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Steam distillation

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Title: Steam distillation  
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Steam distillation

Steam Distillation Apparatus
Steam distillation apparatus in a lab.

Steam distillation apparatus

Steam distillation is a special type of vacuum distillation. Steam distillation remains important in certain industrial sectors.[1]

Many decompose at high sustained temperatures. Separation by distillation at the normal (1 atmosphere) boiling points is not an option, so water or steam is introduced into the distillation apparatus. The water vapor carries small amounts of the vaporized compounds to the condensation flask, where the condensed liquids phase separate, allowing for easy collection. This process effectively allows for distillation at lower temperatures, reducing the deterioration of the desired products. If the substances to be distilled are very sensitive to heat, steam distillation may be applied under reduced pressure, thereby reducing the operating temperature further.

After distillation the vapors are condensed as appropriate. Usually the immediate product is a two-decantation, partitioning or other suitable methods.

Contents

  • Principle 1
  • Applications 2
  • Equipment 3
  • See also 4
  • References 5

Principle

When a mixture of two practically bromobenzene is 156 °C and the boiling point of water is 100 °C, but a mixture of the two boils at 95 °C. Thus, bromobenzene can be easily distilled at a temperature 61 °C below its normal boiling point.[2]

Applications

A boiling water distiller. Boiling tank on top and holding tank on the bottom.

Steam distillation is employed in the isolation of

  1. ^ a b Fahlbusch, Karl-Georg; Hammerschmidt, Franz-Josef; Panten, Johannes; Pickenhagen, Wilhelm; Schatkowski, Dietmar; Bauer, Kurt; Garbe, Dorothea; Surburg, Horst (2003). "Flavors and Fragrances". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry.  
  2. ^ Martin's Physical Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical sciences, fifth edition, ISBN 0-7817-6426-2, Lippincott williams & wilkins
  3. ^ Beychok, M.R., The Design of Sour Water Strippers, Individual Paper 61, Proceedings of Seventh World Petroleum Congress, Mexico City, April 1967
  4. ^ Kister, Henry Z. (1992).  
  5. ^ M.M. Chakrabarty (9 November 2003). Chemistry and Technology of Oils & Fats. Allied Publishers. pp. 12–.  
  6. ^ Walton & Brown, Chemicals From Plants, Imperial College Press, 1999.

References

See also

On a lab-scale steam distillations are carried out using steam generated outside the system and piped through macerated biomass or steam generation in-situ using a Clevenger-type apparatus.[6]

Equipment

[5] Steam distillation also is an important means of separating fatty acids from mixtures and for treating crude products such as

Steam distillation is also widely used in petroleum refineries and petrochemical plants where it is commonly referred to as "steam stripping".[3][4]

[1]

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