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Spaceflight before 1951

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Spaceflight before 1951

Spaceflight before 1951
Launch of a V-2 from Peenemünde
National firsts
Spaceflight  Germany (1944)
 United States (1946)
 Soviet Union (1948)

This is a list of known spaceflights launched before 1951.

Contents

  • Launches 1
    • 1944 1.1
    • 1946 1.2
    • 1947 1.3
    • 1948 1.4
    • 1949 1.5
    • 1950 1.6
  • References 2
    • Footnotes 2.1
  • See also 3

Launches

Ma-333, Decay:7 December" GRENADES, Decay:18 December" Blossom I, Decay:20 February" GRENADES, Decay:17 April" Hermes II, Decay:30 May" Blossom II, Decay:8 December" Blossom IIA, Decay:19 March" Bumper 1, Decay:13 May" Bumper 2, Decay:19 August" GRENADES, Decay:3 September" Bumper 3, Decay:30 September" Bumper 4, Decay:1 November" Hermes II, Decay:14 January" Bumper 5, Decay:24 February" Blossom IVA, Decay:22 March" Bumper 6, Decay:22 April" FIAR-1, Decay:24 May" Blossom IVB, Decay:14 June" Viking 2, Decay:6 September" Blossom IVC, Decay:16 September" Hermes II, Decay:6 October" GRENADES, Decay:18 November" Blossom IVD, Decay:8 December" Viking 3, Decay:9 February" Viking 4, Decay:12 May" Blossom IVG, Decay:31 August" Hermes II, Decay:9 November" Viking 5, Decay:21 November" Viking 6, Decay:12 December"
Date and time (UTC) Rocket Launch site LSP
Payload Operator Orbit Function Decay (UTC) Outcome
Remarks

1944

20 June V-2 Peenemünde Wehrmacht
Wehrmacht Suborbital Missile test   Successful
First man-made object to cross what would later be defined as the Kármán line and hence first spaceflight.
Vertical test, apogee: 176 kilometres (109 mi)
June V-2 Peenemünde Wehrmacht
Wehrmacht Suborbital Missile test   Launch failure
Vertical test, guidance system malfunction
June V-2 Peenemünde Wehrmacht
Wehrmacht Suborbital Missile test   Successful
Vertical test, apogee: 189 kilometres (117 mi)
14 September V-2 Peenemünde Wehrmacht
Wehrmacht Suborbital Missile test 14 September Successful
First spaceflight with recorded date, vertical test, apogee: 175 kilometres (109 mi)
7 December
17:00
V-2 Peenemünde Wehrmacht
Ma-333 Wehrmacht Suborbital Missile test 7 December Successful
Vertical test, apogee: 104 kilometres (65 mi)
9 December
17:10
V-2 Peenemünde Wehrmacht
Wehrmacht Suborbital Missile test 9 December Successful
Vertical test, apogee: 106 kilometres (66 mi)

1946

16 April
21:47
V-2 White Sands - Launch Complex 33 US Army
US Army Suborbital Radiation 16 April Launch failure
First launch of Project Hermes, apogee: 8 kilometres (5.0 mi)
10 May
21:15
V-2 White Sands LC-33 US Army
US Army Suborbital Chemical release 10 May Successful
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 112 kilometres (70 mi), First US spaceflight
29 May
21:12
V-2 White Sands LC-33 US Army
US Army Suborbital Chemical release 29 May Successful
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 189 kilometres (117 mi)
13 June
23:40
V-2 White Sands LC-33 US Army
US Army Suborbital Solar 13 June Successful
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 117 kilometres (73 mi)
28 June
19:25
V-2 White Sands LC-33 US Army
US Army Suborbital Solar 28 June Successful
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 108 kilometres (67 mi)
9 July
19:25
V-2 White Sands LC-33 US Army
US Army Suborbital Solar 9 July Successful
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 134 kilometres (83 mi)
19 July
19:11
V-2 White Sands LC-33 US Army
US Army Suborbital Ionospheric 19 July Launch failure
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 5 kilometres (3.1 mi)
30 July
23:40
V-2 White Sands LC-33 US Army
US Army Suborbital Chemical release 30 July Successful
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 162 kilometres (101 mi)
15 August
18:00
V-2 White Sands LC-33 US Army
US Army Suborbital Solar 15 August Launch failure
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 3 kilometres (1.9 mi)
22 August
17:15
V-2 White Sands LC-33 US Army
US Army Suborbital Aeronomy 22 August Launch failure
Project Hermes launch
10 October
18:02
V-2 White Sands LC-33 US Army
US Army Suborbital Solar 10 October Successful
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 164 kilometres (102 mi)
24 October
19:15
V-2 White Sands LC-33 US Army
US Army/APL Suborbital Solar
Chemical release
Imaging
24 October Successful
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 105 kilometres (65 mi)
7 November
20:31
V-2 White Sands LC-33 US Army
US Army Suborbital Chemical release
Radiation
7 November Launch failure
Project Hermes launch
21 November
16:55
V-2 White Sands LC-33 US Army
US Army Suborbital Solar 21 November Successful
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 102 kilometres (63 mi)
5 December
20:08
V-2 White Sands LC-33 US Army
US Army Suborbital Solar 5 December Successful
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 153 kilometres (95 mi)
18 December
05:12
V-2 White Sands LC-33 US Army
GRENADES US Army Suborbital Chemical release
Meteor research
18 December Successful
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 184 kilometres (114 mi)

