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South Pars / North Dome Gas-Condensate field

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South Pars / North Dome Gas-Condensate field

The South Pars / North Dome field is a natural gas condensate field located in the Persian Gulf. It is the world's largest gas field, shared between Iran and Qatar.[1] According to the International Energy Agency (IEA), the field holds an estimated 1,800 trillion cubic feet (51 trillion cubic metres) of in-situ natural gas and some 50 billion barrels (7.9 billion cubic metres) of natural gas condensates.[2]

This gas field covers an area of 9,700 square kilometres (3,700 sq mi), of which 3,700 square kilometres (1,400 sq mi) (South Pars) is in Iranian territorial waters and 6,000 square kilometres (2,300 sq mi) (North Dome) is in Qatari territorial waters.[3]

Field geology

  • Depth: 3,000 metres (9,800 ft) below the seabed[4]
  • Water depth: 65 metres (213 ft)[4]

The field consists of two independent gas-bearing formations, Kangan (Triassic) and Upper Dalan (Permian). Each formation is divided into two different reservoir layers, separated by impermeable barriers. The field consists of four independent reservoir layers K1, K2, K3, and K4.[5]

The K1 and K3 units are mainly composed of dolomites and anhydrites while K2 and K4, which constitute major gas reservoirs, comprise limestone and dolomite. A massive anhydrite (the Nar Member) separates the K4 from the underlying K5 unit which has poor reservoir qualities.[6] The gross pay zone in the South Pars field is approximately 450 m thick, extending from depths of approximately 2750 to 3200 m. Reservoir strata dip gently to the NE. The average thickness of the reservoir units declines from South Pars (some 450 metres (1,480 ft)) to North field (385 metres (1,263 ft)). As in other reservoir structures in neighboring areas, the reservoir in the Qatar Arch is cut by a set of NNW-SSE trending faults.[6] Diagenesis has a major effect on reservoir quality of the Field.[7]

The field is a part of the N-trending Qatar Arch structural feature that is bounded by the Zagros fold and thrust belt to the north and northeast.[8]

In the field, gas accumulation is mostly limited to the Permian–Triassic stratigraphic units. These units known as the Kangan–Dalan Formations constitute very extensive natural gas reservoirs in the field and Persian Gulf area, which composed of carbonate–evaporite series also known as the Khuff Formation.[8]

Permian–Early Triassic has been divided into Faraghan (Early Permian), Dalan (Late Permian) and Kangan (Early Triassic) Formations.[8]

Reserves

South Pars / North Dome Field

According to International Energy Agency (IEA), the combined structure is the world's largest gas field.[1]

In-place volumes are estimated to be around 1,800 trillion cubic feet (51 trillion cubic metres) gas in place and some 50 billion barrels (7.9 billion cubic metres) of natural gas condensate in place.[9] With in place volumes equivalent to 360 billion barrels (57 billion cubic metres) of oil[10] (310 billion boe of gas and 50 billion boe of natural gas condensate) the field is the world's biggest conventional hydrocarbon accumulation.

The field recoverable gas reserve is equivalent to some 215 billion barrels (34.2 billion cubic metres) of oil and it also holds about 16 billion barrels (2.5 billion cubic metres) of recoverable condensate corresponding of about 230 billion barrels (37 billion cubic metres) of oil equivalent recoverable hydrocarbons.

The gas recovery factor of the field is about 70%, corresponding of about 1,260 trillion cubic feet (36×10^12 m3) of total recoverable gas reserves which stands for about 19% of world recoverable gas reserves.[11]

The estimates for the Iranian section are 500 trillion cubic feet (14×10^12 m3) of natural gas in place and around 360 trillion cubic feet (10×10^12 m3) of recoverable gas which stands for 36% of Iran's total proven gas reserves and 5.6% of the worlds proven gas reserves.[9]

The estimates for the Qatari section are 900 trillion cubic feet (25×10^12 m3) of recoverable gas which stands for almost 99% of Qatar's total proven gas reserves and 14% of the worlds proven gas reserves.[12]

Table 1-"South Pars / North Field Gas Reserves"

In Place Gas Reserve (trillion cu ft) Recoverable Gas Reserve (trillion cu ft)
South Pars 500 360
North Dome 1300 900
Total Field 1800 1260

However, since the field is a common field and the reservoir is highly homogenous, the ultimate recoverable reserves of each country may vary from this technical assessment which only considers the static data and does not include rate of gas migration. So, it is better to say that the ultimate recoverable reserves of each country would be a factor of cumulative gas production by each of them.

The Iranian section also holds 18 billion barrels (2.9 billion cubic metres) of condensate in place of which some 9 billion barrels (1.4 billion cubic metres) are believed to be recoverable,[13] while Qatari section believed to contains some 30 billion barrels (4.8×109 m3) of condensate in place and at least some 10 billion barrels (1.6 billion cubic metres) of recoverable condensate.[14]

The field is rich in liquids and yields approximately 40 barrels (6.4 m3) of condensate per 1 million cubic feet (28×10^3 m3) of gas. It has also very high level of well productivity which in average stands for 100 million cubic feet (2.8×10^6 m3) per day per well.[15]

Reserve uncertainties

In 2005, Qatar Petroleum became worried the North Dome’s reserves were being developed too quickly, which could reduce reservoir pressure and possibly damage its long-term production potential. In early 2005, the government placed a moratorium on additional development projects at the North Dome pending a study of the field’s reservoirs.[16] This assessment is not expected to end until after 2009, meaning new projects are unlikely to be signed before 2010. However, this did not affect projects approved or underway before the moratorium.[17]

On 29 October 2007, Qatargas CEO Faisal Al Suwaidi stated that the 5 year moratorium on new North Field gas development projects, imposed in 2005, could be extended to 2011 or 2012.[16]

