
Map of the Muslim world with the main schools of Islamic law (madhhab)

Madhhab is a Muslim school of law or fiqh (religious jurisprudence). In the first 150 years of Islam, there were many madhhab. Several of the Sahābah, or contemporary "companions" of Muhammad, are credited with founding their own. In Sunni sect of Islam, the prominent Islamic jurisprudence schools of Damascus in Syria (often named Awza'iyya), Kufa and Basra in Iraq, and Medina in Arabia survived as the Maliki madhhab, while the other Iraqi schools were consolidated into the Hanafi madhhab. Schools such as the Jariri were established later, which eventually died out.

Sunni sect of Islam has five surviving schools of Sharia interpretation: Hanafi, Maliki, Shafi'i, Hanbali and Ẓāhirī; Shii sect of Islam has three: Ja'fari, Zaydi and Ismaili.[65][66] Of these schools, the largest proportion of Sunni Muslims belong to Hanafi, Maliki, Shafi'i and Hanbali, while majority of Shia Muslims belong to Ja'fari school.[67] There are other minority fiqhs as well, such as the Ibadi school of Khawarij sect, and those of Sufi and Ahmadi sects.[62][68] The Salafi movement attracts followers from various schools of fiqh, and is based on the Quran, Sunnah and the actions and sayings of the first three generations of Muslims.[69]

Some Sunni Muslims prefer one madhhab out of the four (normally a regional preference) but also believe that ijtihad must be exercised by the contemporary scholars capable of doing so. Some rely on taqlid, or acceptance of religious rulings and epistemology from a higher religious authority in deferring meanings of analysis and derivation of legal practices instead of relying on subjective readings.[70][71]

Categories of law

Along with interpretation, each fiqh classifies its interpretation of Sharia into one of the following five categories: fard (obligatory), mustahabb (recommended), mubah (neutral), makruh (discouraged), and haraam (forbidden). A Muslim is expected to adhere to that tenet of Sharia accordingly.[72]

  • Actions in the fard category are those required of all Muslims. They include the five daily prayers, fasting, articles of faith, obligatory charity, and the hajj pilgrimage to Mecca.[72]
  • The mustahabb category includes proper behaviour in matters such as marriage, funeral rites and family life. As such, it covers many of the same areas as civil law in the West. Sharia courts attempt to reconcile parties to disputes in this area using the recommended behaviour as their guide. A person whose behaviour is not mustahabb can be ruled against by the judge.[73]
  • All behaviour which is neither discouraged nor recommended, neither forbidden nor required is of the Mubah; it is permissible.[72]
  • Makruh behaviour, while it is not sinful of itself, is considered undesirable among Muslims. It may also make a Muslim liable to criminal penalties under certain circumstances.[73]
  • Haraam behaviour is explicitly forbidden. It is both sinful and criminal. It includes all actions expressly forbidden in the Quran. Certain Muslim dietary and clothing restrictions also fall into this category.[72]

The recommended, neutral and discouraged categories are drawn largely from accounts of the life of Muhammad. To say a behaviour is sunnah is to say it is recommended as an example of the life and sayings of Muhammad. These categories form the basis for proper behaviour in matters such as courtesy and manners, interpersonal relations, generosity, personal habits and hygiene.[72]

Areas of Islamic law

The areas of Islamic law include:

Other classifications

Shari'ah law has been grouped in different ways, such as:[74][75] Family relations, Crime and punishment, Inheritance and disposal of property, The economic system, External and other relations.

"Reliance of the Traveller", an English translation of a fourteenth-century CE reference on the Shafi'i school of fiqh written by Ahmad ibn Naqib al-Misri, organizes sharia law into the following topics: Purification, Prayer, Funeral prayer, Taxes, Fasting, Pilgrimage, Trade, Inheritance, Marriage, Divorce, Justice.

In some areas, there are substantial differences in the law between different schools of fiqh, countries, cultures and schools of thought.


Legal and court proceedings

Sharia judicial proceedings have significant differences from other legal traditions, including those in both common law and civil law. Sharia courts traditionally do not rely on lawyers; plaintiffs and defendants represent themselves. Trials are conducted solely by the judge, and there is no jury system. There is no pre-trial discovery process, and no cross-examination of witnesses. Unlike common law, judges' verdicts do not set binding precedents[76][77][78] under the principle of stare decisis,[79] and unlike civil law, sharia is left to the interpretation in each case and has no formally codified universal statutes.[80]

The rules of evidence in sharia courts also maintain a distinctive custom of prioritizing oral testimony.[81][82]

A confession, an oath, or the oral testimony of a witness are the main evidence admissible in a hudud case, written evidence is only admissible when deemed reliable by the judge, i.e., notaries.[83] Testimony must be from at least two witnesses, and preferably free Muslim male witnesses, who are not related parties and who are of sound mind and reliable character; testimony to establish the crime of adultery, or zina must be from four direct witnesses.[84] Forensic evidence (i.e., fingerprints, ballistics, blood samples, DNA etc.) and other circumstantial evidence is likewise rejected in hudud cases in favor of eyewitnesses, a practice which can cause severe difficulties for women plaintiffs in rape cases.[85]

While Sharia encouraged written contracts, Timur Kuran states that the treatment of written evidence in religious courts in Islamic regions created an incentive for opaque transactions, and the avoidance of written contracts in economic relations. This led to a continuation of a "largely oral contracting culture" that was prevalent in pre-modern Islamic society.[86]

In lieu of written evidence, oaths are accorded much greater weight; rather than being used simply to guarantee the truth of ensuing testimony, they are themselves used as evidence. Plaintiffs lacking other evidence to support their claims may demand that defendants take an oath swearing their innocence, refusal thereof can result in a verdict for the plaintiff.[87] Taking an oath for Muslims can be a grave act; one study of courts in Morocco found that lying litigants would often "maintain their testimony 'right up to the moment of oath-taking and then to stop, refuse the oath, and surrender the case."[88] Accordingly, defendants are not routinely required to swear before testifying, which would risk casually profaning the Quran should the defendant commit perjury;[88] instead oaths are a solemn procedure performed as a final part of the evidence process.

In Nigeria, where imposition of sharia was highly controversial, even Nigeria's justice minister was compelled to admit that in sharia courts, "if a man owes you money, you can get paid in the evening. Whereas in the regular courts, you can sit in court for ten years and get no justice."[89]

Application by country

Use of Sharia by country:
  Sharia plays no role in the judicial system
  Sharia applies to Muslim's personal law
  Sharia applies in full, including criminal law
  Regional variations in the application of sharia

Most Muslim-majority countries incorporate sharia at some level in their legal framework, with many calling it the highest law or the source of law of the land in their constitution.[90][91] Most use sharia for personal law (marriage, divorce, domestic violence, child support, family law, inheritance and such matters).[92][93] Elements of sharia are present, to varying extents, in the criminal justice system of many Muslim-majority countries.[94] Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Brunei, Qatar, United Arab Emirates, Iraq, Iran, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Sudan and Mauritania apply the code predominantly or entirely.[94][95]

Most Muslim-majority countries with sharia-prescribed hudud punishments in their legal code, do not prescribe it routinely and use other punishments instead.[90][96] The harshest sharia penalties such as stoning, beheading and the death penalty are enforced with varying levels of consistency.[97]

Since 1970s, most Muslim-majority countries have faced vociferous demands from their religious groups and political parties for immediate adoption of Sharia as the sole, or at least primary legal framework.[98] Some moderates and liberal scholars within these Muslim countries have argued for limited expansion of sharia.[99]


Two men from the Department of Propagation of Virtue and the Prevention of Vice beating a woman because she removed her burqa in public.

Sharia is enforced in Islamic nations through mutaween and hisbah.