1947

10 January
21:13
V-2 White Sands LC-33 US Army
US Army Suborbital 10 January Successful
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 116 kilometres (72 mi)
20 February
18:16
V-2 White Sands LC-33 US Army
Blossom I US Army Suborbital Biological
Atmospheric
20 February Successful
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 109 kilometres (68 mi). Carried rye, cotton seeds and fruit flies, first animals in space[1]
7 March
18:23
V-2 White Sands LC-33 US Army
US Army Suborbital Biological
Atmospheric
Imagery
7 March Successful
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 161 kilometres (100 mi).[1] Carried rye, cotton seeds and fruit flies
1 April
20:10
V-2 White Sands LC-33 US Army
US Army Suborbital 1 April Successful
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 129 kilometres (80 mi)
9 April
00:10
V-2 White Sands LC-33 US Army
US Army Suborbital 9 April Successful
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 103 kilometres (64 mi)
17 April
23:22
V-2 White Sands LC-33 US Army
GRENADES US Army Suborbital 17 April Successful
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 140 kilometres (87 mi)
15 May
23:08
V-2 White Sands LC-33 US Army
US Army Suborbital 15 May Launch failure
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 122 kilometres (76 mi)
30 May Hermes B-1 White Sands LC-33 US Army
Hermes II US Army Suborbital Missile test 30 May Launch failure
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 50 kilometres (31 mi), maiden flight of Hermes B-1
10 July
19:18
V-2 White Sands LC-33 US Army
US Army Suborbital 10 July Launch failure
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 16 kilometres (9.9 mi)
30 July
00:55
V-2 White Sands LC-33 US Army
US Army Suborbital 30 July Successful
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 159 kilometres (99 mi)
6 September V-2 USS Midway, AO-10 US Navy
US Navy Suborbital Missile test 6 September Launch failure
Operation Sandy, first shipboard missile launch, apogee: 1 kilometre (0.62 mi)
9 October
19:15
V-2 White Sands LC-33 US Army
US Army Suborbital 9 October Successful
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 156 kilometres (97 mi)
20 November
23:47
V-2 White Sands LC-33 General Electric
General Electric Suborbital 20 November Launch failure
Apogee: 29 kilometres (18 mi)
24 November
17:20
Aerobee RTV-N-8 White Sands LC-35 US Navy
APL Suborbital Chemical release 24 November Launch failure
Apogee: 56 kilometres (35 mi)
8 December
21:42
V-2 White Sands LC-33 US Army
Blossom II US Army Suborbital Aeronomy 8 December Successful
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 105 kilometres (65 mi)

