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States and Territories of India

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States and Territories of India

A clickable map of the 29 states and 7 union territories of India


India is a federal union of states comprising twenty-nine states and seven union territories. The states and union territories are further subdivided into districts and further into smaller administrative divisions.

List of states and territories

States

Map Name ISO 3166-2 code[1][2] Date of formation Population Area
(km2)
Official
language(s)
Administrative
capital
Largest city
(if not the capital)
Population density Literacy Rate (%) % of total population that is urban
1 Andhra Pradesh AP 1 November 1956 49,386,799 160,205 Telugu Hyderabad (de jure)
Vijayawada (de facto)
Visakhapatnam 308 67.41%[3] 29.6
2 Arunachal Pradesh AR 20 February 1987 1,382,611 83,743 English Itanagar 17 66.95 20.8
3 Assam AS 15 August 1947 31,169,272 78,550 Assamese; Regional: Bodo, Bengali Dispur Guwahati 397 73.18 12.9
4 Bihar BR 1 April 1936 103,804,637 99,200 Hindi, Bhojpuri, Magadhi, Maithili, Urdu Patna 1,102 63.82 10.5
5 Chhattisgarh CT 1 November 2000 25,540,196 135,194 Chattisgarhi, Hindi Raipur (Interim capital)[4] 189 71.04 20.1
6 Goa GA 30 May 1987 1,457,723 3,702 Konkani Panaji 394 87.40 62.2
7 Gujarat GJ 1 May 1960 60,383,628 196,024 Gujarati Gandhinagar Ahmedabad 308 79.31 37.4
8 Haryana HR 1 November 1966 25,353,081 44,212 Hindi, Haryanvi (regional), Punjabi Chandigarh
(shared, Union Territory)
Faridabad 573 76.64 28.9
9 Himachal Pradesh HP 25 January 1971 6,856,509 55,673 Hindi, Pahari (regional) Shimla 123 83.78 9.8
10 Jammu and Kashmir JK 26 October 1947 12,548,926 222,236 Dogri, Kashmiri, Ladakhi, Urdu[5] Srinagar (summer)
Jammu (winter)
124 68.74 24.8
11 Jharkhand JH 15 November 2000 32,966,238 74,677 Hindi Ranchi Jamshedpur 414 67.63 22.2
12 Karnataka KA 1 November 1956 61,130,704 191,791 Kannada Bangalore 319 75.60 34.0
13 Kerala KL 1 November 1956 33,387,677 38,863 Malayalam Thiruvananthapuram 859 93.91 26.0
14 Madhya Pradesh MP 1 November 1956 72,597,565 308,252 Hindi Bhopal Indore 236 70.63 26.5
15 Maharashtra MH 1 May 1960 112,372,972 307,713 Marathi Mumbai 365 82.91 42.4
16 Manipur MN 21 January 1972 2,721,756 22,347 Manipuri Imphal 122 79.85 25.1
17 Meghalaya ML 21 January 1972 2,964,007 22,720 English, Garo, Hindi, Khasi, Pnar, Shillong 132 75.48 19.6
18 Mizoram MZ 20 February 1987 1,091,014 21,081 Mizo Aizawl 52 91.58 49.6
19 Nagaland NL 1 December 1963 1,980,602 16,579 English Kohima Dimapur 119 80.11 17.2
20 Odisha[6] (Orissa) OR 1 April 1936 41,947,358 155,820 Oriya Bhubaneswar 269 73.45 15.0
21 Punjab PB 1 November 1966 27,704,236 50,362 Punjabi Chandigarh
(shared, Union Territory)
Ludhiana 550 76.68 33.9
22 Rajasthan RJ 1 November 1956 68,621,012 342,269 Hindi, Rajasthani Jaipur 201 67.06 23.4
23 Sikkim SK 16 May 1975 607,688 7,096 Nepali, Bhutia, Gurung, Lepcha, Limbu, Manggar, Newari, Sherpa, Sunwar, Tamang Gangtok 86 82.20 11.1
24 Tamil Nadu TN 26 January 1950 72,138,958 130,058 Tamil language Chennai 480 80.33 44.0
25 Telangana TG 2 June 2014 35,193,978 [7] 114,840 Telugu, Urdu Hyderabad 307 [7] N/A N/A
26 Tripura TR 21 January 1972 3,671,032 10,492 Bengali, Tripuri Agartala 350 87.75 17.1
27 Uttar Pradesh UP 26 January 1950 199,581,477 243,286 Hindi, Urdu[8] Lucknow Kanpur 828 69.72 20.8
28 Uttarakhand UT 9 November 2000 10,116,752 53,566 Hindi, Sanskrit Dehradun (interim) 189 79.63 25.7
29 West Bengal WB 1 November 1956 91,347,736 88,752 Bengali, English, Nepali[9] Kolkata 1,029 77.08 28.0
  • ^Note 1 Andhra Pradesh was divided into two states, Telangana and a residual Andhra Pradesh on 2 June.[10][11][12] Hyderabad, located entirely within the borders of Telangana, is to serve as joint capital for both states for a period of time not exceeding ten years.[13]
  • ^Note 2 In August 2014, the Government of Andhra Pradesh announced that Vijayawada will serve as the de facto administrative capital for Andhra Pradesh.[14]