The mutaween (Arabic: المطوعين، مطوعيةmuṭawwiʿīn, muṭawwiʿiyyah)[100] are the government-authorized or government-recognized religious police (or clerical police) of Saudi Arabia. Elsewhere, enforcement of Islamic values in accordance with Sharia is the responsibility of Polisi Perda Syariah Islam in Aceh province of Indonesia,[101] Committee for the Propagation of Virtue and the Prevention of Vice (Gaza Strip) in parts of Palestine, and Basiji Force in Iran.[102]

Hisbah (Arabic: حسبةḥisb(ah), or hisba) is a historic Islamic doctrine which means "accountability".[103] Hisbah doctrine holds that it is a religious obligation of every Muslim that he or she report to the ruler (Sultan, government authorities) any wrong behavior of a neighbor or relative that violates sharia or insults Islam. The doctrine states that it is the divinely sanctioned duty of the ruler to intervene when such charges are made, and coercively "command right and forbid wrong" in order to keep everything in order according to sharia.[104][105][106] Some Salafist suggest that enforcement of sharia under the Hisbah doctrine is the sacred duty of all Muslims, not just rulers.[104] The doctrine of Hisbah in Islam has traditionally allowed any Muslim to accuse another Muslim, ex-Muslim or non-Muslim for beliefs or behavior that may harm Islamic society. This principle has been used in countries such as Egypt, Pakistan and others to bring blasphemy charges against apostates.[107] For example, in Egypt, sharia was enforced on the Muslim scholar Nasr Abu Zayd, through the doctrine of Hasbah, when he committed apostasy.[108][109] Similarly, in Nigeria, after twelve northern Muslim-majority states such as Kano adopted sharia-based penal code between 1999 and 2000, hisbah became the allowed method of sharia enforcement, where all Muslim citizens could police compliance of moral order based on sharia.[110] In Aceh province of Indonesia, Islamic vigilante activists have invoked Hasbah doctrine to enforce sharia on fellow Muslims as well as demanding non-Muslims to respect sharia.[111] Hisbah has been used in many Muslim majority countries, from Morocco to Egypt and in West Asia to enforce sharia restrictions on blasphemy and criticism of Islam over internet and social media.[112]


A 2013 survey based on the opinion of 38,000 individuals by the Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life found that support for making sharia the official law of the land is very high in many Muslim-majority Islamic countries.[113] A majority of Muslims favor sharia as the law of land in Afghanistan (99%), Iraq (91%), Niger (86%), Malaysia (86%), Pakistan (84%), Morocco (83%), Bangladesh (82%), Egypt (74%), Indonesia (72%), Jordan (71%), Uganda (66%), Ethiopia (65%), Mali (63%), Ghana (58%), and Tunisia (56%).[114] Among regional Muslim populations elsewhere, significant percentage favored sharia law: Nigeria (71%), Russia (42%), Kyrgyzstan (35%), Lebanon (29%), Kosovo (20%), Tanzania (37%).[113] In Muslim-majority countries such as Egypt, Jordan, Afghanistan, Indonesia, Malaysia, Lebanon and Turkey, 40% to 74% of Muslims wanted sharia law to apply to non-Muslims as well.[113] A 2008 YouGov poll in the United Kingdom found 40% of Muslims interviewed wanted sharia in British law.[115]

Since the 1970s, the Islamist movements have become prominent; their goals are the establishment of Islamic states and sharia not just within their own borders; their means are political in nature. The Islamist power base is the millions of poor, particularly urban poor moving into the cities from the countryside. They are not international in nature (one exception being the Muslim Brotherhood). Their rhetoric opposes western culture and western power.[116] Political groups wishing to return to more traditional Islamic values are the source of threat to Turkey's secular government.[116] These movements can be considered neo-Sharism.[117]

Fundamentalists, wishing to return to basic religious values and law, have in some instances imposed harsh sharia punishments for crimes, curtailed civil rights and violated human rights. These movements are most active in areas of the world where there was contact with Western colonial powers.[118]

Extremists have used the Quran and their own particular version of sharia[119] to justify acts of war and terror against Western individuals and governments, and also against other Muslims believed to have Western sympathies. [120] Friction between the West and Islam, particularly with regard to the Palestinian question, continues to fuel this conflict.[121]


A protester opposing the Park51 project, carries an anti-Sharia sign.

Compatibility with democracy

Sharia law involves elements of a democratic system, namely electoral procedure, though dispute as to what a "democracy" constitutes leaves this in question.[122] Legal scholar L. Ali Khan argues that "constitutional orders founded on the principles of sharia are fully compatible with democracy, provided that religious minorities are protected and the incumbent Islamic leadership remains committed to the right to recall".[123][124]

However, many courts have generally ruled against the implementation of Sharia law, both in jurisprudence and within a community context, based on Sharia's religious background. Whereas groups within a number of nations are actively seeking to implement Sharia law, in 1998 the Constitutional Court of Turkey banned and dissolved Turkey's Refah Party on the grounds that "Democracy is the antithesis of Sharia", the latter of which Refah sought to introduce.[125][126]

On appeal by Refah the European Court of Human Rights determined that "sharia is incompatible with the fundamental principles of democracy".[127][128][129] Refah's sharia-based notion of a "plurality of legal systems, grounded on religion" was ruled to contravene the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms. It was determined that it would "do away with the State's role as the guarantor of individual rights and freedoms" and "infringe the principle of non-discrimination between individuals as regards their enjoyment of public freedoms, which is one of the fundamental principles of democracy".[130]

Human rights

Several major, predominantly Muslim countries criticized the Cairo Declaration on Human Rights in Islam.[131][132]

Ann Elizabeth Mayer points to notable absences from the Cairo Declaration: provisions for democratic principles, protection for religious freedom, freedom of association and freedom of the press, as well as equality in rights and equal protection under the law. Article 24 of the Cairo declaration states that "all the rights and freedoms stipulated in this Declaration are subject to the Islamic shari'a".[133]

Professor H. Patrick Glenn notes that the European concept of human rights developed in reaction to an entrenched hierarchy of class and privilege contrary to, and rejected by, Islam. As implemented in sharia law, protection for the individual is defined in terms of mutual obligation rather than human rights. The concept of human rights, as applied in the European framework, is therefore unnecessary and potentially destructive to these mutual obligations. By "giving priority to human welfare over human liberty," Islamic law justifies the formal inequality of individuals by collective goals.[134]

Many secularist, human rights, and leading organisations have criticized Saudi Arabia's stance on human rights. In 2009, the journal Free Inquiry summarized this criticism in an editorial: "We are deeply concerned with the changes to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights by a coalition of Islamic states within the United Nations that wishes to prohibit any criticism of religion and would thus protect Islam's limited view of human rights. In view of the conditions inside the Islamic Republic of Iran, Egypt, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, the Sudan, Syria, Bangdalesh, Iraq, and Afghanistan, we should expect that at the top of their human rights agenda would be to rectify the legal inequality of women, the suppression of political dissent, the curtailment of free expression, the persecution of ethnic minorities and religious dissenters — in short, protecting their citizens from egregious human rights violations. Instead, they are worrying about protecting Islam."[135]

Freedom of speech

Qadi 'Iyad argues that insulting the Prophet Muhammad is prohibited. Such criticism is blasphemy.

