World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article


Article Id: WHEBN0000612079
Reproduction Date:

Title: Stipule  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Petiole (botany), Rose, Fabaceae, Leaf, Marcescence
Collection: Plant Morphology
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia


In botany, stipule (Latin stipula: straw, stalk) is a term coined by Linnaeus[1] which refers to outgrowths borne on either side (sometimes just one side) of the base of a leafstalk (the petiole). A pair of stipules is considered part of the anatomy of the leaf of a typical flowering plant, although in many species the stipules are inconspicuous or entirely absent (and the leaf is then termed exstipulate).

In some older botanical writing, the term "stipule" was used more generally to refer to any small leaves or leaf-parts, notably prophylls.[2]

Stipules are morphologically variable and might appear as glands, scales, hairs, spines, or laminar (leaf-like) structures. A relationship exists between the anatomy of the stem node and the presence or absence of stipules: most plants with trilacunar nodes have stipules; species with unilacunar nodes lack stipules.[3]

Types of stipules

Glandular stipule of Euphorbia pteroneura

Stipular spines on the mesquite tree (Prosopis pallida)

Fused together and leaf-like stipules of Alchemilla mollis

Leafy stipules at the base of a Rose leaf (Rosa canina)

Stipules building glandular hairs on Jatropha spicata

Stipules protecting young leaves of Carpinus betulus (European Hornbeam)

Stipular spine clusters of Euphorbia spectabilis

Stipular spines accompanied by prickles of Euphorbia didieroides


  1. ^ Concise English Dictionary Wordsworth Editions Ltd. 1994, ISBN 1-85326-328-1
  2. ^ Goebel, K.E.v. (1969) [1905]. Organography of plants, especially of the Archegoniatae and Spermaphyta. Part 2 Special organography. translated by I.B. Balfour. New York: Hofner publishing company. 
  3. ^ Sinnott, E. W. and I. W. Bailey (1914). "Investigations on the phylogeny of the angiosperms. 3. Nodal anatomy and the morphology of stipules". American Journal of Botany 1: 441–453.  

General references

  • Esau, K. 1953. Plant Anatomy. Second Edition. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, London, Sidney. 767 pp.

External links

  • Stipules and stipels
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.