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Spanish America

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Spanish America

"Spanish America" redirects here. For colonial Spanish America, see Spanish colonization of the Americas.


Hispanic America or Spanish America is the region comprising the American countries inhabited by Spanish-speaking populations.[1][2]

These countries have significant commonalities with each other and with Spain, whose colonies they formerly were. In all of these countries, Spanish is the main language, sometimes sharing official status with one or more indigenous languages (such as Guaraní, Quechua, Aymara, or Mayan), or English (in Puerto Rico).[3] Roman Catholicism is the predominant religion.[4]

Hispanic America differs from Ibero-America in that the latter comprises Hispanic America and Brazil (formerly "Portuguese America"), and for some uses includes the Iberian Peninsula nations of Portugal and Spain. Hispanic America also contrasts with Latin America, which includes Hispanic America, Brazil, and also the former French colonies in the Western Hemisphere except (at least) areas that are now in either the United States or Canada.[5]

Countries

Country Population Area (km²)
Argentina Argentina 41,214,000 2,780,400
Bolivia Bolivia 10,227,299 1,098,581
Chile Chile 17,094,275 756,950[6]
Colombia Colombia 45,273,936 1,141,748
Costa Rica Costa Rica 4,579,000 51,000
Cuba Cuba 11,451,652 110,861
Dominican Republic Dominican Republic 10,090,000 48,730
Ecuador Ecuador 14,067,000 256,370
El Salvador El Salvador 7,185,000 21,040
Guatemala Guatemala 14,655,189 108,890
Honduras Honduras 7,793,000 112,492
Mexico Mexico 113,724,226 1,972,550
Nicaragua Nicaragua 5,743,000 129,494
Panama Panama 3,450,349 75,571
Paraguay Paraguay 6,996,245 406,752
Peru Peru 29,885,340 1,285,220
Puerto Rico Puerto Rico 3,994,259 9,104
Uruguay Uruguay 3,415,920 176,215
Venezuela Venezuela 28,549,745 916,445
Total 376,607,614 11,466,903

Largest cities

City Country Population Metro
Mexico City  Mexico 8,851,080 20,137,152
Buenos Aires  Argentina 3,050,728 13,400,000
Lima  Peru 7,605,742 9,367,587
Bogotá  Colombia 7,434,453 8,600,000
Santiago  Chile 5,428,590 7,200,000
Guadalajara  Mexico 1,564,514 4,328,584
Caracas  Venezuela 1,815,679 4,196,514
Monterrey  Mexico 1,133,814 4,080,329
Medellín  Colombia 2,636,101 3,729,970
Guayaquil  Ecuador 2,432,233 3,328,534
Santo Domingo  Dominican Republic 1,111,838 3,310,171[7]
La Habana  Cuba 2,350,000 3,073,000
Guatemala City  Guatemala 942,348 2,945,080
Maracaibo  Venezuela 2,201,727 2,928,043
Cali  Colombia 2,068,386 2,530,796
San Juan  Puerto Rico 434,374 2,509,007
Puebla  Mexico 1,399,519 2,109,049
Asunción  Paraguay 680,250 2,089,651
Montevideo  Uruguay 1,325,968 1,868,335
Quito  Ecuador 1,397,698 1,842,201
Managua  Nicaragua 1,380,300 1,825,000
Barranquilla  Colombia 1,148,506 1,798,143
Santa Cruz  Bolivia 1,594,926 1,774,998
Valencia  Venezuela 894,204 1,770,000
Tegucigalpa  Honduras 1,230,000 1,600,000
La Paz  Bolivia 872,480 1,590,000
San Salvador  El Salvador 540,090 2,223,092
Tijuana  Mexico 1,286,187 1,553,000
Toluca  Mexico 467,712 1,531,000
Barquisimeto  Venezuela 1,116,000 1,500,000
León  Mexico 1,278,087 1,488,000
Córdoba  Argentina 1,309,536 1,452,000
Juárez  Mexico 1,301,452 1,343,000
Tegucigalpa  Honduras 1,250,000 1,300,000
Maracay  Venezuela 1,007,000 1,300,000
San José  Costa Rica 386,799 1,284,000
Rosario  Argentina 908,163 1,203,000
Panama City  Panama 464,761 1,200,000
Torreón  Mexico 548,723 1,144,000
Bucaramanga  Colombia 516,512 1,055,331

History

Main article: History of Hispanic America

The Spanish colonization of America began in 1492, and ultimately was part of a larger historical process of world colonialism, through which various European powers incorporated a considerable amount of territory and peoples in the Americas, Asia, and Africa between the 15th and 20th centuries. Hispanic America became the main part of the vast Spanish Empire.

Napoleon's takeover of Spain in 1808 and the consequent chaos initiated the dismemberment of the Spanish Empire, as the American territories began their struggle for emancipation. By 1830, the only remaining Spanish American colonies were Philippine archipelago and the islands of Cuba and Puerto Rico, until the 1898 Spanish–American War.

Flag of Hispanic America


While relatively unknown, there is a flag representing the countries of Hispanic America, its people, history and shared cultural legacy.

It was created in October 1933 by Ángel Camblor, captain of the Uruguayan army. It was adopted by all the states of Spanish America during the Pan-American Conference of the same year in Montevideo, Uruguay.[8]

The white background stands for peace, the Inti sun god of Inca mythology symbolizes the light shining on the American continent, and the three crosses represent Christopher Columbus' caravels, the Niña, Pinta, and Santa María, used in his first voyage from Spain to the New World in 1492. The deep lilac color of the crosses evokes the color of the lion on the Coat of Arms of the medieval Crown of Castile.[9]

See also

References

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