Freedom of thought, conscience and religion

According to the United Nations' the Universal Declaration of Human Rights,[136] every human has the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion; this right includes freedom to change their religion or belief. Sharia has been criticized for not recognizing this human right. According to scholars[15][137][138] of traditional Islamic law, the applicable rules for religious conversion under Sharia are as follows:

  • If a person converts to Islam, or is born and raised as a Muslim, then he or she will have full rights of citizenship in an Islamic state.
  • Leaving Islam is a sin and a religious crime. Once any man or woman is officially classified as Muslim, because of birth or religious conversion, he or she will be subject to the death penalty if he or she becomes an apostate, that is, abandons his or her faith in Islam in order to become an atheist, agnostic or to convert to another religion. Before executing the death penalty, Sharia demands that the individual be offered one chance to return to Islam.
  • If a person has never been a Muslim, and is not a kafir (infidel, unbeliever), he or she can live in an Islamic state by accepting to be a dhimmi, or under a special permission called aman. As a dhimmi or under aman, he or she will suffer certain limitations of rights as a subject of an Islamic state, and will not enjoy complete legal equality with Muslims.
  • If a person has never been a Muslim, and is a kafir (infidel, unbeliever), Sharia demands that he or she should be offered the choice to convert to Islam and become a Muslim; if they reject the offer, he or she may either be killed, enslaved, or ransomed if captured.[139]

According to Sharia theory, conversion of disbelievers and non-Muslims to Islam is encouraged as a religious duty for all Muslims, but leaving Islam (apostasy), expressing contempt for Islam (blasphemy), and religious conversion of Muslims is prohibited.[140][141] Not all Islamic scholars agree with this interpretation of Sharia theory. In practice, as of 2011, 20 Islamic nations had laws declaring apostasy from Islam as illegal and a criminal offense. Such laws are incompatible with the UDHR's requirement of freedom of thought, conscience and religion.[142][143][144][145] In another 2013 report based on international survey of religious attitudes, more than 50% of Muslim population in 6 out of 49 Islamic countries supported death penalty for any Muslim who leaves Islam (apostasy).[146][147] However it is also shown that the majority of Muslims in the 43 nations surveyed did not agree with this interpretation of Sharia.

Some scholars claim that Sharia allows religious freedom because a Shari'a verse teaches, "there is no compulsion in religion."[148] Others scholars claim Sharia recognizes only one proper religion, considers apostasy as sin punishable with death, and members of other religions as kafir (infidel);[149] or hold that Shari'a demands that all apostates and kafir must be put to death, enslaved or be ransomed.[150][151][152][153] Yet other scholars suggest that Shari'a has become a product of human interpretation and inevitably leads to disagreements about the “precise contents of the Shari'a." In the end, then, what is being applied is not Sharia, but what a particular group of clerics and government decide is Sharia. It is these differing interpretations of Shari'a that explain why many Islamic countries have laws that restrict and criminalize apostasy, proselytism and their citizen's freedom of conscience and religion.[154][155]

LGBT rights

Homosexual intercourse is illegal under sharia law, though the prescribed penalties differ from one school of jurisprudence to another. For example, only a few Muslim-majority countries impose the death penalty for acts perceived as sodomy and homosexual activities: Iran,[156] Nigeria,[157] Saudi Arabia,[158] and Somalia.[159] In other Muslim-majority countries such as Egypt, Iraq, and the Indonesian province of Aceh,[160] same-sex sexual acts are illegal,[161] and LGB people regularly face violence and discrimination.[162] In Turkey, Bahrain and Jordan, homosexual acts between consenting individuals are legal. There is a new movement of LGB Muslims, particularly in Jordan, the UK with Imaan and Al-Fatiha in America. Books such as Islam and Homosexuality by Siraj Scott has also contributed to playing a proactive role in LGB- and Islam-related ideas.


Domestic violence

Many scholars[16][163] claim Shari'a law encourages domestic violence against women, when a husband suspects nushuz (disobedience, disloyalty, rebellion, ill conduct) in his wife.[164] Other scholars claim wife beating, for nashizah, is not consistent with modern perspectives of the Quran.[165]

One of the verses of the Quran relating to permissibility of domestic violence is Surah 4:34.[166][167] In deference to Surah 4:34, many nations with Shari'a law have refused to consider or prosecute cases of domestic abuse.[168][169][170][171] Shari'a has been criticized for ignoring women's rights in domestic abuse cases.[172][173][174][175] Musawah/CEDAW, KAFA and other organizations have proposed ways to modify Shari'a-inspired laws to improve women's rights in Islamic nations, including women's rights in domestic abuse cases.[176][177][178][179]

Personal status laws and child marriage

Shari'a is the basis for personal status laws in most Islamic majority nations. These personal status laws determine rights of women in matters of marriage, divorce and child custody. A 2011 UNICEF report concludes that Shari'a law provisions are discriminatory against women from a human rights perspective. In legal proceedings under Shari'a law, a woman’s testimony is worth half of a man’s before a court.[180]

Except for Iran, Lebanon and Bahrain which allow child marriages, the civil code in Islamic majority countries do not allow child marriage of girls. However, with Shari'a personal status laws, Shari'a courts in all these nations have the power to override the civil code. The religious courts permit girls less than 18 years old to marry. As of 2011, child marriages are common in Middle East, accounting for 1 in 6 all marriages in Egypt and 1 in 3 marriages in Yemen. Rape is considered a crime in all countries, but Shari'a courts in Bahrain, Iraq, Jordan, Libya, Morocco, Syria and Tunisia in some cases allow a rapist to escape punishment by marrying his victim, while in other cases the victim who complains is often prosecuted with the Sharia crime of Zina (adultery).[180][181][182]

Women's role in the clergy

There are no priests or clergy needed in order to perform rites and sacraments in Islam. The leader of prayer is known as an imam. Men can lead both men and women in prayer, but women do not traditionally lead men in prayer, and usually lead other women in prayer.[183] In practice, it is much more common for men to be scholars than women, however in the early days of Islam, female scholars were much more common.[184] Islam does not prohibit women from working in a servile, secondary state to men, as it says, "Treat your women well and be kind to them for they are your partners and committed helpers."[185]

Women's right to property

Islam allows both single and married women to own property in their own right.[186] Islam grants women the right to inherit property from other family members, and these rights are detailed in the Quran. A woman's inheritance is unequal and less than a man's, and dependent on many factors.[Quran 4:12][187] For instance, a daughter's inheritance is usually half that of her brother's.[Quran 4:11][187]

Until the 20th century, Islamic law granted women certain legal rights that Western legal systems did not grant women.[188][189] Since the 20th century, Western legal systems have been thought to allow more women's rights than Islamic law, by allowing women to hold equal positions in society, with regards to employment, positions in government, and societal independence as in within familial settings.[190]

Parallels with Western legal systems

Similarities and influences on English legal institutions have led to Professor Umar F. Moghul, a prominent American finance and law expert, to suggest that Islamic law may have laid the foundations for "the common law as an integrated whole".[191]

Hawala, an early informal value transfer system, later influenced the development of the Aval in French civil law and the Avallo in Italian law.[31] The "European commenda" limited partnerships (Islamic Qirad) used in civil law as well as the civil law conception of res judicata may also have origins in Islamic law.[30]

Islamic law also made "major contributions" to international admiralty law, departing from the previous Roman and Byzantine maritime laws in several ways.[192][193] The "Islamic influence on the development of an international law of the sea" can thus be discerned alongside that of the Roman influence.[192]

After students completed their post-graduate education, they were awarded doctorates giving them the status of faqih (meaning "master of law"), mufti (meaning "professor of legal opinions") and mudarris (meaning "teacher"), which were later translated into Latin as magister, professor and doctor respectively.[194]

Sharia classically recognizes only natural persons, and never developed the concept of a legal person, or corporation, i.e., a legal entity that limits the liabilities of its managers, shareholders, and employees; exists beyond the lifetimes of its founders; and that can own assets, sign contracts, and appear in court through representatives.[195] Interest prohibitions also imposed secondary costs by discouraging record keeping, and delaying the introduction of modern accounting.[196] Such factors, according to Timur Kuran, have played a significant role in retarding economic development in the Middle East.[197]