The 2005 moratorium by Qatar and the subsequent extension of that raised some questions about the actual proven reserves in Qatari side of the field. There is some news that ConocoPhillips drilled an unexpected dry holes in the North Field and this event was at least a partial catalyst for a revamped perspective on the North field structure and potential.[18]

Another supporting evidence for skepticism about the real scale of Qatari's reserves comes from the latest ongoing exploration round in Qatar which is targeting exploration of gas in pre-Khuff formation. Even one of the blocks is exactly located beneath the North Dome Field.[19]

South Pars development

South Pars and Iranian Oil and Gas Infrastructures
Horizon of Persian Gulf in South Pars Area
Horizon of Persian Gulf in South Pars Area

The South Pars Field was discovered in 1990 by National Iranian Oil Company (NIOC).[8] The Pars Oil and Gas Company.[13] a subsidiary of NIOC, has jurisdiction over all South Pars-related projects. Field development has been delayed by various problems - technical (i.e., high levels of mercaptans and foul-smelling sulfur compounds), contractual issues and, recently, politics.require('Module:No globals')

local p = {}

-- articles in which traditional Chinese preceeds simplified Chinese local t1st = { ["228 Incident"] = true, ["Chinese calendar"] = true, ["Lippo Centre, Hong Kong"] = true, ["Republic of China"] = true, ["Republic of China at the 1924 Summer Olympics"] = true, ["Taiwan"] = true, ["Taiwan (island)"] = true, ["Taiwan Province"] = true, ["Wei Boyang"] = true, }

-- the labels for each part local labels = { ["c"] = "Chinese", ["s"] = "simplified Chinese", ["t"] = "traditional Chinese", ["p"] = "pinyin", ["tp"] = "Tongyong Pinyin", ["w"] = "Wade–Giles", ["j"] = "Jyutping", ["cy"] = "Cantonese Yale", ["poj"] = "Pe̍h-ōe-jī", ["zhu"] = "Zhuyin Fuhao", ["l"] = "literally", }

-- article titles for wikilinks for each part local wlinks = { ["c"] = "Chinese language", ["s"] = "simplified Chinese characters", ["t"] = "traditional Chinese characters", ["p"] = "pinyin", ["tp"] = "Tongyong Pinyin", ["w"] = "Wade–Giles", ["j"] = "Jyutping", ["cy"] = "Yale romanization of Cantonese", ["poj"] = "Pe̍h-ōe-jī", ["zhu"] = "Bopomofo", }

-- for those parts which are to be treated as languages their ISO code local ISOlang = { ["c"] = "zh", ["t"] = "zh-Hant", ["s"] = "zh-Hans", ["p"] = "zh-Latn-pinyin", ["tp"] = "zh-Latn", ["w"] = "zh-Latn-wadegile", ["j"] = "yue-jyutping", ["cy"] = "yue", ["poj"] = "hak", ["zhu"] = "zh-Bopo", }

local italic = { ["p"] = true, ["tp"] = true, ["w"] = true, ["j"] = true, ["cy"] = true, ["poj"] = true, } -- Categories for different kinds of Chinese text local cats = { ["c"] = "", ["s"] = "", ["t"] = "", }

function p.Zh(frame) -- load arguments module to simplify handling of args local getArgs = require('Module:Arguments').getArgs local args = getArgs(frame) return p._Zh(args) end function p._Zh(args) local uselinks = not (args["links"] == "no") -- whether to add links local uselabels = not (args["labels"] == "no") -- whether to have labels local capfirst = args["scase"] ~= nil

        local t1 = false -- whether traditional Chinese characters go first
        local j1 = false -- whether Cantonese Romanisations go first
        local testChar
        if (args["first"]) then
                 for testChar in mw.ustring.gmatch(args["first"], "%a+") do
          if (testChar == "t") then
           t1 = true
           end
          if (testChar == "j") then
           j1 = true
           end
         end
        end
        if (t1 == false) then
         local title = mw.title.getCurrentTitle()
         t1 = t1st[title.text] == true
        end

-- based on setting/preference specify order local orderlist = {"c", "s", "t", "p", "tp", "w", "j", "cy", "poj", "zhu", "l"} if (t1) then orderlist[2] = "t" orderlist[3] = "s" end if (j1) then orderlist[4] = "j" orderlist[5] = "cy" orderlist[6] = "p" orderlist[7] = "tp" orderlist[8] = "w" end -- rename rules. Rules to change parameters and labels based on other parameters if args["hp"] then -- hp an alias for p ([hanyu] pinyin) args["p"] = args["hp"] end if args["tp"] then -- if also Tongyu pinyin use full name for Hanyu pinyin labels["p"] = "Hanyu Pinyin" end if (args["s"] and args["s"] == args["t"]) then -- Treat simplified + traditional as Chinese if they're the same args["c"] = args["s"] args["s"] = nil args["t"] = nil elseif (not (args["s"] and args["t"])) then -- use short label if only one of simplified and traditional labels["s"] = labels["c"] labels["t"] = labels["c"] end local body = "" -- the output string local params -- for creating HTML spans local label -- the label, i.e. the bit preceeding the supplied text local val -- the supplied text -- go through all possible fields in loop, adding them to the output for i, part in ipairs(orderlist) do if (args[part]) then -- build label label = "" if (uselabels) then label = labels[part] if (capfirst) then label = mw.language.getContentLanguage():ucfirst(

Gas production started from the field by commissioning phase 2 in December 2002 to produce 1 billion cubic feet per day (28 million cubic metres per day) of wet gas. Gas is sent to shore via pipeline, and processed at Assaluyeh.

