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Spillover infection

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Spillover infection

Spillover infection, also known as pathogen spillover and spillover event, occurs when a reservoir population causes an epidemic in a novel host population. The epidemic is transmitted by the reservoir population and not the host population.[1]

Spillover zoonoses

Examples of viruses that have spilled over from animals to humans include the bat-borne viruses Ebola, Marburg, Hendra and Nipah virus. Also some malarias, Q fever, hantavirus, E. coli 0157, and Legionnaires' disease. There's speculation that bats infected cavemen and women with measles and mumps.[2]

Intraspecies spillover

Commercially bred bumblebees used to pollinate greenhouses are reservoirs for several pollinator parasites including Crithidia bombi, a protozoan.[3] Commercial bees that escape the greenhouse environment then infect wild bee populations that normally are disease and parasite free. Half of all wild bees found near greenhouses have been found to be infected with C. bombi. Rates and incidence of infection decline dramatically the further away from the greenhouses the wild bees are located.[4][5][6]

See also

References

  1. ^ Power AG, Mitchell CE. Pathogen spillover in disease epidemics.Am Nat. 2004 Nov;164 Suppl 5:S79-89.
  2. ^ David Quammen. Spillover: Animal Infections and the Next Human Pandemic. W.W. Norton, 2012.
  3. ^ Graystock P, Yates K, Evison SEF, Darvill B, Goulson D, Hughes WOH. The Trojan hives: pollinator pathogens, imported and distributed in bumblebee colonies. Journal of Applied Ecology, 50(5): 1207-1215
  4. ^ Otterstatter MC, Thomson JD. Does Pathogen Spillover from Commercially Reared Bumble Bees Threaten Wild Pollinators? PLoS One, 3(7): e2771
  5. ^ Graystock P, Yates K, Evison SEF, Darvill B, Goulson D, Hughes WOH. The Trojan hives: pollinator pathogens, imported and distributed in bumblebee colonies. Journal of Applied Ecology, 2013, 50(5): 1207-1215
  6. ^ Imported bumblebees pose risk to UK's wild and honeybee population. Damian Carrington. theguardian.com, Thursday 18 July 2013

External links

  • Infection Information Resource
  • European Center for Disease Prevention and Control
  • U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention,
  • Infectious Disease Society of America (IDSA)
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