See also


  1. ^ "shariʿah". Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.
  2. ^ Ritter, R.M. (editor) (2005). New Oxford Dictionary for Writers and Editors – The Essential A-Z Guide to the Written Word. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 349.
  3. ^ a b c "S̲h̲arīʿa" Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition. Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel, W.P. Heinrichs. Brill Online, 2014
  4. ^ Rehman, J. (2007), The sharia, Islamic family laws and international human rights law: Examining the theory and practice of polygamy and talaq, International Journal of Law, Policy and the Family, 21(1), pp 108-127
  5. ^ Oxford English Dictionary, under ‘sharia’.
  6. ^ DeLong-Bas, Natana J. (2004). Wahhabi Islam: From Revival and Reform to Global Jihad (First ed.).  
  7. ^ a b Coulson, N. J. (2011), A history of Islamic law, Aldine, ISBN 978-1412818551
  8. ^ a b Esposito, John (2001), Women in Muslim family law, Syracuse University Press, ISBN 978-0815629085
  9. ^ Hamann, Katie (December 29, 2009). "Aceh's Sharia Law Still Controversial in Indonesia". Voice of America. Retrieved September 19, 2011.
    • Iijima, Masako (January 13, 2010). "Islamic Police Tighten Grip on Indonesia's Aceh". Reuters. Retrieved September 18, 2011.
    • "Aceh Sharia Police Loved and Hated". The Jakarta Post.
  10. ^ Staff (January 3, 2003). "Analysis: Nigeria's Sharia Split". BBC News. Retrieved September 19, 2011. "Thousands of people have been killed in fighting between Christians and Muslims following the introduction of sharia punishments in northern Nigerian states over the past three years".
    • Harnischfeger, Johannes (2008).
       • p. 16. "When the Governor of Kaduna announced the introduction of Sharia, although non-Muslims form almost half of the population, violence erupted, leaving more than 1,000 people dead."
       • p. 189. "When a violent confrontation loomed in February 200, because the strong Christian minority in Kaduna was unwilling to accept the proposed sharia law, the sultan and his delegation of 18 emirs went to see the governor and insisted on the passage of the bill."
    • Mshelizza, Ibrahim (July 28, 2009). "Fight for Sharia Leaves Dozens Dead in Nigeria – Islamic Militants Resisting Western Education Extend Their Campaign of Violence". The Independent. Retrieved September 19, 2011.
    • "Nigeria in Transition: Recent Religious Tensions and Violence". PBS.
    • Staff (December 28, 2010). "Timeline: Tensions in Nigeria – A Look at the Country's Bouts of Inter-Religious and Ethnic Clashes and Terror Attacks". Al Jazeera English. Retrieved September 19, 2011. "Thousands of people are killed in northern Nigeria as non-Muslims opposed to the introduction of sharia, or Islamic law, fight Muslims who demand its implementation in the northern state of Kaduna.".
    • Ibrahimova, Roza (July 27, 2009). "Dozens Killed in Violence in Northern Nigeria" (video (requires Adobe Flash; 00:01:49)). Al Jazeera English. Retrieved September 19, 2011. "The group Boko Haram, which wants to impose sharia (Islamic law) across the country, has attacked police stations and churches."
  11. ^ [1]. Library of Congress Country Studies: Sudan:. "The factors that provoked the military coup, primarily the closely intertwined issues of Islamic law and of the civil war in the south, remained unresolved in 1991. The September 1983 implementation of the sharia throughout the country had been controversial and provoked widespread resistance in the predominantly non-Muslim south ... Opposition to the sharia, especially to the application of hudud (sing., hadd), or Islamic penalties, such as the public amputation of hands for theft, was not confined to the south and had been a principal factor leading to the popular uprising of April 1985 that overthrew the government of Jaafar an Nimeiri".
    • Marchal, R. (2013), Islamic political dynamics in the Somali civil war. Islam in Africa South of the Sahara: Essays in Gender Relations and Political Reform, pp 331-352
    • """PBS Frontline: "Civil war was sparked in 1983 when the military regime tried to impose sharia law as part of its overall policy to "Islamicize" all of Sudan.. Retrieved 2012-04-04. 
    • Tibi, Bassam (2008). Political Islam, World Politics and Europe. Routledge. p. 33. "The shari'a was imposed on non-Muslim Sudanese peoples in September 1983, and since that time Muslims in the north have been fighting a jihad against the non-Muslims in the south."
  12. ^ Otto, Jan Michiel. Sharia and National Law in Muslim Countries. Amsterdam University Press.  
    • Stahnke, Tad and Robert C. Blitt (2005), “The Religion-State Relationship and the Right to Freedom of Religion or Belief: A Comparative Textual Analysis of the Constitutions of Predominantly Muslim Countries.” Georgetown Journal of International Law, volume 36, issue 4; also see Sharia Law profile by Country, Emory University (2011)
  13. ^ Taher, Abul (September 14, 2008). Revealed: UK’s first official sharia courts. The Sunday Times
    • Inside Britain's Sharia courts Jane Corbin, The Telegraph (April 7, 2013)
    • Bowen, J. R. (2009). How could English courts recognize Shariah?, U. St. Thomas Law Journal, 7, 411
  14. ^ Encyclopedia Britannica, see article on Shari'ah (Islamic law), 2006
    • Otto, J. M. (2008). Sharia and National Law in Muslim Countries (Vol. 3), Amsterdam University Press
  15. ^ a b Abdullahi Ahmed An-Na’im, Islamic Foundations of Religious Human Rights, in RELIGIOUS HUMAN RIGHTS IN GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE : RELIGIOUS PERSPECTIVES, pp 351-356 (John Witte Jr. & Johan D. van der Vyver eds., 1996).
  16. ^ a b Hajjar, Lisa. "Religion, state power, and domestic violence in Muslim societies: A framework for comparative analysis." Law & Social Inquiry 29.1 (2004); see pages 1-38
  17. ^ Al-Suwaidi, J. (1995). Arab and western conceptions of democracy; in Democracy, war, and peace in the Middle East (Editors: David Garnham, Mark A. Tessler), Indiana University Press, see Chapters 5 and 6; ISBN 978-0253209399
  18. ^ "About the Author" at Brotherhood of the Gods Paperback by Irshad Abdal-Haqq,
  19. ^ Irshad Abdal-Haqq founded the Journal of Islamic Law (later renamed the Journal of Islamic Law & Culture), for which he wrote extensively until January 2002, when ownership was transferred to DePaul University.[18]
  20. ^ a b Abdal-Haqq, Irshad (2006). Understanding Islamic Law – From Classical to Contemporary (edited by Aminah Beverly McCloud). Chapter 1 Islamic Law – An Overview of its Origin and Elements. AltaMira Press. p. 4.
  21. ^ a b Weiss, Bernard G. (1998). The Spirit of Islamic Law. Athens, Georgia: University of Georgia Press. p. 17. ISBN 978-0-8203-1977-3.
  22. ^ Bernard G. Weiss,
  23. ^ As of 2011,Bernard G. Weiss is a professor of Arabic and Islamic studies at the Middle East Center of the University of Utah.[21][22]
  24. ^ "Dictionary of the Holy Quran by Malik Ghulam Farid (2006)". Internet Archive. 
  25. ^ Ullmann, M. (2002), Wörterbuch der griechisch-arabischen Übersetzungen des neunten Jahrhunderts, Wiesbaden, p. 437. Rom. 7: 22: ‘συνήδομαι γὰρ τῷ νόμῳ τοῦ θεοῦ’ is translated as ‘أني أفرح بشريعة الله’
  26. ^ Hodgson, Marshall (1958). The Venture of Islam Conscience and History in a World Civilization Vol 1. University of Chicago. pp. 155–156.
  27. ^ a b Dien, Mawil Izzi. Islamic Law: From Historical Foundations To Contemporary Practice. Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 2004.
  28. ^ Weiss (2002), pp. 3, 161.
  29. ^ Weiss (2002). p. 162.
  30. ^ a b Makdisi 1999
  31. ^ a b (Badr 1978, pp. 196–8)
  32. ^ (El-Gamal 2006, p. 16)
  33. ^ Makdisi 2005.
  34. ^ a b Coulson, Noel James. A history of Islamic law (Islamic surveys). Oxford: University Press, 1964.
  35. ^ a b Berg, Herbert. "Islamic Law." Berkshire Encyclopedia of World History 3 (2005): 1030.
  36. ^ Khadduri and Liebesny (1955), p. 37
  37. ^ Khadduri and Liebesny (1955), p. 40-1
  38. ^ Khadduri and Liebesny (1955), p. 58
  39. ^ Khadduri and Liebesny (1955), p. 60-1
  40. ^
  41. ^
  42. ^
  43. ^ Lapidus, Ira (edited by Francis Robinson) (1996). The Cambridge Illustrated History of the Islamic World. Cambridge University Press. p. 292. see Bibliography for Conclusion.
  44. ^ Esposito (2004), "Shariah", pg. 288
  45. ^ Calder, N. "Sharīa." Encyclopaedia of Islam. "Within Muslim discourse, sharia designates the rules and regulations governing the lives of Muslims, derived in principle from the Kuran and hadith. In this sense, the word is closely associated with fiḳh [q.v.], which signifies academic discussion of divine law."
  46. ^ a b Gibb, Hamilton Alexander Rosskeen (1970). Mohammedanism – An Historical Survey.  
  47. ^ a b Hunt Janin and Andre Kahlmeyer in Islamic Law: the Sharia from Muhammad's Time to the Present by Hunt Janin and Andre Kahlmeyer, McFarland and Co. Publishers, 2007, p. 3. ISBN 0786429216
  48. ^ The Sharia and The Nation State: Who Can Codify the Divine Law? p.2. Accessed 20 September 2005.
  49. ^ Basim Musallam, The Cambridge Illustrated History of the Islamic World edited by Francis Robinson. Cambridge University Press, 1996, p. 176.
  50. ^ Marshall Hodgson, The Venture of Islam Conscience and History in a World Civilization Vol 3. University of Chicago, 1958, pp. 105–108.
