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Soyuz TM-12

Soyuz TM-12
Mission duration 144 days, 15 hours, 21 minutes, 50 seconds
Orbits completed ~2,260
Spacecraft properties
Spacecraft type Soyuz-TM
Manufacturer NPO Energia
Launch mass 7,160 kilograms (15,790 lb)
Crew size 3
Members Anatoly Artsebarsky
Launching Sergei Krikalyov
Helen Sharman
Landing Toktar Aubakirov
Franz Viehböck
Callsign Озо́н (Ozone)
Start of mission
Launch date May 18, 1991, 12:50:28 (1991-05-18T12:50:28Z) UTC
Rocket Soyuz-U2
End of mission
Landing date Did not recognize date. Try slightly modifying the date in the first parameter. UTC
Landing site 61 kilometres (38 mi) SW of Arkalyk
Orbital parameters
Reference system Geocentric
Regime Low Earth
Perigee 389 kilometres (242 mi)
Apogee 397 kilometres (247 mi)
Inclination 51.6 degrees
Period 92.4 minutes
Docking with Mir

Soyuz programme
(Manned missions)
← Soyuz TM-11 Soyuz TM-13

Soyuz TM-12 was the 12th expedition to Mir, and included the first Briton in space,[1] Helen Sharman.


Position Launching crew Landing crew
Commander  Anatoly Artsebarsky
Only spaceflight
Flight Engineer  Sergei Krikalyov
Second spaceflight
 Toktar Aubakirov
Only spaceflight
Research Cosmonaut  Helen Sharman
Only spaceflight
Project Juno
 Franz Viehböck
Only spaceflight

Mission Details

The Derbents welcomed aboard Mir Anatoli Artsebarski, Sergei Krikalev (on his second visit to the station), and British cosmonaut-researcher Helen Sharman, who was aboard as part of Project Juno, a cooperative venture partly sponsored by British private enterprise. Sharman’s experimental program, which was designed by the Soviets, leaned heavily toward life sciences, her speciality being chemistry. A bag of 250,000 pansy seeds was placed in the Kvant-2 EVA airlock, a compartment not as protected from cosmic radiation as other Mir compartments. Sharman also contacted nine British schools by radio and conducted high-temperature superconductor experiments with the Elektropograph-7K device. Sharman commented that she had difficulty finding equipment on Mir as there was a great deal more equipment than in the trainer in the cosmonaut city of Zvezdny Gorodok. Krikalev commented that, while Mir had more modules than it had had the first time he lived on board, it did not seem less crowded, as it contained more equipment. Krikalev also noted that some of the materials making up the station’s exterior had faded and lost color, but that this had had no impact on the station’s operation.

Spent 144 days docked to Mir. While it was in orbit, the failed coup d’etat against Mikhail Gorbachev rocked the Soviet Union, setting in motion events which led to the end of the Soviet Union on January 1, 1992.


  1. ^ The mission report is available here:
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