Union territories

Map Name ISO 3166-2 code[1][2] Population Official
language
Capital Population density Literacy Rate(%) Percentage of Urban Population to total Population
A Andaman and Nicobar Islands AN 379,944 English, Hindi Port Blair 46 86.27 32.6
B Chandigarh CH 1,054,686 English, Hindi, Punjabi Chandigarh 9,252 86.43 89.8
C Dadra and Nagar Haveli DN 342,853 English, Gujarati, Hindi, Marathi Silvassa 698 77.65 22.9
D Daman and Diu DD 242,911 English, Gujarati, Hindi, Marathi Daman 2169 87.07 36.2
E Lakshadweep LD 64,429 English, Malayalam Kavaratti 2013 92.28 44.5
F National Capital Territory of India DL 16,753,235 English, Hindi, Punjabi, Urdu New Delhi 11,297 86.34 93.2
G Puducherry PY 1,244,464 French and Tamil Pondicherry 2,598 86.55 66.6

Responsibilities and authorities

The Constitution of India distributes the sovereign powers exercisable with respect to the territory of any State between the Union and that State. "Article 73 broadly stated, provides that the executive power of the Union shall extend to the matters with respect to which Parliament has power to make laws. Article 162 similarly provides that the executive power of a State shall extend to the matters with respect to which the Legislature of a State has power to make laws. The Supreme Court has reiterated this position when it ruled in the Ramanaiah case that the executive power of the Union or of the State broadly speaking, is coextensive and coterminous with its respective legislative power." (italics in original)[15]

History

Hyderabad state in 1909
Administrative division of India in 1951

Pre-1956

The Indian Subcontinent has been ruled by many different ethnic groups throughout its history, each instituting their own policies of administrative division in the region.[16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25] During the British Raj, the original administrative structure was mostly kept, and India was divided into provinces that were directly governed by the British and princely states which were nominally controlled by a local prince or raja loyal to the British Empire, who held de facto sovereignty (suzerainty) over the princely states.

Post-1956

Several new states and union territories have been created out of existing states since 1956. Bombay State was split into the linguistic states of Gujarat and Maharashtra on 1 May 1960[26] by the Bombay Reorganisation Act. Nagaland was made a state on 1 December 1963.[27] The Punjab Reorganisation Act of 1966 divided the Punjab along linguistic lines, creating a new Hindi-speaking state of Haryana on 1 November,[28] transferring the northern districts of Punjab to Himachal Pradesh, and designating Chandigarh, the shared capital of Punjab and Haryana, a union territory.[29]

Statehood was conferred upon Himachal Pradesh[30] on 25 January 1971, Manipur, Meghalaya and Tripura[31] on 21 January 1972. The Kingdom of Sikkim joined the Indian Union as a state on 26 April 1975.[32] In 1987, Arunachal Pradesh and Mizoram became states on 20 February, followed by Goa on 30 May, while Goa's northern exclaves of Daman and Diu became a separate union territory.[33]

In 2000 three new states were created; Chhattisgarh (1 November 2000) was created out of eastern Madhya Pradesh,[34] Uttaranchal (9 November 2000), which was renamed Uttarakhand in 2007,[35] was created out of the Hilly regions of northwest Uttar Pradesh,[36] and Jharkhand (15 November 2000) was created out of the southern districts of Bihar.[37]

In 2014, the new state of Telangana was carved out from the North-Western regions of the state of Andhra Pradesh. The city of Hyderabad became the joint capital of the two states for the period not exceeding 10 years after which Andhra Pradesh gets new capital.