  51. ^ Marshall Hodgson, The Venture of Islam Conscience and History in a World Civilization Vol 3. University of Chicago, 1958, pp. 176–177.
  52. ^ Sarah Ansari, The Cambridge Illustrated History of the Islamic World edited by Francis Robinson. Cambridge University Press, 1996, p. 90.
  53. ^ Marshall Hodgson, The Venture of Islam Conscience and History in a World Civilization Vol 3. University of Chicago, 1958, pp. 366–367.
  54. ^ Ansari, Sarah. The Cambridge Illustrated History of the Islamic World edited by Francis Robinson. Cambridge University Press, 1996, pp. 103– 111.
  55. ^ Hodgson, Marshall. The Venture of Islam Conscience and History in a World Civilization Vol 3. University of Chicago, 1958, pp. 384–386.
  56. ^ Otto, Jan Michiel (2008). p. 30.
  57. ^ Fazlur Rahman (2009), The major themes of Quran, 2nd Edition, University of Chicago Press, ISBN 978-0226702865
  58. ^ Shabbir Akhtar (2008), The Quran and the Secular Mind: A Philosophy of Islam, Routledge, ISBN 978-0415437837
  59. ^ Ramadan (2006), p.4
  60. ^ Ramadan (2006), p.12-13
  61. ^ a b Glenn, H. Patrick (2007). p. 199.
  62. ^ a b c d e Ramadan (2006), p.5-7
  63. ^ "by the Ahlul Bayt DILP — Hawza — Advanced Islamic Studies". Retrieved 2012-04-04. 
  64. ^ a b Glenn, H. Patrick (2007). p. 201.
  65. ^ John Esposito, The History of Islam, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0195107999
  66. ^ Hallaq 1997, Brown 1996, Aslan 2006.
  67. ^ Mohamed Keshavjee, Islam, Sharia and Alternative Dispute Resolution, Taurus, ISBN 978-1848857322
  68. ^ Abdulaziz Abdulhussein Sachedina, The Just Ruler in Shi'ite Islam, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0195119152
  69. ^ Esposito, John L. (2010). The Future of Islam. Oxford University Press. p. 74–77.
  70. ^ Uthaimeen, Shaikh Muhammad Ibn. "The Methodology of the Salaf Concerning Ijtihad and Taqlid". Retrieved 29 May 2014. 
  71. ^ On Islam, Muslims and the 500 most influential figures
  72. ^ a b c d e Horrie, Chris; Chippindale, Peter (1991). p. 46.
  73. ^ a b Horrie, Chris; Chippindale, Peter (1991). pp. 46–47.
  74. ^ Doi ARI. Shariah: The Islamic Law, AS Noordeen Publishers, Kuala Lumpur, ISBN 9679963330
  75. ^ "Online Book". Retrieved 2012-11-26. 
  76. ^ Islamic Law – Legal Literature And Institutions, Jurisprudence: The "Sources" of the Law, The Modern Period.
  77. ^ "Qatar: The Duality of the Legal System". 
  78. ^ Introduction to Islamic Law. Ch. 4, p. 28.
  79. ^ , Supreme Court of Delaware, January 14, 2005 p. 52Saudi Arabia Basic Industries Corp. v. Mobil Yanbu Petrochemical Co.. "The Saudi law system differs in critically important respects from the system of legal thought employed by the common law countries, including the United States. Perhaps most significant is that Islamic law does not embrace the common law system of binding precedent and stare decisis. In Saudi Arabia, judicial decisions are not in themselves a source of law, and with minor exceptions, court decisions in Saudi Arabia are not published or even open to public inspection."
  80. ^ Tetley (1999), Mixed Jurisdictions: Common Law v. Civil Law (Codified and Uncodified), La. Law Review, 60, 677
  81. ^ Fortna, Benjamin C. (March 2011). "Education and Autobiography at the End of the Ottoman Empire". Die Welt des Islams. New Series, Vol. 41, Issue 1. pp. 1–31. "the literacy rate in the Ottoman Empire in 1900 was between five and ten percent".
  82. ^ Hamoud, Hassan R. "Illiteracy in the Arab World". Background paper prepared for the Education for All Global Monitoring Report 2006, Literacy for Life UNESCO.
  83. ^ "Introduction to Islamic Law".
  84. ^ Ajijola, Alhaji A.D. (1989). Introduction to Islamic Law. Karachi: International Islamic Publishers. p. 133.
  85. ^ Kamali, Mohammad Hashim (1998). "Punishment in Islamic Law – A Critique of the Hudud Bill of Kelantan, Malaysia". Arab Law Quarterly. Vol. 13, No. 3. pp. 203–234.
  86. ^ "Explaining the Economic Trajectories of Civilizations – Musings on the Systemic Approach". pp. 7, 10.
  87. ^ Lippman, Matthew Ross; McConville, Seán; Yerushalmi, Mordechai (1988). Islamic Criminal Law and Procedure – An Introduction. New York City: Praeger Publishers. p. 71. ISBN 978-0-275-93009-7.
  88. ^ a b Frank, Michael J. (April 2006). "Trying Times – The Prosecution of Terrorists in the Central Criminal Court of Iraq". Florida Journal of International Law.
  89. ^ Staff (September 5, 2002). "The Attractions of Sharia – Nigeria's Sharia Courts Are Harsh, But Quicker and Cleaner Than Secular Ones". The Economist. Retrieved September 20, 2011.
  90. ^ a b Islam: Governing under Sharia Toni Johnson and Mohammed Aly Sergie, Council on Foreign Relations (2013)
  91. ^ Amanat & Griffel (2007), SHARI’A: ISLAMIC LAW IN THE CONTEMPORARY CONTEXT, Stanford University Press, ISBN 978-0804756396
  92. ^ J Schenker (2000), Women’s reproductive health: monotheistic religious perspectives. International journal of gynecology & obstetrics, 70(1): 77-86
  93. ^ Khadduri, Majid & Herbert J. Leibesny (2010), LAW IN THE MIDDLE EAST, The Lawbook Exchange, Clark, NJ, ISBN 978-1616191177
  94. ^ a b Nisrine Abiad (2008), Sharia, Muslim States and International Human Rights Treaty Obligations, British Institute of International and Comparative Law, ISBN 978-1905221417
  95. ^ Otto, Jan Michiel (2009). Sharia Incorporated: A Comparative Overview of the Legal Systems of Twelve Muslim Countries in Past and Present. Leiden: Leiden University Press.  
  96. ^ "I have a right to". BBC World Service. Retrieved 24 February 2013. 
  97. ^ "The Emergence of Sharia Law". Online NewsHour. Retrieved 20 February 2013. 
  98. ^ Abdullahi Ahmed An-Na'im, Human Rights in the Muslim World: Socio-Political Conditions and Scriptural Imperatives, Harvard Human Rights Journal, Vol. 3, pp. 13-29
  99. ^ Otto, Jan Michiel (2009). Sharia Incorporated: A Comparative Overview of the Legal Systems of Twelve Muslim Countries in Past and Present. Leiden: Leiden University Press. pp. 29–33.  
  100. ^ muṭawiʿin; variant English spellings: mutawwain, muttawa, mutawallees, mutawa’ah, mutawi’, mutawwa' most literally means "volunteers" in the Arabic language, Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic by Hans Wehr, edited by J. M. Cowan, 4th edition (1994, ISBN 0-87950-003-4), p. 670.
  101. ^ Fealy & White (2008), REGIONAL SHARIA REGULATIONS IN INDONESIA: ANOMALY OR SYMPTOM?, Chapter: Expressing Islam: Religious life and politics in Indonesia, ISBN 978-9812308511
  102. ^ "Iran's Basij Force – The Mainstay Of Domestic Security. January 15, 2009". RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty. 
  103. ^ Sami Zubaida (2005), Law and Power in the Islamic World, ISBN 978-1850439349, pages 58-60
  104. ^ a b Lorenzo Vidino (2013), Hisba in Europe?, European Foundation for Democracy, Switzerland
  105. ^ Michael Cook: Commanding right and forbidding wrong in Islamic thought. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge 2000. ISBN 0-521-66174-9
  106. ^ Quran 3:104, Quran 3:110, Quran 9:71
  107. ^ Nancy Gallagher (2005), Apostasy, Encyclopedia of Women and Islamic Cultures: Family, Law and Politics, Editors: Suad Joseph and Afsāna Naǧmābād��, ISBN 978-9004128187, pages 7-9
  108. ^ M. Berger, Apostasy and Public Policy in Contemporary Egypt: An Evaluation of Recent Cases from Egypt's Highest Courts, Human Rights Quarterly, Volume 25, Number 3, August 2003, pages 720-740
  109. ^ Olsson, S. (2008), Apostasy in Egypt: Contemporary Cases of Ḥisbah. The Muslim World, 98(1): 95-115
  110. ^ Rasheed Oyewole Olaniyi (2011), Hisbah and Sharia Law Enforcement in Metropolitan Kano, Africa Today, Volume 57, Number 4, Summer 2011, pp. 70-96
  111. ^ Asma Uddin, Religious Freedom Implications of Sharia Implementation in Aceh, Indonesia, University of St. Thomas Law Journal, 7(3): 603-648
  112. ^ Helmi Noman (2013), In the name of God - Faith based internet censorship in majority Muslim countries, in Routledge Handbook of Media Law (Editors: Monroe E. Price et al.), Routledge, ISBN 978-0415683166, Chapter 14
  113. ^ a b c "The World’s Muslims: Religion, Politics and Society". Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life. Retrieved 3 May 2013. 
  114. ^ Chapter 1: Beliefs about Sharia Pew Research (April 30, 2013)
  115. ^ Killing for religion is justified, say third of Muslim students The Telegraph (July 26, 2008)
  116. ^ a b Lapidus, Ira (1996). The Cambridge Illustrated History of the Islamic World edited by Francis Robinson. Cambridge University Press p. 296. see Bibliography for Conclusion.
  117. ^ Hodgson, Marshall (1958). The Venture of Islam Conscience and History in a World Civilization Vol 3. University of Chicago.p. 386–392.
  118. ^ Horrie, Chris; Chippindale, Peter (1991). p. 4.
  119. ^ Horrie, Chris; Chippindale, Peter (1991). p. 100.
  120. ^ Ira Lapidus, The Cambridge Illustrated History of the Islamic World edited by Francis Robinson. Cambridge University Press, 1996, pp. 297-298 see Bibliography for Conclusion.
  121. ^ Horrie, Chris; Chippindale, Peter (1991). pp. 96–100.
  122. ^ Benhenda, M. "Liberal Democracy and Political Islam: The Search for Common Ground".  
  123. ^ Khan, Ali. "Will The European Court of Human Rights Push Turkey Toward Islamic Revolution?".
