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Sixth United States Army

Sixth United States Army
Sixth United States Army shoulder sleeve insignia
Active 1943 – 95, 2008 – present
Country  United States of America
Branch  United States Army
Type Field army
Role Component command
Nickname "Alamo Force"
Motto Born Of War
Engagements World War II
Commanders
Notable
commanders
Walter Krueger
Joseph Stilwell
Robert M. Cannon
Insignia
Flag
Distinctive unit insignia

The Sixth United States Army is a field army of the United States Army, headquartered at Fort Sam Houston; it is the Army service component command of United States Southern Command. Its area of responsibility includes 31 countries and 15 areas of special sovereignty in Central and South America and the Caribbean.

Contents

  • History 1
  • Reactivation 2
  • Legacy 3
  • References 4
  • External links 5

History

It was first activated in January 1943, commanded by Lieutenant General Walter Krueger.[1] Under the code name Alamo Force,[2] it assumed control of the majority of US Army units involved in Operation Cartwheel, the campaign to isolate and neutralize the Japanese base at Rabaul in New Britain. Following the completion of Cartwheel, Sixth Army joined Australian Army and other US forces on the north coast of New Guinea.[3] Similar in conception to the island hopping operations of the central Pacific, the object of the attacks was to land, establish a garrison and airfield which could support the next strike, and then move on.

In September 1944, Sixth Army was released from operations in New Guinea by the US Eighth Army. On 20 October 1944, X Corps and XXIV Corps, under Sixth Army, invaded Leyte in the Philippines. By December, Leyte was secured, and the Sixth Army was relieved again by Eighth Army to prepare for the invasion of Luzon.[4] As a prelude to that invasion, the island of Mindoro was invaded by the Western Visayan Task Force comprising the 19th and 503rd Regimental Combat Teams.[5] Sixth Army took part in the Invasion of Lingayen Gulf[6] on 9 January 1945 with the subordinate units of I and XIV Corps.[7] Sixth Army units fought south until they met up those of Eighth Army advancing from around Manila. Sixth Army then continued to clear the north of Luzon until the end of the war. Sixth Army was to have provided the ground forces for the first phase of the invasion of Japan, but the surrender changed that.[8]

Occupation duty then followed for a short while until Sixth Army returned to the United States,[9] headquartered at the Presidio of San Francisco. Sixth Army then took responsibility for training of Army forces from part of the continental United States, until it was inactivated as part of force reductions in June 1995.[10]

Reactivation

In 2007 it was decided that US Army South will be redesignated as US Army South (Sixth Army) under the Army modularization program.[11][12] It is garrisoned at the Old Brooke Army Medical Center building at Fort Sam Houston.[13]

Legacy

The U.S. Sixth Army is portrayed prominently in the 1953 film War of the Worlds, and is shown defending Los Angeles from an attack by Martians. In the film, the 6th Army Commander (General Mann) is portrayed by actor Les Tremayne.[14]

References

  1. ^ "U.S. Army Campaigns: WWII - Asiatic-Pacific Theater".  
  2. ^ Eustace E. Nabbie (22 September 1993). "The Alamo Scouts". Center for the study of intelligence.  
  3. ^ Cooke, Tim; Adrian Gilbert; Tony Hall; Robert Jackson; Chris McNab; Donald Somerville; Robert Stewart; Ian Westwell (2004). History of World War II. Tarrytown, New York: Marshall Cavendish. p. 383.  
  4. ^ "Leyte".  
  5. ^ Smith, Robert Ross (1963). Triumph in the Philippines. Government Printing Office. p. 45.  
  6. ^ Video: Allied Bombers Strike On Two Fronts Etc (1945).  
  7. ^ "Luzon 1944 - 1945".  
  8. ^ "CHAPTER XIII: "DOWNFALL" THE PLAN FOR THE INVASION OF JAPAN".  
  9. ^ "CHAPTER II: TROOP MOVEMENTS, DISPOSITIONS, AND LOCATIONS".  
  10. ^ Carl Nolte (24 June 1995). "PAGE ONE -- Troops March From Presidio Into History". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved 11 July 2011. 
  11. ^ United States Army. Armies and Corps (Map). http://www.army.mil/publications/soldiersmagazine/pdfs/poster_PostureStatement.pdf. Retrieved 21 December 2008.
  12. ^ Cavallaro, Gina (9 October 2007). "New name, same mission for U.S. Army South". Army Times (Army Times Publishing Company). Retrieved 21 December 2008. 
  13. ^ "Fort Sam Houston, Texas". Base Realignment and Closure. United States Army. 6 March 2007. Retrieved 11 July 2011. 
  14. ^ John M. Miller. "THE WAR OF THE WORLDS (1953)". Turner Classic Movies. Time Warner. Retrieved 16 June 2013. The Martian firepower is overwhelming and more reinforcements from the 6th Army Command under General Mann (Les Tremayne) enter the fray, to no avail. 

External links

  • Sixth U.S. Army
  • Fort Ord California
  • Born of War ... Dedicated to Peace
  • The short film Big Picture: This is Sixth Army is available for free download at the Internet Archive []
  • A film clip AIR ASSAULT TACTICS [ETC. (1945)] is available for free download at the Internet Archive []
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