Current proposals

In November 2011 Mayawati, the chief minister of Uttar Pradesh, proposed dividing it into four states, Avadh Pradesh, Bundelkhand, Paschim Pradesh, and Purvanchal. On 21 November this movement was backed through a "voice vote" by the state assembly, despite criticism from the opposition and claims that the move was made to gain support for the next state election. It must gain the approval of the federal government.[38]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "ISO Online Browsing Platform". ISO. Retrieved 4 November 2014. 
  2. ^ a b "Code List: 3229". UN/EDIFACT. GEFEG. Retrieved 25 December 2012. 
  3. ^ "Literacy of AP (Census 2011)" (pdf). AP govt. portal. p. 43. Retrieved 11 June 2014. 
  4. ^ http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/raipur/Half-marathon-in-Naya-Raipur/articleshow/17401264.cms?referral=PM
  5. ^ "Official and Regional Languages of India". Mapsofindia.com. Retrieved 17 June 2013. 
  6. ^ "Orissa's new name is Odisha". The Times Of India. 24 March 2011. 
  7. ^ a b "Population of Telangana" (pdf). Telangana government portal. p. 34. Retrieved 11 June 2014. 
  8. ^ "Uttar Pradesh Legislature". Uplegassembly.nic.in. Retrieved 17 June 2013. 
  9. ^ "Report of the Commissioner for linguistic minorities: 47th report (July 2008 to June 2010)". Commissioner for Linguistic Minorities, Ministry of Minority Affairs, Government of India. pp. 122–126 {Nepali is the official language in three subdivisions of Darjeeling district.}. Retrieved 24 September 2014. 
  10. ^ "Bifurcated into Telangana State and residual Andhra Pradesh State". The Times Of India. 2 June 2014. 
  11. ^ "The Gazette of India : The Andhra Pradesh Reorganization Act, 2014". Ministry of Law and Justice. Government of India. 1 March 2014. Retrieved 23 April 2014. 
  12. ^ "The Gazette of India : The Andhra Pradesh Reorganization Act, 2014 Sub-section". 4 March 2014. Retrieved 23 April 2014. 
  13. ^ Sanchari Bhattacharya (June 1, 2014). Andhra Pradesh Minus Telangana: 10 Facts "Andhra Pradesh Minus Telangana: 10 Facts". NDTV. 
  14. ^ http://ibnlive.in.com/news/vijayawadaguntur-set-to-be-announced-as-new-andhra-pradesh-capital-on-thursday/496013-62-127.html
  15. ^ Territoriality of executive powers of states in India, Balwant Singh Malik, Constitutional Law, 1998
  16. ^ Krishna Reddy (2003). Indian History. New Delhi: Tata McGraw Hill. ISBN . 
  17. ^ Ramesh Chandra Majumdar (1977). Ancient India. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers. ISBN . 
  18. ^ Romila Thapar. A History of India: Part 1. 
  19. ^ G. Bongard-Levin. A History of India: Volume 1. 
  20. ^ Gupta Dynasty - MSN Encarta. Archived from the original on 31 October 2009. 
  21. ^ "India - Historical Setting - The Classical Age - Gupta and Harsha". Historymedren.about.com. 2 November 2009. Retrieved 16 May 2010. 
  22. ^ Nilakanta Sastri, K.A. (2002) [1955]. A history of South India from prehistoric times to the fall of Vijayanagar. New Delhi: Indian Branch, Oxford University Press. p. 239. ISBN . 
  23. ^ Chandra, Satish. Medieval India: From Sultanate To The Mughals. p. 202. 
  24. ^ "Regional states, c. 1700–1850". Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. 
  25. ^ Grewal, J. S. (1990). "Chapter 6: The Sikh empire (1799–1849)". The Sikh empire (1799–1849). The New Cambridge History of India. The Sikhs of the Punjab. Cambridge University Press. 
  26. ^ J.C. Aggarwal and S.P. Agrawal, editors, Uttarakhand: Past, Present, and Future (New Delhi: Concept Publishing, 1995), p89-90
  27. ^ Nagaland History & Geography-Source india.gov.in
  28. ^ The Punjab Reorganisation Act 1966
  29. ^ "State map of India". Travel India guide. Retrieved 17 June 2013. 
  30. ^ "Himachal Pradesh Tenth Five Year Plan" (PDF). Retrieved 17 June 2013. 
  31. ^ Snapshot of North Eastern States
  32. ^ Bhargava, S. C. Bhatt, Gopal K. (2006). Land and People of Indian States and Union Territories: In 36 Volumes. Sikkim. Gyan Publishing House. p. 13. ISBN . Retrieved 27 March 2014. 
  33. ^ Goa Chronology
  34. ^ "Chhattisgarh state - History". Cg.gov.in. 19 December 1979. Retrieved 17 June 2013. 
  35. ^ Chopra, Jasi Kiran (2 January). "Uttaranchal is Uttarakhand, BJP cries foul". TNN. The Time of India. Retrieved 22 January. 
  36. ^ "About Us: Uttarakhand Government Portal, India". Uk.gov.in. 9 November 2000. Retrieved 17 June 2013. 
  37. ^ "Official Website of Government of Jharkhand". Jharkhand.gov.in. Retrieved 17 June 2013. 
  38. ^ "India: Uttar Pradesh assembly backs state division". BBC News. 21 November 2011. Retrieved 21 November 2011. 

External links

  • Maps of the Historical Territorial Evolution of the States of India
  • Official Government of India website: States and Union Territories

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