Condensate production from South Pars is currently 200,000 barrels per day (32,000 m3/d), and by 2010, could increase to over 500,000 barrels per day (79,000 m3/d). As of December 2010, South pars gas field's production capacity stands at 75 million cubic metres (2.6 billion cubic feet) of natural gas per day.[20] Gas production at South Pars rose by nearly 30% between March 2009 and March 2010. The field's reserves are estimated at 14 trillion cubic metres (490 trillion cubic feet) of natural gas and 18 billion barrels (2.9 billion cubic metres) of natural gas condensates. Production at South Pars gas field will rise to 175 million cubic metres (6.2 billion cubic feet) per day in 2012.[21]

NIOC is planning to develop the field in 24 to 30 phases, capable of producing about 25 billion cubic feet (710 million cubic metres) to 30 billion cubic feet (850 million cubic metres) of natural gas per day.

Each standard phase is defined for daily production of 1 billion cubic feet (28 million cubic metres) of natural gas, convert|40,000|oilbbl of condensate, 1500 tonnes of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and 200 tonnes of sulfur, however some phases have some different production plans.[22]

Each of the phases is estimated to have an average capital spend of around US$1.5 billion, and most will be led by foreign oil firms working in partnership with local companies.[23] Development of a South Pars phase by the Norwegian Statoil company has become infamous after extensive report of misconduct and bribery to the Horton Investments, an Iranian consultancy firm owned by Mehdi Hashemi Rafsanjani, son of former Iranian President Hashemi Rafsanjani. Statoil committed to spending US $300 million to construct three production platforms and a pipeline.[24] The government of Mr Ahmadinejad, who came to power in 2005, has favoured local firms over foreign companies in the energy and other sectors.[23]

By the beginning of 2008, phases 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 have been brought to production and by the end of 2008, phases 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10 will be on stream. Phases 12, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 27 and 28 are under different development stages.

Project finance

Financing is expected to come from a variety of sources including the Oil Ministry, withdrawals sources will come from a variety of sources including the Oil Ministry, withdrawals from the National Development Fund, the issuance of bonds both domestically and also internationally, and from domestic banks through an energy fund.[25][26]

The Oil Ministry has called for the issue of more than $12 billion worth of bonds for a period of three years.[27] Three billion euros will be allocated to the South Pars gas field and the rest will go to oil field development projects.[28][29] As of December 2010, about $30 billion have been invested in South Pars gas fields' development plan.[20] It is estimated that the amount will reach over $40 billion by 2015.[20] The Ministry of Petroleum in Iran said in a revised statement in 2011 that Iran will invest some $90 billion between 2011 and 2015 ($60 billion will be allocated to the upstream sector and the rest to the downstream sector).[30]

Once the eight remaining phases are fully developed by 2014, the facility will produce a total of 320,000 barrels per day (51,000 m3/d) of natural gas condensates and 4 million tons of sulfur as well as an annual sum of 4.4 million tons of LPG and 4 million tons of ethane gas.[31] Economic studies show with the operation of each South Pars phase, one percent is added to the country’s Gross domestic product (GDP), while phase 12 will add more than three percent of GDP.[32] By 2015, the annual revenue of the field will soar to $100 billion, raising Iran's gas output to 1.1 billion cubic metres (39 billion cubic feet) per day.[33][34]

South Pars Phases

As at 2012, some 400 Iranian companies were taking part in the development of the South Pars gas field through supplying equipment to related projects.[35]

