World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Smooth Island (South Australia)

Article Id: WHEBN0044761229
Reproduction Date:

Title: Smooth Island (South Australia)  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Islands of South Australia, Liguanea Island, Tumby Island, Topgallant Islands, Ward Islands (South Australia)
Collection:
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Smooth Island (South Australia)

Smooth Island
Smooth Island (South Australia) is located in South Australia
Geography
Location Great Australian Bight
Coordinates
Highest elevation 35 m (115 ft)[1]
Country
Australia
Demographics
Population 0

Smooth Island is an island located off the west coast of Eyre Peninsula in South Australia about 52 kilometres (32 mi) south west of the town of Ceduna. It is both part of a local group of islands known as the Isles of St Francis group and a larger group known as the Nuyts Archipelago. It has enjoyed protected area status since the 1960s and since 2011, it has been part of the Nuyts Archipelago Wilderness Protection Area.

Contents

  • Description 1
  • Formation, geology and oceanography 2
  • History 3
    • European discovery and use 3.1
  • Flora and fauna 4
    • Flora 4.1
      • Sub tidal flora 4.1.1
    • Fauna 4.2
  • Protected area status 5
  • See also 6
  • Citations and references 7
    • Citations 7.1
    • References 7.2

Description

Smooth Island is an island located within the Isles of St Francis group which itself is part of the Nuyts Archipelago. It is located about 52 kilometres (32 mi) south west of the town of Ceduna on the west coast of Eyre Peninsula in South Australia.[1][2][3] Several sources states that the island is located about 200 metres (660 ft) north of St Francis Island while the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency and charts published by the Government of South Australia respectively state and show that the island is located ‘almost one nautical mile (1.9 km) N of the NE extremity of St. Francis Island’.[1][4][5][2]

The island is predominantly dome shaped with a summit at a height of 35 metres (115 ft) with steep sides rising from the surrounding waters.[2][6][1][4] The island is described as having a ‘teardrop’ plan with its long axis oriented in a south easterly direction with overall length of about 500 metres (1,600 ft) and a width of 300 metres (980 ft).[6][1]

The island is considered to be difficult to access via watercraft in ‘normal conditions’ on the basis of ‘impressions from a brief flyover’ in a helicopter during 1982.[1][7]

Formation, geology and oceanography

Smooth Island was formed about 7700 years ago when sea levels rose at the start of the Holocene.[8] The island’s geology consists of a ‘granite base and thin calcarenite mantle’ which is ‘likely to be fragmented into jagged rocks and shingles, with a sandy, skeletal soil filling depressions’ in areas that are ‘beyond the reach of storm waves‘.[1] The island’s steep sides drop into water of depth equal or greater than 20 metres (66 ft).[2]

History

European discovery and use

Smooth Island is reported as being named by Matthew Flinders in 1802 and was so named because of the ‘island’s shape’.[9] The Baudin expedition to Australia named the island as Ile Malesherbes later in 1802.[10]

Flora and fauna

Flora

As of 1996, the literature suggests that no onsite flora survey had been carried out and accordingly, contains the following description based on an extrapolation of observations carried out on nearby Egg Island. Saltbush and nitre-bush should be present where soil pockets exist in the calcarenite capping while an open heath of twiggy daisy-bush should be present over the central part of the island.[6]

Sub tidal flora

A survey carried out in 2002 found that kelp from the genus Ecklonia was the dominant plant cover on reef substrate at a depth of 22 metres (72 ft) while a community of Cystophora and Sargassum species were dominant on reef substrate at a depth of 5 metres (16 ft).[11]

Fauna

As of 1996, the literature suggests that no onsite fauna survey had been carried out as the following list is an extrapolation of species present on nearby Egg Island. Seabird species are likely to be represented by sooty oystercatcher, crested tern and pacific gull as well as visitors such as white-bellied sea-eagle. Land bird species that are likely to visit the island are the rock parrot and the richard's pipit. Reptilian species are likely to include the marbled gecko, the four-toed earless skink and the bull skink. [1]

Protected area status

Smooth Island first received protected area status as a fauna reserve declared under the Fauna Conservation Act 1964 during the 1960s. In 1972, it become part of the Isles of St Francis Conservation Park which was declared under the National Parks and Wildlife Act 1972 to ‘conserve island populations and habitat for endangered species’.[12][13] As of 2011, it was part of the portion of the Nuyts Archipelago Conservation Park which was excised to create the Nuyts Archipelago Wilderness Protection Area.[14][15] As of 2012, the waters adjoining Smooth Island are part of a sanctuary zone within the Nuyts Archipelago Marine Park.[16]

See also

Citations and references

Citations

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h Robinson et al, 1996, page 158
  2. ^ a b c d DMH, 1985, chart 43
  3. ^ DEH, 2006, page 9
  4. ^ a b DEH, 2006, page 3
  5. ^ NGA, 2012, page 160
  6. ^ a b c Robinson et al, 1996, pages 473
  7. ^ Robinson et al, 1996, Page xix & 363
  8. ^ Robinson et al, 1996, Page 11
  9. ^ Robinson et al, 1996, page 127
  10. ^ "'"Property Location Browser Report Placename Details: search results for 'Ile Malesherbes. Government of South Australia. Retrieved 26 December 2014. 
  11. ^ Baker, 2004, page 10
  12. ^ Robinson et al, 1996, Page 140
  13. ^ DEH, 2006, Page 3
  14. ^ Kelton,2009
  15. ^ GSA, 2013, page 18
  16. ^ DEWNR, 2012, page 29

References

  • Baker, J. L. (2004), Towards a System of Ecologically Representative Marine Protected Areas in South Australian Marine Bioregions - Technical Report (Part 2) (PDF), Dept. for Environment and Heritage, retrieved 26 December 2014 
  • Kelton, Greg (31 October 2009). "West Coast island protection areas". The Advertiser. Retrieved 26 December 2014. 
  •  
  • Robinson, A. C.; Canty, P.; Mooney, T.; Rudduck, P. (1996). "South Australia's offshore islands" (PDF). Australian Heritage Commission.  
  • South Australia. Department of Marine and Harbors (DMH) (1985), The Waters of South Australia a series of charts, sailing notes and coastal photographs, Dept. of Marine and Harbors, South Australia,  
  • South Australia. Department for Environment and Heritage (DEH) (2006), Management plan : island parks of western Eyre Peninsula (PDF), Dept. for Environment and Heritage,  
  • "Nuyts Archipelago Marine Park Management Plan 2012" (PDF). Department of Environment, Water and Natural Resources (DEWNR). 2012. Retrieved 25 December 2014. 
  • "Wilderness Advisory Committee Annual Report 2012-13" (PDF). Government of South Australia (GSA). September 2013.  
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.