  124. ^ Khan, L. Ali. A Theory of Universal Democracy: Beyond the End of History, The Hague, Kluwer Law International, 2003, ISBN 90-411-2003-3.
  125. ^ Toprak (2005), Islam and democracy in Turkey, Turkish Studies, 6(2), 167-186
  126. ^ M. Hakan Yavuz (1997), Political Islam and the Welfare (Refah) Party in Turkey, Comparative Politics, Vol. 30, No. 1, pp. 63-82
  127. ^ "Refah Partisi (The Welfare Party) and Others v. Turkey". The International Journal of Not-for-Profit Law. February 13, 2003. Retrieved 20 November 2014. 
  128. ^ Hearing of the European Court of Human Rights, January 22, 2004 (PDF)
  129. ^ "ECHR press release Refah Partisi (2001)". Retrieved 2012-04-04. 
  130. ^ Christian Moe (2012), Refah Revisited: Strasbourg's Construction of Islam, in Islam, Europe and emerging legal issues (editors: W. Cole Durham Jr. et al.), ISBN 978-1409434443, pp. 235-271
  131. ^ Heiner Bielefeldt (2000), "Western" versus "Islamic" Human Rights Conceptions?: A Critique of Cultural Essentialism in the Discussion on Human Rights, Political Theory, 90-121
  132. ^ Anver M. Emon, Mark Ellis, Benjamin Glahn (2012), Islamic Law and International Human Rights Law, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0199641444
  133. ^ Ann Elizabeth Mayer, Islamic Law and Human Rights: Conundrums and Equivocations, chapter 14 in Carrie Gustafson, Peter H. Juviler (eds.), Religion and human rights: competing claims?, Columbia University seminar series, M.E. Sharpe, 1999, ISBN 0-7656-0261-X.
  134. ^ Glenn, H. Patrick (2007). p. 194.
  135. ^ Paul Kurtz, Austin Dacey, and Tom Flynn. "Defaming Human Rights". Free Inquiry. February/March 2009, Vol. 29, No. 2.
  136. ^ "Universal Declaration of Human Rights, see Article 18". 
  137. ^ "Religious conversion and sharia law, Lionel Beehner (2007), Council on Foreign Relations (Washington DC)". Council on Foreign Relations. 
  138. ^ Noah Feldman (2008), The Fall and Rise of the Islamic State, Princeton University Press, ISBN 9780691120454
  139. ^ Abdullahi Ahmed An-Na’im (1996): p. 352
  140. ^ Stahnke, Tad, Proselytism and the Freedom to Change Religion in International Human Rights Law, Brigham Young University Law Review, Issue:1, (January 1999), pages 251- 350
  142. ^ "Laws Penalizing Blasphemy, Apostasy and Defamation of Religion are Widespread". Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project. 21 November 2012. 
  143. ^ Freedom of Religion, Apostasy and Islam by Abdullah Saeed and Hassan Saeed (Mar 30, 2004), ISBN 978-0754630838
  144. ^ "Human Rights Watch (February 2012), Writer faces apostasy trial in Saudi Arabia". 
  145. ^
  146. ^ , Washington Post, May 1, 2013"64 percent of Muslims in Egypt and Pakistan support the death penalty for leaving Islam". Washington Post. 
  147. ^ The World’s Muslims: Religion, Politics and Society, April 30 2013
  148. ^ Arzi, Donna E. "Role of Compulsion in Islamic Conversion: Jihad, Dhimma and Ridda, The." Buff. Hum. Rts. L. Rev. 8 (2002): 15
  149. ^ Shafi'i: Rawda al-talibin, 10.7, Hanafi: Ibn 'Abidin: Radd al-muhtar 3.287, Maliki: al-Dardir: al-Sharh al-saghir, 4.435, and Hanbali: al-Bahuti: Kashshaf al-qina', 6.170 (see The Struggle to Constitute and Sustain Productive Orders: Vincent Ostrom's Quest to Understand Human Affairs), Mark Sproule-Jones et al (2008), Lexington Books, ISBN 978-0739126288)
  150. ^ SIDDIQI, MUHAMMAD IQBAL (1979), The Penal Law of Islam. Tahore: Kazi Publications, pages 40-59
  151. ^ RAHIM, ABDUR. The Principles of Muhammadan Jurisprudence According to the Hanafi, Maliki, Shafi'i, and Hanbali Schools (1911), Westport CT, Hyperion Press, see 1981 Reprint
  152. ^ Khadduri, Majid (1955), War and Peace in the Law of lslam, The Johns Hopkins Press, Baltimore, USA
  153. ^ al-Zuhayli, Wahbah Al-Fiqh, al-Islami wa Adillatuhu, 8 vols., 3rd edition, Dar al-Fikr, Damascus (1989)
  154. ^ Asma Uddin (2010), Religious Freedom Implications of Sharia Implementation in Aceh, Indonesia, Volume 7, Issue 3, Article 8, University of St Thomas Law Journal; see pages 640-647
  155. ^ Saeed, Abdullah, and Hassan Saeed, eds. Freedom of religion, apostasy and Islam. Ashgate Publishing, 2004.
  156. ^ "Laws: Iran, GayLawNet". Retrieved 2012-04-04. 
  157. ^ Laws,: Nigeria, GayLawNet
  158. ^ "Laws: Saudi Arabia, GayLawNet". 2010-11-08. Retrieved 2012-04-04. 
  159. ^ "Laws: Somalia, GayLawNet". 1964-04-03. Retrieved 2012-04-04. 
  160. ^ "Aceh Passes Stoning Law".  
  161. ^ Rough Guide to South East Asia: Third Edition.  
  162. ^ Diska PutriY, Pamungkas & Dessy Aswim. "Indonesia Still Far From a Rainbow Nation". Retrieved 29 May 2014. 
  163. ^ Treacher, Amal. "Reading the Other Women, Feminism, and Islam." Studies in Gender and Sexuality 4.1 (2003); pages 59-71
  164. ^ John C. Raines & Daniel C. Maguire (Ed), Farid Esack, What Men Owe to Women: Men's Voices from World Religions , State University of New York (2001), see pages 201-203
  165. ^ Jackson, Nicky Ali, ed. Encyclopedia of domestic violence. CRC Press, 2007. (see chapter on Quranic perspectives on wife abuse)
  166. ^ "Surah 4:34 (An-Nisaa), Alim — Translated by Mohammad Asad, Gibraltar (1980)". 
  167. ^ Salhi and Grami (2011), Gender and Violence in the Middle East and North Africa, Florence (Italy), European University Institute
  168. ^ Fluehr-Lobban, Carolyn, and Lois Bardsley-Sirois. "Obedience (Ta'a) in Muslim Marriage: Religious Interpretation and Applied Law in Egypt." Journal of Comparative Family Studies 21.1 (1990): 39-53.
  169. ^ Maghraoui, Abdeslam. "Political authority in crisis: Mohammed VI's Morocco."Middle East Report 218 (2001): 12-17.
  170. ^ Critelli, Filomena M. "Women's rights= Human rights: Pakistani women against gender violence." J. Soc. & Soc. Welfare 37 (2010), pages 135-142
  171. ^ Oweis, Arwa, et al. "Violence Against Women Unveiling the Suffering of Women with a Low Income in Jordan." Journal of Transcultural Nursing 20.1 (2009): 69-76.
  172. ^ Rohe, Mathias. "Shari’a in a European context" Legal practice and cultural diversity, Farnham: Ashgate (2009); see pages 93-114.
  173. ^ Funder, Anna. "De Minimis Non Curat Lex: The Clitoris, Culture and the Law."Transnat'l L. & Contemp. Probs. 3 (1993): 417.
  174. ^ Anwar, Zainah. "Law-making in the name of Islam: implications for democratic governance." Islam in Southeast Asia: Political, Social and Strategic Challenges for the 21 (2005); see pages 121-134
  175. ^ Natasha Bakht, Law, Family Arbitration Using Sharia. Muslim World Journal of Human Right, Issue 1 (2004).
  176. ^ CEDAW and Muslim Family Laws, Sisters in Islam, Malaysia (2011)
  177. ^ Brandt, Michele, and Jeffrey A. Kaplan. "The Tension between Women's Rights and Religious Rights: Reservations to Cedaw by Egypt, Bangladesh and Tunisia." Journal of Law and Religion 12.1 (1995): 105-142.
  178. ^ "Lebanon - IRIN, United Nations Office of Humanitarian Affairs (2009)". IRINnews. 
  179. ^ "UAE: Spousal Abuse never a Right, Human Rights Watch (2010)". 
  180. ^ a b MENA Gender Equality Profile - Status of Girls and Women in the Middle East and North Africa, UNICEF (October 2011)
  181. ^ Kendra Heideman and Mona Youssef, Challenges to Women’s Security in the MENA Region, Wilson Center (March, 2013)
  182. ^ "Sanja Kelly (2010) New Survey Assesses Women's Freedom in the Middle East, Freedom House (funded by US Department of State's Middle East Partnership Initiative)". 
  183. ^ al-Misri, Ahmad ibn Naqib (edited and translated from Arabic (with commentary) by Nuh Ha Mim Keller) (1994 revised edition). p. 183 (f12.27).
  184. ^ Hodgson, Marshall (1958). The Venture of Islam Conscience and History in a World Civilization Vol 1. University of Chicago. p. 238.
  185. ^ The last sermon of Muhammad.
  186. ^ Horrie, Chris; Chippindale, Peter (1991). p. 49.
  187. ^ a b David Powers (1993), Islamic Inheritance System: A Socio-Historical Approach, The Arab Law Quarterly, 8, p 13
  188. ^ Dr. Badawi, Jamal A. (September 1971). "The Status of Women in Islam". Al-Ittihad Journal of Islamic Studies 8 (2). 
  189. ^  
  190. ^ Hafez, Mohammed (September 2006). "Why Muslims Rebel". Al-Ittihad Journal of Islamic Studies 1 (2). 
  191. ^ Moghul, Umar F. (Fall–Winter 1999). "Approximating Certainty in Ratiocination: How To Ascertain the 'Illah (Effective Cause) in the Islamic Legal System and How To Determine the Ratio Decidendi in the Anglo-American Common Law". Journal of Islamic Law 4: 125. 
  192. ^ a b Tai, Emily Sohmer (2007). "Book Review: Hassan S. Khalilieh, Admiralty and Maritime Laws in the Mediterranean Sea (ca. 800–1050): The "Kitāb Akriyat al-Sufun" vis-à-vis the "Nomos Rhodion Nautikos"". Medieval Encounters 13: 602–612. 
  193. ^ Khalilieh, Hassan Salih (1998). Islamic Maritime Law – An Introduction.  
  194. ^ Makdisi, George (April–June 1989). "Scholasticism and Humanism in Classical Islam and the Christian West".  
  195. ^ Kuran, Timur. The Absence of the Corporation in Islamic Law – Origins and Persistence.
  196. ^ Kuran, Timur (2005). "The Logic of Financial Westernization in the Middle East". Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization. Vol. 56. p. 600.
  197. ^ "Why the Middle East Is Economically Underdeveloped – Historical Mechanisms of Institutional Stagnation".