  • Phase 1 was developed by Petropars to produce 1 billion cubic feet (28 million cubic metres) per day of natural gas, 40,000 barrels per day (6,400 m3/d) of condensate, 1500 tons of LPG per day plus 200 tons of sulfur per day.
  • Phases 2 and 3 were developed by a consortium of Total S.A., Petronas and Gazprom to produce 2 billion cubic feet (57 million cubic metres) per day of natural gas, 80,000 barrels per day (13,000 m3/d) of condensate, 3000 tons of LPG per day plus 400 tons of sulfur per day. It came online in March 2003.
  • Phases 4 and 5 were developed by Eni and Petropars, to produce 2 billion cubic feet (57 million cubic metres) per day of rich natural gas, 75 million cubic feet (2.1 million cubic metres) per day of ethane, 80,000 barrels per day (13,000 m3/d) of condensate, 3000 tons of LPG per day plus 400 tons of sulfur per day.
  • Phases 6, 7 and 8 being developed by Petropars and Statoil to produce lean gas for re-injection into the Aghajari oilfield, and heavy gas and condensate for export. It involves construction of three offshore platforms in addition to the land based facilities. Statoil is developing the offshore platforms while Petropars is developing the land based facilities. A 31-inch (790 mm) pipe will be laid from each platform to the coast. These phases will produce 3 billion cubic feet (85 million cubic metres) per day of natural gas, 70 million cubic feet (2.0 million cubic metres) of ethane, 120,000 barrels per day (19,000 m3/d) of condensate, 4500 tons of LPG per day plus 600 tons of sulfur per day.
  • Phases 9 and 10 being developed by LG. These phases will produce 2 billion cubic feet (57 million cubic metres) per day of natural gas, 75 million cubic feet (2.1 million cubic metres) per day of ethane, 80,000 barrels per day (13,000 m3/d) of condensate, 3000 tons of LPG per day plus 400 tons of sulfur per day. Phases 9 & 10 were inaugurated by President Ahmadinejad on March 2009.[36]
  • Phases 11 will produce LNG through the Pars LNG project. The project was awarded to China National Petroleum Corporation in 2010 after that France's Total S.A. was excluded from the project by Iran.[37]
  • Phases 12 development begin carried out by Petropars as a LNG project. This phase will produce 2.5 billion cubic feet (71 million cubic metres) per day of rich natural gas, 75 million cubic feet (2.1 million cubic metres) of ethane, 80,000 barrels per day (13,000 m3/d) of natural gas condensate, 3000 tons of LPG per day plus 400 tons of sulfur per day. Venezuela’s state-owned oil company Petroleos de Venezuela S.A. (PDVSA) will finance 10% of the $7.8 billion project. Angola’s Sonangol Group has also been awarded a 20% stake in phase 12 project.[36]
  • Phase 13 and 14 development will be for National Iranian Drilling Company (NIDC) and Iranian Offshore Engineering and Construction Company (IOEC).[40] Royal Dutch Shell and Repsol had been originally awarded phases 13 and 14 but were left out of the project by Iran due to their repeated delays.[41]
  • Phases 15 and 16 development was awarded to Khatam al-Anbia.[42] These phases will produce 2 billion cubic feet (57 million cubic metres) per day of natural gas, 75 million cubic feet (2.1 million cubic metres) of ethane, 80,000 barrels per day (13,000 m3/d) of natural gas condensate, 3,000 tons of LPG per day plus 400 tons of sulfur per day. In July 2010, the project was transferred to Iran Shipbuilding & Offshore Industries Complex. At that time, the $2 billion project was already 50% complete.[43] Phase 15 & 16 will be completed by March 2012.[44]
  • Phases 17 and 18 development was assigned to a consortium of Oil Industrial Engineering and Construction Company (OIEC), Iran Offshore Engineering and Construction (IOEC) and Petropars. These phases will produce 2 billion cubic feet (57 million cubic metres) per day of natural gas, 75 million cubic feet (2.1 million cubic metres) of ethane, 80,000 barrels per day (13,000 m3/d) of natural gas condensate, 3,000 tons of LPG per day plus 400 tons of sulfur per day. Phase 17 & 18 will be completed by March 2012.[44]
  • Phase 19 development was awarded to OIEC and Petropars.[40] These phases will produce 2 billion cubic feet (57 million cubic metres) per day of natural gas, 75 million cubic feet (2.1 million cubic metres) of ethane, 80,000 barrels per day (13,000 m3/d) of natural gas condensate, 3,000 tons of LPG per day plus 400 tons of sulfur per day. As it is understood this phase is defined within phase 1 so it can be regarded as some kind of expansion for phase 1.[45]
  • Phases 20 and 21 development was awarded to OIEC.[46] 2 billion cubic feet (57 million cubic metres) per day of natural gas, 75 million cubic feet (2.1 million cubic metres) of ethane, 80,000 barrels per day (13,000 m3/d) of natural gas condensate, 3,000 tons of LPG per day plus 400 tons of sulfur per day. In May 2008, Repsol and Royal Dutch Shell agreed to exchange block 13 with block 20 or 21[47]
  • Phases 22, 23 and 24 were awarded to Khatam al-Anbia, Petro Sina Arian and SADRA and are located in the north-eastern frontier of the field.[40][48] The aim of phases 22, 23 and 24 development is to produce 42.5 million cubic metres (1.50 billion cubic feet) per day of natural gas, 57,000 barrels per day (9,100 m3/d) of natural gas condensate, and 300 tons of sulfur per day. The three phases also are designed to produce 800,000 tons of LNG and 750,000 tons of ethane per year.[40]
  • Phases 25 and 26 are in tender.
  • Phases 27 and 28 development was assigned to Petropars on an EPC scheme.[46] These phases will produce 2 billion cubic feet (57 million cubic metres) per day of natural gas, 75 million cubic feet (2.1 million cubic metres) of ethane, 75,000 barrels per day (11,900 m3/d) of natural gas condensate, 3,000 tons of LPG per day plus 400 tons of sulfur per day.

South Pars Gas and Condensate Production Plan

Phase General Contractor 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
1 Petropars 500 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750
2 & 3 Consortium of Total, Gazprom and Petronas 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000
4 & 5 Consortium of Eni, Petronas and NIOC 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000
6, 7 & 8 Petropars and Statoil 1000 2500 3700 3700 3700 3700 3700 3700 3700
9 & 10 Consortium of GS Group, OIEC and IOEC 1000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000
11 Petropars 1000 2000 2000
12 Petropars 1000 2000 3000 3000 3000 3000
13 Khatam-ol-Osea[38] 1000 2000 2000
14 Khatam-ol-Osea[38] 500 1000 1000
15 & 16 Khatam al-Anbia, replaced with OSOICO in 2010. 1000 2000 2000
17 & 18 Consortium of IDRO, IOEC and OIEC 1000 2000 2000
19 IOEC & Petropars[40] 500 1500
20 & 21 OIEC[49] 1000 2000
22, 23 & 24 Khatam al-Anbia[48] 1000 3000
25 & 26 TBD 1000 2000
27 & 28 Petropars 1000 2000
Total Gas Production million cu ft/d 2,000 2,500 4,750 4,750 4,750 9,250 10,450 10,450 11,450 12,450 13,450 17,950 24,950 29,450
Total Condensate Production kbbl/d 80 100 190 190 190 370 420 420 460 500 540 720 1,000 1,200

Table Sources: NIOC, Pars Oil & Gas Company, Shana and Media [13]

Development delays and criticisms

While several phases of South Pars gas field are still waiting for development and the ongoing development phases are facing delays, NIOC authorities are conducting negotiations for development of other Iranian offshore gas fields like North Pars, Kish, Golshan, Ferdows and Lavan.

Many Iranian energy analysts believe that NIOC authorities should focus on full development of South Pars field prior to conduction of any new project for development of other undeveloped Iranian offshore gas fields.