1948

22 January
20:12
V-2 White Sands LC-33 US Army
US Army Suborbital 22 January Successful
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 159 kilometres (99 mi)
6 February
17:17
V-2 White Sands LC-33 General Electric
General Electric Suborbital 6 February Successful
Apogee: 113 kilometres (70 mi)
5 March
22:51
Aerobee RTV-N-8 White Sands LC-35 US Navy
APL Suborbital Chemical release 5 March Successful
Apogee: 118 kilometres (73 mi)
19 March
23:10
V-2 White Sands LC-33 US Army
Blossom IIA US Army Suborbital 19 March Launch failure
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 5 kilometres (3.1 mi)
2 April
13:47
V-2 White Sands LC-33 US Army
US Army Suborbital 2 April Successful
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 144 kilometres (89 mi)
13 April
21:41
Aerobee RTV-N-8 White Sands LC-35 US Navy
APL Suborbital 13 April Successful
Apogee: 114 kilometres (71 mi)
19 April
19:54
V-2 White Sands LC-33 US Army
US Army Suborbital 19 April Launch failure
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 56 kilometres (35 mi)
13 May
13:43
Bumper White Sands LC-33 US Army
Bumper 1 US Army Suborbital 13 May Successful
Maiden flight of Bumper, apogee: 127 kilometres (79 mi)
27 May
14:15
V-2 White Sands LC-33 US Army
US Army Suborbital 27 May Successful
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 140 kilometres (87 mi)
26 July
16:47
Aerobee RTV-N-8 White Sands LC-35 US Navy
APL Suborbital 26 July Successful
Apogee: 113 kilometres (70 mi)
5 August
12:07
V-2 White Sands LC-33 US Army
US Army Suborbital UV Astronomy
Solar X-ray
5 August Successful
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 166 kilometres (103 mi)
19 August
14:45
Bumper White Sands LC-33 US Army
Bumper 2 US Army Suborbital 19 August Launch failure
Apogee: 13 kilometres (8.1 mi)
3 September
01:00
V-2 White Sands LC-33 US Army
GRENADES US Army Suborbital 3 September Successful
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 151 kilometres (94 mi)
17 September R-1 Kapustin Yar OKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test 17 September Launch failure
Maiden flight of R-1
30 September
15:30
Bumper White Sands LC-33 US Army
Bumper 3 US Army Suborbital 30 September Launch failure
Apogee: 150 kilometres (93 mi)
10 October R-1 Kapustin Yar OKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test 10 October Successful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi), first Soviet spaceflight
13 October R-1 Kapustin Yar OKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test 13 October Successful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
21 October R-1 Kapustin Yar OKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test 21 October Successful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
23 October R-1 Kapustin Yar OKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test 23 October Successful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
1 November
14:24
Bumper White Sands LC-33 US Army
Bumper 4 US Army Suborbital 1 November Launch failure
Apogee: 5 kilometres (3.1 mi)
1 November R-1 Kapustin Yar OKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test 1 November Successful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
3 November R-1 Kapustin Yar OKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test 3 November Successful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
4 November R-1 Kapustin Yar OKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test 4 November Successful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
5 November R-1 Kapustin Yar OKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test 5 November Successful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
18 November
22:35
V-2 White Sands LC-33 US Army
US Army Suborbital Ramjet research 18 November Successful
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 145 kilometres (90 mi)
9 December
16:08
V-2 White Sands LC-33 US Army
US Army Suborbital 9 December Successful
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 108 kilometres (67 mi)