  • al-Misri, Ahmad ibn Naqib (edited and translated from Arabic (with commentary) by Nuh Ha Mim Keller). Reliance of the Traveller – A Classic Manual of Islamic Sacred Law (1994 revised edition). Amana Publications ISBN 978-0-915957-72-9.
  • An-Na'im, Abdullahi Ahmed. "Islamic Foundations of Religious Human Rights" in Religious Human Rights in Global Perspective: Religious Perspectives. John Witte Jr. & Johan D. van der Vyver eds. (1996). Springer Publishing ISBN 978-9041101778.
  • ash-Shafi'i, Muhammad ibn Idris (1993). Risala: Treatise on the Foundations of Islamic Jurisprudence. Islamic Texts Society. ISBN 0-946621-15-2.
  • Badr, Gamal Moursi (Spring 1978). "Islamic Law: Its Relation to Other Legal Systems".  
  • Badr, Gamal Moursi; Mayer, Ann Elizabeth (Winter 1984). "Islamic Criminal Justice".  
  • Bakhtiar, Laleh; Reinhart, Kevin (1996). Encyclopedia of Islamic Law: A Compendium of the Major Schools. Kazi Publications, ISBN 1-56744-498-9.
  • Berg, Herbert (2005). "Islamic Law." Berkshire Encyclopedia of World History 3. p. 1,030. In History Reference Center [database online]. Available from Snowden Library (accessed February 11, 2008).
  • Brown, Daniel W. (1996). Rethinking Traditions in Modern Islamic Thought. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-65394-0.
  • Coulson, Noel James (1964). A History of Islamic Law (Islamic Surveys). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Darwish, Nonie (2008). Cruel and Usual Punishment: The Terrifying Global Implications of Islamic Law. Thomas Nelson. ISBN 978-1-59555-161-0.
  • Dien, Mawil Izzi (2004). Islamic Law: From Historical Foundations to Contemporary Practice. Notre Dame, Illinois: University of Notre Dame Press.
  • Doi, Abd ar-Rahman I.; Clarke, Abdassamad (2008). Shari'ah: Islamic Law. Ta-Ha Publishers Ltd. ISBN 184200-085-3 (paperback); ISBN 978-1-84200-087-8 (hardback).
  • El-Fadl, Khaled Abou (2003). Reasoning with God: Rationality and Thought in Islam. Oneworld. ISBN 1-85168-306-2.
  • El-Gamal, Mahmoud A. (2006). Islamic Finance: Law, Economics, and Practice.  
  • Esposito, John (2004). The Oxford dictionary of Islam.  
  • Gaudiosi, Monica M. (April 1988). "The Influence of the Islamic Law of Waqf on the Development of the Trust in England: The Case of Merton College".  
  • Glenn, H. Patrick (2007). Legal Traditions of the World – Sustainable Diversity in Law (3rd edition). New York City; Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-920541-7.
  • Harnischfeger, Johannes (2008). Democratization and Islamic Law – The Sharia Conflict in Nigeria. Frankfurt; New York City: Campus Verlag and Chicago: University of Chicago Press (distributor). ISBN 978-3-593-38256-2.
  • Hudson, A. (2003). Equity and Trusts (3rd ed.). London:  
  • Horrie, Chris; Chippindale, Peter (1991). What Is Islam? A Comprehensive Introduction. Virgin Books. ISBN 0-7535-0827-3.
  • Kafadar, Cemal (1996). Between Two Worlds: The Construction of the Ottoman State. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-20600-2.
  • Khadduri, Majid and Liebesny, Herbert J. (Editors). Law in the Middle East: Volume I: Origin and Development of Islamic Law. Washington D.C.: The Middle East Institute, 1955.
  • Lewis, Bernard (1984). The Jews of Islam. Princeton University Press.  
  • Liebesny, Majid &, and Herbert J. (editors) (1955). Khadduri. Law in the Middle East: Volume I: Origin and Development of Islamic Law. Washington D.C.: Middle East Institute.
  • Makdisi, John A. (June 1999). "The Islamic Origins of the Common Law".  
  • Makdisi, John (2005). Islamic Property Law: Cases and Materials for Comparative Analysis with the Common Law. Carolina Academic Press.  
  • Mumisa, Michael (2002). Islamic Law: Theory & Interpretation. Amana Publications. ISBN 1-59008-010-6.
  • Musa, A. Y. (2008). Hadith as Scripture: Discussions on The Authority Of Prophetic Traditions in Islam, New York: Palgrave.
  • Otto, Jan Michiel (2008). Sharia and National Law in Muslim Countries – Tensions and Opportunities for Dutch and EU Foreign Policy – Law, Governance, and Development. E-book: Amsterdam University Press. ISBN 978-6611988326.
  • Safi, Omid (2003). Progressive Muslims: On Justice, Gender, and Pluralism. Oneworld Publications. ISBN 1-85168-316-X.
  • Shahin, Omar (2007). The Muslim Family in Western Society: A Study in Islamic Law. Cloverdale Corporation. ISBN 978-1-929569-30-4.
  • Standke, Corinna (2008). Sharia — The Islamic Law. GRIN Verlag
  • Weiss, Bernard G. (2002). Studies in Islamic Legal Theory. Leiden; Boston:  