The priority of South Pars full development is not only due to its shared nature with Qatar, but also with huge capability of the field to add significant liquid production to Iranian liquid export capacity.

On 27 February 2009, one of the members of Iranian Parliaments criticized lack of attention on the importance of acceleration of South Pars field development and the field development delays.[50]

Scale and impacts of delays

By the end of 2008, Qatar’s cumulative production from the field was two times higher than Iran's cumulative production from the field. Qatar produced about 20 trillion cubic feet (570 billion cubic metres) of natural gas in the period of 1997 to 2008, while Iran produced about 10 trillion cubic feet (280 billion cubic metres) of natural gas in the period of 2003 to 2008. The 2:1 ratio of Qatar's cumulative gas production from the field to Iran's is forecasted to continue at least for the short term: by the end of 2011, Qatar's total cumulative production from the field will reach 41 trillion cubic feet (1.2 trillion cubic metres) of natural gas, while Iran's will stand at 21 trillion cubic feet (590 billion cubic metres) of natural gas in the same year. The ratio is maintained mainly because Qatar's annual production is almost twice the Iranian production level.

In 2011, Qatar will reach an annual production capacity 8 trillion cubic feet (230 billion cubic metres) of natural gas per year, while in that year Iran's production capacity will reach 4 trillion cubic feet (110 billion cubic metres) per year. If Iran could implement all of its South Pars planned development projects on time, then it would reach the production capacity of 8 trillion cubic feet (230 billion cubic metres) of natural gas per year, not earlier than 2015.

The most important impact of delays and lower production in Iranian side would be migration of gas to the Qatari part and a loss of condensate yield due to decreased field pressure.

North Dome development

The North Dome, also known as North Field, was discovered in 1971,[8] with the completion of Shell's North West Dome-1 well.

With falling oil and associated gas production, and depletion of the Khuff reserves, developing the North field became imperative. In 1984 it was decided that development would occur in phases. Phase 1 involved installing production, processing, and transport facilities for 800 million cubic feet (23 million cubic metres) of natural gas per day to serve local utilities and produce 5,000 tons per day of propane, butane, gasoline, and naphtha. In 1989 a gas sweetening plant and sulfur processing unit were added. Phase one was online by early 1991. Gas from North Field phase one has been primarily used for local demand, and injection into the Dukhan field. Phase two was expected to involve selling North Field gas to its neighbors, possibly through a Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) gas grid. Phase three involved exporting to Europe and Asia. Even before the Persian Gulf War, this phase ran into trouble. To justify the investment, Qatar Petroleum (QP) needed two large-scale long-term supply contracts. Despite efforts from QP managing director Jaber al-Marri, contracts were not forthcoming. This switched emphasis to domestic outlets. In 1988, a firm of international consultants presented a plan to QP for developing domestic projects to utilize Qatari gas. Suggestions included an aluminum smelter, a ferro-alloy production plant, methanol production facilities, and expansion of petrochemical and fertilizer operations.

Qatar rapidly expanded its production and exports from North Dome Field. Here are a number of milestones:

  • 1989: Qatar begins production from North Field phase one (Alpha) at rate of 800 million cubic feet (23 million cubic metres) of natural gas per day.
  • 1997: Qatar begins exporting by sending 5.7 billion cubic feet (160 million cubic metres) (0.16 million tons) of LNG to Spain.
  • 2005: Qatar exports a total of 987 billion cubic feet (27.9 billion cubic metres) (27.9 million tons) of LNG. Of this, 316 billion cubic feet (8.9 billion cubic metres) went to Japan, 293 billion cubic feet (8.3 billion cubic metres) to South Korea, 213 billion cubic feet (6.0 billion cubic metres) to India, 161 billion cubic feet (4.6 billion cubic metres) to Spain, and 3 billion cubic feet (85 million cubic metres) to the United States.
  • 2006: Qatar surpasses Indonesia as the world's largest LNG exporter.
  • 2007: In March QP solidifies its leading role when RasGas completes its fifth LNG production train, giving the country 1.5 trillion cubic feet (42 billion cubic metres) of annual liquefaction capacity, the most in the world.[51]

Subsequent phases of the North field development provided feedstock to LNG plants at Ras Laffan Industrial City.

Based on the current Qatar planned projects, production of LNG from North Dome Field may reach to 23 billion cubic feet (650 million cubic metres) to 27 billion cubic feet (760 million cubic metres) per day by 2012, any further increase in the production level of the Qatari side of the field is subject to the result of the ongoing study by Qatar Petroleum which is supposed to be released in 2012.

The prospects for further growth in Qatari gas production beyond 2012 are clouded by the uncertainty created by a moratorium on new export projects, which was imposed in 2005 while the effect of existing projects on North Field reservoirs was studied.[1]

In order to monetize North Dome's vast resources of gas and liquids, Qatar has undertaken ambitious plans for establishment of the world's biggest LNG and GTL industry.

Qatar's LNG industry

Qatar has two LNG companies called Qatargas and RasGas and both are located in the Ras Laffan Industrial Port on the coast of Persian Gulf.[52]

Since 1997, Qatar has been exporting LNG from the North Field. In 2006, Qatar surpassed Indonesia as the world’s largest LNG exporter. Based on the massive gas resources of the field, Qatar is developing the world biggest LNG export facilities in order to reach the capacity of 77 million metric ton per year by 2012 (see table below).[53]

Qatargas and RasGas are two different companies responsible for the Qataries LNG projects.