1949

14 January
20:26
Hermes B-1 White Sands LC-33 US Army
Hermes II US Army Suborbital Missile test 14 January Launch failure
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 1 kilometre (0.62 mi)
28 January
17:20
V-2 White Sands LC-33 US Army
US Army Suborbital 28 January Launch failure
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 60 kilometres (37 mi)
17 February
17:00
V-2 White Sands LC-33 US Army
US Army Suborbital 17 February Successful
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
24 February
22:14
Bumper White Sands LC-33 US Army
Bumper 5 US Army Suborbital 24 February Successful
Apogee: 393 kilometres (244 mi)
17 March
23:20
Aerobee RTV-N-8 USS Norton Sound, PO-22 LP-1 US Navy
APL Suborbital Ionospheric 17 March Successful
Apogee: 105 kilometres (65 mi)
22 March
06:43
V-2 White Sands LC-33 US Army
Blossom IVA US Army Suborbital 22 March Successful
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 108 kilometres (67 mi)
22 March
17:20
Aerobee RTV-N-8 USS Norton Sound, PO-22 LP-1 US Navy
APL Suborbital Ionospheric 22 March Successful
Apogee: 105 kilometres (65 mi)
24 March
15:14
Aerobee RTV-N-8 USS Norton Sound, PO-22 LP-1 US Navy
APL Suborbital Ionospheric 24 March Launch failure
Apogee: 5 kilometres (3.1 mi), pressure valve malfunction, booster separated on ignition
22 April
00:17
Bumper White Sands LC-33 US Army
Bumper 6 US Army Suborbital 22 April Launch failure
Apogee: 50 kilometres (31 mi)
5 May
15:15
V-2 White Sands LC-33 US Army
US Army Suborbital 5 May Launch failure
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 8 kilometres (5.0 mi)
7 May
03:12
R-1A Kapustin Yar OKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test 7 May Successful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi), maiden flight of R-1A
10 May
15:57
R-1A Kapustin Yar OKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test 10 May Successful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
15 May
02:48
R-1A Kapustin Yar OKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test 15 May Successful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
16 May
21:55
R-1A Kapustin Yar OKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test 16 May Successful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
24 May
01:40
R-1A Kapustin Yar OKB-1
FIAR-1 OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test 24 May Successful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
28 May
01:50
R-1A Kapustin Yar OKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test 28 May Successful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
14 June
22:35
V-2 White Sands LC-33 US Army
Blossom IVB US Army Suborbital Biological
Atmospheric
14 June Successful
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 134 kilometres (83 mi), carried Albert II, first monkey in space[1][2]
15 June
02:03
Aerobee RTV-N-8 White Sands LC-35 US Navy
NRL Suborbital Ozone research 15 June Successful
Apogee: 109 kilometres (68 mi)
6 September
16:57
Viking White Sands ALA-1 US Navy
Viking 2 NRL Suborbital Aeronomy
Imaging
6 September Launch failure
Apogee: 57 kilometres (35 mi)
10 September R-1 Kapustin Yar OKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test 10 September Successful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
11 September R-1 Kapustin Yar OKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test 11 September Successful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
13 September R-1 Kapustin Yar OKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test 13 September Successful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
14 September R-1 Kapustin Yar OKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test 14 September Successful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
16 September
23:19
V-2 White Sands LC-33 US Army
Blossom IVC US Army Suborbital Biological 16 September Launch failure
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 5 kilometres (3.1 mi), carried Albert III
17 September R-1 Kapustin Yar OKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test 17 September Successful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
19 September R-1 Kapustin Yar OKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test 19 September Successful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
20 September R-1 Kapustin Yar OKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test 20 September Successful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
23 September R-1 Kapustin Yar OKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test 23 September Successful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
25 September
11:16
R-2E Kapustin Yar OKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test 25 September Successful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi), maiden flight of R-2E
28 September R-1 Kapustin Yar OKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test 28 September Successful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
30 September
11:49
R-2E Kapustin Yar OKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test 30 September Successful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
2 October
11:00
R-2E Kapustin Yar OKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test 2 October Launch failure
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
3 October R-1 Kapustin Yar OKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test 3 October Successful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
6 October Hermes B-1 White Sands LC-33 US Army
Hermes II US Army Suborbital Missile test 6 October Launch failure
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 4 kilometres (2.5 mi)
8 October
06:05
R-2E Kapustin Yar OKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test 8 October Successful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
8 October R-1 Kapustin Yar OKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test 8 October Successful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
10 October R-1 Kapustin Yar OKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test 10 October Successful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
11 October
12:45
R-2E Kapustin Yar OKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test 11 October Launch failure
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
12 October R-1 Kapustin Yar OKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test 12 October Successful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
13 October R-1 Kapustin Yar OKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test 13 October Successful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
13 October R-1 Kapustin Yar OKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test 13 October Successful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
15 October R-1 Kapustin Yar OKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test 15 October Successful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
18 October R-1 Kapustin Yar OKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test 18 October Successful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
19 October R-1 Kapustin Yar OKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test 19 October Successful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
22 October R-1 Kapustin Yar OKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test 22 October Successful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
23 October R-1 Kapustin Yar OKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test 23 October Successful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
18 November
16:03
V-2 White Sands LC-33 US Army
GRENADES US Army Suborbital 18 November Successful
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 124 kilometres (77 mi)
6 December Aerobee XASR-SC-1 White Sands LC-35 US Army
US Army Suborbital Air sampling aironomy mission 6 December Launch failure
Doesn't reach Karman line; Apogee: 64.9 kilometres (40.3 mi)
8 December
19:15
V-2 White Sands LC-33 US Army
Blossom IVD US Army Suborbital Biological 8 December Successful
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 127 kilometres (79 mi), carried Albert IV

