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2008 Summer Olympics double trap finals.
Homesteader shooting hawks with a Krag-Jørgensen bolt-action rifle, 1940

Shooting is the act or process of firing firearms or other projectile weapons such as bows or crossbows. Even the firing of artillery, rockets, and missiles can be called shooting. A person who specializes in shooting is a marksman. Shooting can take place in a shooting range or in the field in hunting, in shooting sports, or in combat.

Competitive shooting

Marksmanship has inspired competition, and in several countries rifle clubs started to form in the 19th century.[1] Soon international shooting events evolved, including [2]

Shooting technique differs depending on factors like the type of firearm used (from a handgun to a sniper rifle; the distance to and nature of the target; the required precision; and the available time. Breathing and position play an important role when handling a handgun or a rifle. Some shooting sports, such as IPSC shooting, make a sport of combat style shooting.[3] The prone position, kneeling position, and standing position offer different amounts of support for the shooter.


Shooting most often refers to the use of a gun, although is also used to describe the firing of a bow or crossbow.[4] A person who shoots is called a shooter.[5]

Practical uses

Shooting is used for hunting upland game birds such as grouse or pheasant, rabbits, culling, deer hunting, or other wild game animals, or shooting pest animals. Clay pigeon shooting is meant to simulate shooting live pigeons released from traps, after doing so was banned in the United Kingdom in 1921.[6] Sometimes "shooting" refers to the hunting activity itself.[4]

Shooting is also used in warfare, self-defense, crime, and law enforcement. Duels were sometimes held using guns. Shooting without a target has applications such as celebratory gunfire, 21-gun salute, or firing starting pistols, incapable of releasing bullets.

Competitive shooting at Olympic level in Sydney 2000


Edward Hacker (1813-1905), after Abraham Cooper, RA, (1787–1868), print of shooting, UK.

In many countries, there are restrictions on what kinds of weapon can be bought and by whom, leading to debate about how effective such measures are and the extent to which they should be applied. Attitudes in the United States are very different from those in the United Kingdom.[7]

See also


  1. ^ Minshall, David (2005). "Wimbledon & the Volunteers". Retrieved 17 December 2013. 
  2. ^ a b "The ISSF History". ISSF. Retrieved 17 December 2013. 
  3. ^ "Constitution of the International Practical Shooting Confederation". IPSC. January 2012. Retrieved 17 December 2013. 
  4. ^ a b "Shooting". Retrieved 17 December 2013. 
  5. ^ "Shooter". Retrieved 17 December 2013. 
  6. ^ "The Clay Pigeon Shooting Association (CPSA)". Clay Pigeon Shooting Association. Retrieved 17 December 2013. 
  7. ^ Casciani, Dominic (2 November 2010). "Gun control and ownership laws in the UK". BBC News. Retrieved 17 December 2013. 
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