Qatar's GTL industry

Oryx GTL (Sasol)

The ORYX GTL plant was commissioned in early 2007, as the first operational GTL plant in Qatar. The plant nameplate capacity is 34,000 barrels per day (5,400 m3/d), however, the plant has faced technical challenges and did not reach full capacity during the first year of operation. Modifications recommended by assist with overcoming this shortfall and production capacity was reached/ maintained from 2009 onwards. The plant uses 330 million cubic feet per day (9.3×10^6 m3/d) of natural gas from the Al Khaleej Gas project. The ORYX GTL project uses Sasol's Slurry Phase Distillate (SPD) process.[54]

Pearl GTL (Shell)

The project is under construction and will be the world's largest GTL plant which will have the capacity of 140,000 barrels per day (22,000 m3/d) of middle distillates and significant quantities of LPG and condensate. The first of two 70,000 barrels per day (11,000 m3/d) GTL trains is planned to start production in 2011. Around 1.6 billion cubic feet per day (45×10^6 m3/d) of natural gas will be supplied from the North field to the project. Shell has 100% of the equity in the integrated upstream and plant project.[55]

Table 3-North Field Production Plan ( Million Cubic Feet per Day).[56]
Project Start Up 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
QatarGas 1997 860 860 860 860 860 860 860 860 860 860 860 860 860 860 860
QatarGas 1998 430 430 430 430 430 430 430 430 430 430 430 430 430 430
QatarGas 2003 700 700 700 700 700 700 700 700 700
QatarGasII 2008 1700 1700 1700 1700
QatarGasII 2009 1700 1700 1700
QatarGasIII 2009 1700 1700
QatarGasIV 2009 1700
RasGas 1999 1400 1400 1400 1400 1400 1400 1400 1400 1400 1400 1400 1400 1400
RasGas 2004 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000
RasGas 2005 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000
RasGas 2007 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000
RasGas 2008 1700 1700 1700 1700
RasGas 2010 1700 1700 1700
Al Khalij 2005 650 650 650 650 650 650 650
Dolphin 2007 2800 2800 2800 2800 4000
Pearl GTL 2009 1700 1700 1700
Total million cu ft/d 860 1300 2700 2700 2700 2700 3400 4400 6000 6000 9840 13240 18340 20000 23000

Table Sources: QatarGas, RasGas, Qatar Petroleum and internet

See also

Notes


-- Module:Hatnote -- -- -- -- This module produces hatnote links and links to related articles. It -- -- implements the and meta-templates and includes -- -- helper functions for other Lua hatnote modules. --


local libraryUtil = require('libraryUtil') local checkType = libraryUtil.checkType local mArguments -- lazily initialise Module:Arguments local yesno -- lazily initialise Module:Yesno

local p = {}


-- Helper functions


local function getArgs(frame) -- Fetches the arguments from the parent frame. Whitespace is trimmed and -- blanks are removed. mArguments = require('Module:Arguments') return mArguments.getArgs(frame, {parentOnly = true}) end

local function removeInitialColon(s) -- Removes the initial colon from a string, if present. return s:match('^:?(.*)') end

function p.findNamespaceId(link, removeColon) -- Finds the namespace id (namespace number) of a link or a pagename. This -- function will not work if the link is enclosed in double brackets. Colons -- are trimmed from the start of the link by default. To skip colon -- trimming, set the removeColon parameter to true. checkType('findNamespaceId', 1, link, 'string') checkType('findNamespaceId', 2, removeColon, 'boolean', true) if removeColon ~= false then link = removeInitialColon(link) end local namespace = link:match('^(.-):') if namespace then local nsTable = mw.site.namespaces[namespace] if nsTable then return nsTable.id end end return 0 end

function p.formatPages(...) -- Formats a list of pages using formatLink and returns it as an array. Nil -- values are not allowed. local pages = {...} local ret = {} for i, page in ipairs(pages) do ret[i] = p._formatLink(page) end return ret end

function p.formatPageTables(...) -- Takes a list of page/display tables and returns it as a list of -- formatted links. Nil values are not allowed. local pages = {...} local links = {} for i, t in ipairs(pages) do checkType('formatPageTables', i, t, 'table') local link = t[1] local display = t[2] links[i] = p._formatLink(link, display) end return links end

function p.makeWikitextError(msg, helpLink, addTrackingCategory) -- Formats an error message to be returned to wikitext. If -- addTrackingCategory is not false after being returned from -- Module:Yesno, and if we are not on a talk page, a tracking category -- is added. checkType('makeWikitextError', 1, msg, 'string') checkType('makeWikitextError', 2, helpLink, 'string', true) yesno = require('Module:Yesno') local title = mw.title.getCurrentTitle() -- Make the help link text. local helpText if helpLink then helpText = ' (help)' else helpText = end -- Make the category text. local category if not title.isTalkPage and yesno(addTrackingCategory) ~= false then category = 'Hatnote templates with errors' category = string.format( '%s:%s', mw.site.namespaces[14].name, category ) else category = end return string.format( '%s', msg, helpText, category ) end


-- Format link -- -- Makes a wikilink from the given link and display values. Links are escaped -- with colons if necessary, and links to sections are detected and displayed -- with " § " as a separator rather than the standard MediaWiki "#". Used in -- the template.


function p.formatLink(frame) local args = getArgs(frame) local link = args[1] local display = args[2] if not link then return p.makeWikitextError( 'no link specified', 'Template:Format hatnote link#Errors', args.category ) end return p._formatLink(link, display) end

function p._formatLink(link, display) -- Find whether we need to use the colon trick or not. We need to use the -- colon trick for categories and files, as otherwise category links -- categorise the page and file links display the file. checkType('_formatLink', 1, link, 'string') checkType('_formatLink', 2, display, 'string', true) link = removeInitialColon(link) local namespace = p.findNamespaceId(link, false) local colon if namespace == 6 or namespace == 14 then colon = ':' else colon = end -- Find whether a faux display value has been added with the | magic -- word. if not display then local prePipe, postPipe = link:match('^(.-)|(.*)$') link = prePipe or link display = postPipe end -- Find the display value. if not display then local page, section = link:match('^(.-)#(.*)$') if page then display = page .. ' § ' .. section end end -- Assemble the link. if display then return string.format('%s', colon, link, display) else return string.format('%s%s', colon, link) end end