Further reading

  • Ali, Abdullah Yusuf (2000). The Holy Qur'an (Translated by Abdullah Yusuf Ali). Ware, Hertfordshire, England: Wordsworth Editions. ISBN 978-1-85326-782-6. A popular translation of the Quran.
  • Hussain, Jamila (2011). Islam: Its Law and Society (3rd edition). Annandale, N.S.W., Australia: The Federation Press. ISBN 1-86287-499-9. OCLC 742018517. A modern discourse on Sharia law.
  • Kadri, Sadakat (2011). Heaven on Earth: A Journey Through Shari'a Law. London: The Bodley Head.  
    • Heaven on Earth: A Journey Through Shari'a Law from the Deserts of Ancient Arabia to the Streets of the Modern Muslim World. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. 2012.   American edition.
  • Khan, Muhammad Muhsin (1996). The English Translation of Ṣaḥīḥ Al Bukhārī with the Arabic Text. Alexandria, Va.: Al-Saadawi Publications. ISBN 978-1-881963-59-2. OCLC 35673415. The complete translation (in nine volumes) of a popular Sunni collection of hadith.
  • Mahmassani, Sobhi (1961). The Philosophy of Jurisprudence in Islam, translated by Farhat J. Ziadeh. Leiden: Brill.
  • Mahmassani, Sobhi (1966). The Principles of International Law in the Light of Islamic Doctrine, publications of The Hague Academy of International Law, Leiden.
  • Potz, Richard (2011). Islamic Law and the Transfer of European Law. Mainz: European History Online, Institute of European History. Retrieved: November 28, 2011.
  • Nuh Ha Mim Keller (ed., trans.), Reliance of the Traveller: Classic Manual of Islamic Sacred Law, Amana Publications, revised edition 1997, ISBN 9780-915957-72-9
  • Warner, Bill (2010). Sharia Law for Non-Muslims. CSPI. ISBN 0979579481

External links

  • UNAA site on sharia in Muslim Countries – United Nations
  • Sharia Law in the International Legal Sphere – Yale University
  • 'Sharia' from Oxford Islamic Studies Online – Bridging Cultures, National Endowment for the Humanities & George Mason University
  • Private Arrangements: 'Recognizing Sharia' in Britain – anthropologist John R. Bowen explains the working of Britain's sharia courts in a Boston Review article
  • Division of Inheritance According to Qur'an
  • "Explanation of “The Reward of the Omnipotent”" is a manuscript, in Arabic, from the late 19th or early 20th century about Sharia
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.