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Soyuz 10

Soyuz 10
Salyut 1 (left) and Soyuz 10 during a docking attempt.
Operator Soviet space program
COSPAR ID 1971-034A[1]
SATCAT № 5172[1]
Mission duration 1 day, 23 hours, 45 minutes, 54 seconds
Orbits completed 32
Spacecraft properties
Spacecraft type Soyuz 7K-OKS
Manufacturer Experimental Design Bureau OKB-1
Launch mass 6,800 kilograms (15,000 lb)
Crew size 3
Members Vladimir Shatalov
Aleksei Yeliseyev
Nikolai Rukavishnikov
Callsign Гранит (Granit - "Granite")[2]
Start of mission
Launch date 22 April 1971, 23:54:06 (1971-04-22T23:54:06Z) UTC
Rocket Soyuz
Launch site Baikonur 1/5[3]
End of mission
Landing date Did not recognize date. Try slightly modifying the date in the first parameter. UTC
Landing site 120 kilometres (75 mi) NW of Karaganda
Orbital parameters
Reference system Geocentric
Regime Low Earth
Perigee 209 kilometres (130 mi)
Apogee 258 kilometres (160 mi)
Inclination 51.6 degrees
Period 89.1 minutes
Epoch 23 April 1971[1]

Soyuz programme
(Manned missions)
← Soyuz 9 Soyuz 11

Soyuz 10 (Russian: Союз 10, Union 10) was launched on 22 April 1971 as the world's first mission to the world's first space station, the Soviet Salyut 1. The docking was not successful and the crew returned to Earth without having entered the station. It would be the first of numerous docking failures in the Soviet space station program.[4]


  • Orbit 1
  • Mission 2
  • Crew 3
    • Backup crew 3.1
    • Reserve crew 3.2
  • See also 4
  • References 5


Soyuz 10 was launched on 22 April 1971 to dock with Salyut 1. The spacecraft was the first of the upgraded Soyuz 7K-OKS, featuring the new "probe and drogue" docking mechanism with internal crew transfer capability, intended for space station visits.


The cosmonauts Vladimir Shatalov, Aleksei Yeliseyev, and Nikolai Rukavishnikov were able to navigate their Soyuz 10 spacecraft to the Salyut 1 station, yet during docking they ran into problems. The automatic control system failed during approach due to a serious design oversight - when soft dock was performed, the computer sensed an abnormality in the spacecraft's alignment and began firing the attitude control jets to compensate. With Soyuz 10 being pushed to one side by the attitude control system, it became impossible to achieve hard dock and large quantities of propellant were expended doing so. The docking attempt was called off, but further problems occurred when the probe would not come out of the space station's docking cone. The obvious solution was to simply jettison the orbital module and leave it attached to Salyut 1, but this would make it impossible for future Soyuz missions to dock and thus the space station would have to be abandoned. Eventually, ground controllers figured out that the cosmonauts could throw a circuit breaker in the docking mechanism, as interrupting the power supply would cause the probe to automatically retract. This procedure worked and undocking was completed.[2] The automatic control system would be redesigned on future Soyuz spacecraft.

After finally undocking, one last hitch presented itself when toxic fumes began to fill the capsule during reentry, causing Rukavishnikov to pass out – all three crew members were recovered unscathed however. It presaged an ill omen for the next mission.


Position Cosmonaut
Commander Vladimir Shatalov
Third spaceflight
Flight Engineer Aleksei Yeliseyev
Third spaceflight
Test Engineer Nikolai Rukavishnikov
First spaceflight

Backup crew

Position Cosmonaut
Commander Alexey Leonov
Flight Engineer Valeri Kubasov
Test Engineer Pyotr Kolodin

Reserve crew

Position[2] Cosmonaut
Commander Georgi Dobrovolski
Flight Engineer Vladislav Volkov
Test Engineer Viktor Patsayev

See also

  • Soyuz T-13, a mission to manually dock to the crippled Salyut 7 space station.
  • Soyuz T-15, a mission to ferry equipment from Salyut 7 to Mir, which had to manually maneuver and dock to Mir.


  1. ^ a b c McDowell, Jonathan. "SATCAT". Jonathan's Space Pages. Retrieved 23 March 2014. 
  2. ^ a b c Mir Hardware Heritage - 1.7.3 (wikisource)
  3. ^ "Baikonur LC1". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Retrieved 2009-03-04. 
  4. ^ The mission report is available here:
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