-- Hatnote -- -- Produces standard hatnote text. Implements the template.


function p.hatnote(frame) local args = getArgs(frame) local s = args[1] local options = {} if not s then return p.makeWikitextError( 'no text specified', 'Template:Hatnote#Errors', args.category ) end options.extraclasses = args.extraclasses options.selfref = args.selfref return p._hatnote(s, options) end

function p._hatnote(s, options) checkType('_hatnote', 1, s, 'string') checkType('_hatnote', 2, options, 'table', true) local classes = {'hatnote'} local extraclasses = options.extraclasses local selfref = options.selfref if type(extraclasses) == 'string' then classes[#classes + 1] = extraclasses end if selfref then classes[#classes + 1] = 'selfref' end return string.format( '
%s
', table.concat(classes, ' '), s )

end

return p-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -- Module:Hatnote -- -- -- -- This module produces hatnote links and links to related articles. It -- -- implements the and meta-templates and includes -- -- helper functions for other Lua hatnote modules. --


local libraryUtil = require('libraryUtil') local checkType = libraryUtil.checkType local mArguments -- lazily initialise Module:Arguments local yesno -- lazily initialise Module:Yesno

local p = {}


-- Helper functions


local function getArgs(frame) -- Fetches the arguments from the parent frame. Whitespace is trimmed and -- blanks are removed. mArguments = require('Module:Arguments') return mArguments.getArgs(frame, {parentOnly = true}) end

local function removeInitialColon(s) -- Removes the initial colon from a string, if present. return s:match('^:?(.*)') end

function p.findNamespaceId(link, removeColon) -- Finds the namespace id (namespace number) of a link or a pagename. This -- function will not work if the link is enclosed in double brackets. Colons -- are trimmed from the start of the link by default. To skip colon -- trimming, set the removeColon parameter to true. checkType('findNamespaceId', 1, link, 'string') checkType('findNamespaceId', 2, removeColon, 'boolean', true) if removeColon ~= false then link = removeInitialColon(link) end local namespace = link:match('^(.-):') if namespace then local nsTable = mw.site.namespaces[namespace] if nsTable then return nsTable.id end end return 0 end

function p.formatPages(...) -- Formats a list of pages using formatLink and returns it as an array. Nil -- values are not allowed. local pages = {...} local ret = {} for i, page in ipairs(pages) do ret[i] = p._formatLink(page) end return ret end

function p.formatPageTables(...) -- Takes a list of page/display tables and returns it as a list of -- formatted links. Nil values are not allowed. local pages = {...} local links = {} for i, t in ipairs(pages) do checkType('formatPageTables', i, t, 'table') local link = t[1] local display = t[2] links[i] = p._formatLink(link, display) end return links end

function p.makeWikitextError(msg, helpLink, addTrackingCategory) -- Formats an error message to be returned to wikitext. If -- addTrackingCategory is not false after being returned from -- Module:Yesno, and if we are not on a talk page, a tracking category -- is added. checkType('makeWikitextError', 1, msg, 'string') checkType('makeWikitextError', 2, helpLink, 'string', true) yesno = require('Module:Yesno') local title = mw.title.getCurrentTitle() -- Make the help link text. local helpText if helpLink then helpText = ' (help)' else helpText = end -- Make the category text. local category if not title.isTalkPage and yesno(addTrackingCategory) ~= false then category = 'Hatnote templates with errors' category = string.format( '%s:%s', mw.site.namespaces[14].name, category ) else category = end return string.format( '%s', msg, helpText, category ) end


-- Format link -- -- Makes a wikilink from the given link and display values. Links are escaped -- with colons if necessary, and links to sections are detected and displayed -- with " § " as a separator rather than the standard MediaWiki "#". Used in -- the template.


function p.formatLink(frame) local args = getArgs(frame) local link = args[1] local display = args[2] if not link then return p.makeWikitextError( 'no link specified', 'Template:Format hatnote link#Errors', args.category ) end return p._formatLink(link, display) end

function p._formatLink(link, display) -- Find whether we need to use the colon trick or not. We need to use the -- colon trick for categories and files, as otherwise category links -- categorise the page and file links display the file. checkType('_formatLink', 1, link, 'string') checkType('_formatLink', 2, display, 'string', true) link = removeInitialColon(link) local namespace = p.findNamespaceId(link, false) local colon if namespace == 6 or namespace == 14 then colon = ':' else colon = end -- Find whether a faux display value has been added with the | magic -- word. if not display then local prePipe, postPipe = link:match('^(.-)|(.*)$') link = prePipe or link display = postPipe end -- Find the display value. if not display then local page, section = link:match('^(.-)#(.*)$') if page then display = page .. ' § ' .. section end end -- Assemble the link. if display then return string.format('%s', colon, link, display) else return string.format('%s%s', colon, link) end end


-- Hatnote -- -- Produces standard hatnote text. Implements the template.