1950

9 February
21:44
Viking White Sands ALA-1 US Navy
Viking 3 NRL Suborbital Solar
Imaging
9 February Launch failure
Veered off-course, failed to reach space, apogee: 80.5 kilometres (50.0 mi)
17 February
18:01
V-2 White Sands LC-33 US Army
US Army Suborbital 17 February Successful
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 148 kilometres (92 mi)
26 April
01:11
Aerobee XASR-SC-2 White Sands LC-35 US Navy
US Army Suborbital Atmospheric 26 April Successful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
12 May
03:08
Viking USS Norton Sound, PO-8 US Navy
Viking 4 US Navy Suborbital Ionospheric
Aeronomy
12 May Successful
Apogee: 171 kilometres (106 mi)
17 August
15:45
Aerobee RTV-N-10 White Sands LC-35 US Navy
APL Suborbital Spectrometry 17 August Successful
Apogee: 101 kilometres (63 mi)
31 August
17:09
V-2 White Sands LC-33 US Army
Blossom IVG US Army Suborbital Biological 31 August Successful
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 137 kilometres (85 mi), carried a mouse
21 October R-2 Kapustin Yar OKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test 21 October Successful
Apogee: 150 kilometres (93 mi), maiden flight of R-2
1 November R-2 Kapustin Yar OKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test 1 November Successful
Apogee: 150 kilometres (93 mi)
1 November R-2 Kapustin Yar OKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test 1 November Successful
Apogee: 150 kilometres (93 mi)
1 November R-2 Kapustin Yar OKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test 1 November Successful
Apogee: 150 kilometres (93 mi)
1 November R-2 Kapustin Yar OKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test 1 November Successful
Apogee: 150 kilometres (93 mi)
1 November R-2 Kapustin Yar OKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test 1 November Successful
Apogee: 150 kilometres (93 mi)
9 November Hermes B-1 White Sands LC-33 US Army
Hermes II US Army Suborbital Missile test 9 November Successful
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 150 kilometres (93 mi)
21 November
17:18
Viking White Sands ALA-1 US Navy
Viking 5 NRL Suborbital Solar
Ionospheric
21 November Successful
Apogee: 174 kilometres (108 mi)
1 December R-2 Kapustin Yar OKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test 1 December Successful
Apogee: 150 kilometres (93 mi)
1 December R-2 Kapustin Yar OKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test 1 December Successful
Apogee: 150 kilometres (93 mi)
1 December R-2 Kapustin Yar OKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test 1 December Successful
Apogee: 150 kilometres (93 mi)
12 December
07:04
Viking White Sands ALA-1 US Navy
Viking 6 US Navy Suborbital 12 December Launch failure
Apogee: 64 kilometres (40 mi)
12 December
18:26
Aerobee RTV-A-1 Holloman LC-A ARDC
ARDC Suborbital 12 December Successful
Apogee: 106 kilometres (66 mi)
20 December R-2 Kapustin Yar OKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test 20 December Launch failure
Apogee: 150 kilometres (93 mi)

References

  • Kyle, Ed. "Space Launch Report". 
  • Wade, Mark. "Encyclopedia Astronautica". 
  • Krebs, Gunter. "Chronology of Space Launches". Gunter's Space Page. 
  • "Space Information Center". JAXA. 
  • McDowell, Jonathan. "Jonathan's Space Report". Jonathan's Space Page. 
  • "NASASpaceFlight.com". 
  • "Space Calendar". NASA JPL. 
  • "Southwest Space Archive". 
  • "Launch Forecast". Space.com. 
  • "Spaceflight Now". 
  • Pietrobon, Steven. "Steven Pietrobon's Space Archive". 
  • "U.S. Space Objects Registry". 
  • "Хроника освоения космоса ('Chronicle of space exploration')" (in Russian). Cosmoworld.ru. 
Generic references:

Footnotes

  1. ^ a b c "Part 1: 1900 - 1950". Chronology of Human Space Exploration. I-Spy Space. 
  2. ^ Wade, Mark. "V-2 Chronology". Encyclopedia Astronautica. 

See also

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