function p.hatnote(frame) local args = getArgs(frame) local s = args[1] local options = {} if not s then return p.makeWikitextError( 'no text specified', 'Template:Hatnote#Errors', args.category ) end options.extraclasses = args.extraclasses options.selfref = args.selfref return p._hatnote(s, options) end

function p._hatnote(s, options) checkType('_hatnote', 1, s, 'string') checkType('_hatnote', 2, options, 'table', true) local classes = {'hatnote'} local extraclasses = options.extraclasses local selfref = options.selfref if type(extraclasses) == 'string' then classes[#classes + 1] = extraclasses end if selfref then classes[#classes + 1] = 'selfref' end return string.format( '
%s
', table.concat(classes, ' '), s )

end

return p
  1. ^ a b c IEA, World Energy Outlook 2008 - Chapter 12 - Natural gas resources and production prospects, p.298
  2. ^ http://www.payvand.com/news/10/jun/1138.html
  3. ^ CEDIGAZ:Current status of the World's gas giants
  4. ^ a b http://www.offshore-technology.com/projects/southpars/
  5. ^ "Gas Prospective Areas in the Zagros Domain of Iran and in Persian Gulf Iranian Waters". • Search and Discovery. • (PDF)
  6. ^ a b H. Rahimpour-Bonab, B. Esrafili-Dizaji, V. Tavakoli (2010) DOLOMITIZATION AND ANHYDRITE PRECIPITATION IN PERMO-TRIASSIC CARBONATES AT THE SOUTH PARS GASFIELD, OFFSHORE IRAN: CONTROLS ON RESERVOIR QUALITY. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1747-5457.2010.00463.x/abstract
  7. ^ V. Tavakoli, H. Rahimpour-Bonab, B. Esrafili-Dizaji (2011) Diagenetic controlled reservoir quality of Southnext termprevious termParsnext term gas field, an integrated approach. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1631071310002191
  8. ^ a b c d e Jafar Aalia, Jafar., Hossain Rahimpour-Bonaba and Mohammad Reza Kamali. • "Geochemistry and origin of the world's largest gas field from Persian Gulf, Iran". • Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering. • (Volume 50, Issues 3-4). • March 16, 2006, • pp.161-175.
  9. ^ a b IRAN - The Geology. • APS Review Gas Market Trends. • April 2, 2007
  10. ^ 1 Barrel of crude oil = 5.8 × 106 BTU
  11. ^ Eni World Oil and Gas Review 2006. • ENI.
  12. ^ Qatar Petroleum Annual Report 2005, Page 25
  13. ^ a b c Pars Oil & Gas Company
  14. ^ Qatar Petroleum, Speech by Qatar’s Minister of Energy and Industry, Doha, Qatar, May 5, 2003 [1]
  15. ^ Pars Oil and Gas Company
  16. ^ a b IHS Energy
  17. ^ "Moratorium on North Field development". • The Peninsula Qatar. • May 10, 2006
  18. ^ Cohen, Dave. "Questions About the World's Biggest Natural Gas Field". The Oil Drum. June 9, 2006
  19. ^ World Gas Intelligence Vol.XIX, No.51, December 17, 2008 - Page 4
  20. ^ a b c http://www.payvand.com/news/10/dec/1205.html
  21. ^ http://www.presstv.com/detail/156997.html
  22. ^ Iran Oil Ministry Annual Bulletin, 5th Edition,(available in Persian)(كتاب نفت و توسعه).[2]
  23. ^ a b
  24. ^ ^ http://regimechangeiran.blogspot.com/2005/03/rafsanjani-statoil-bribery-covered-in.html
  25. ^ http://www.turquoisepartners.com/iraninvestment/IIM-Jul10.pdf
  26. ^ http://www.presstv.com/detail.aspx?id=137837§ionid=351020103
  27. ^ http://www.presstv.com/detail.aspx?id=96060§ionid=351020103
  28. ^ http://www.presstv.com/detail.aspx?id=124545§ionid=351020103
  29. ^ http://www.presstv.com/detail.aspx?id=136283§ionid=351020103
  30. ^ http://shana.ir/167834-en.html
  31. ^ http://www.presstv.com/detail/155559.html
  32. ^ http://en.mehrnews.com/detail/News/106321
  33. ^ http://www.presstv.com/detail.aspx?id=138732§ionid=351020103
  34. ^ http://www.presstv.com/detail/2012/07/31/253608/irans-gas-sales-to-reach-100bn/
  35. ^ http://tehrantimes.com/economy-and-business/103845-over-400-iranian-firms-supplying-equipment-to-south-pars-projects
  36. ^ a b http://www.tehrantimes.com/Index_view.asp?code=229206
  37. ^ http://www.presstv.com/detail.aspx?id=118321§ionid=351020103
  38. ^ a b c
  39. ^ http://www.tehrantimes.com/index_View.asp?code=220734
  40. ^ a b c d e http://www.shana.ir/154657-en.html
  41. ^ http://www.presstv.com/detail.aspx?id=130529§ionid=351020103
  42. ^ http://rand.org/pubs/monographs/2008/RAND_MG821.pdf
  43. ^ http://www.payvand.com/news/10/jul/1136.html
  44. ^ a b http://www.payvand.com/news/10/aug/1148.html
  45. ^ Shana.ir, NIOC Official News Agency
  46. ^ a b Shana.ir, NIOC Official News Agency
  47. ^ "Repsol, Shell renegotiating Iran gas deal: Repsol company source". • AFP. • May 12, 2008
  48. ^ a b http://www.google.com/hostednews/afp/article/ALeqM5hO8-2zc6BnKaP-2LaqMckSMDa1dg
  49. ^ http://www.presstv.com/detail.aspx?id=96548§ionid=351020103
  50. ^ Fars News Agency, 27 February 2009
  51. ^ EIA Qatar (2007)
  52. ^ Qatar Petroleum [www.qp.com.qa]
  53. ^ Qatar: Natural Gas. • Energy Information Administration (EIA). • United States Department of Energy
  54. ^ OryxGTL.com.qa
  55. ^ Shell.com
  56. ^ QatarGas, RasGas, Qatar Petroleum and Internet

References

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