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Stokely Carmichael

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Title: Stokely Carmichael  
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Subject: Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee, Black Power, African-American Civil Rights Movement (1954–68), John Lewis (Georgia politician), Black Panther Party
Collection: 1941 Births, 1998 Deaths, 20Th-Century African-American Activists, African-Americans' Civil Rights Activists, American Exiles, American Expatriates in Guinea, American Pan-Africanists, American Socialists, Cancer Deaths in Guinea, Cointelpro Targets, Community Activists, Deaths from Prostate Cancer, Freedom Riders, Howard University Alumni, Members of the Black Panther Party, Pan-Africanists, People from Port of Spain, Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee, The Bronx High School of Science Alumni, Trinidad and Tobago Emigrants to the United States, Trinidad and Tobago Socialists
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Stokely Carmichael

Stokely Carmichael
Stokely Carmichael expounds on "black power" theory in 1967 at Michigan State University.
4th Chairman of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee
In office
May 1966 – June 1967
Preceded by John Lewis
Succeeded by H. Rap Brown
Personal details
Born (1941-06-29)June 29, 1941
Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago
Died November 15, 1998(1998-11-15) (aged 57)
Conakry, Guinea
Spouse(s) Miriam Makeba
Education The Bronx High School of Science (1960)
Alma mater Howard University
(B.A., Philosophy, 1964)

Stokely Carmichael (June 29, 1941 – November 15, 1998), also known as Kwame Turé, was a Trinidadian-American revolutionary active in the 1960s Civil Rights Movement, and later, the global Pan-African movement. Growing up in the United States from the age of eleven, he graduated from Howard University. He rose to prominence in the civil rights and Black Power movements, first as a leader of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), later as the "Honorary Prime Minister" of the Black Panther Party, and finally as a leader of the All-African Peoples Revolutionary Party.[1]


  • Early life and education 1
  • Political activism 2
  • Freedom Rides 3
  • SNCC 4
    • Mississippi and Cambridge, Maryland 4.1
    • Accusations of misogyny 4.2
    • Selma to Montgomery Marches 4.3
    • Lowndes County Freedom Organization 4.4
    • Chair of SNCC and Black Power 4.5
    • Vietnam 4.6
  • Transition out of SNCC 5
    • Stepping down as chair 5.1
    • Targeted by FBI COINTELPRO 5.2
    • International activism 5.3
    • 1968 D.C. riots 5.4
  • Travel to Africa 6
    • All-African People's Revolutionary Party 6.1
  • Marriage and family 7
  • Death and legacy 8
  • See also 9
  • References 10
  • Further reading 11
  • External links 12
    • Research resources 12.1
    • Videos 12.2

Early life and education

Born in Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago, Stokely Carmichael moved to Harlem, in New York, New York, in 1952 at the age of eleven, to rejoin his parents. They had emigrated when he was aged two, leaving him with his grandmother and two aunts.[2] He had three sisters.[2] As a boy, Carmichael had attended Tranquility School in Trinidad until his parents were able to send for him.[3]

His mother Mabel R. Carmichael[4] was a stewardess for a steamship line. His father Adolphus was a carpenter who also worked as a taxi driver.[2] The reunited Carmichael family eventually left Harlem to live in Van Nest in the East Bronx, at that time an aging neighborhood with residents who were primarily Jewish and Italian immigrants and descendants. According to a 1967 interview he gave to Life Magazine, Carmichael was the only black member of the Morris Park Dukes, a youth gang involved in alcohol and petty theft.[2]

Carmichael as a senior at The Bronx High School of Science, 1960.

He attended the elite, selective Bronx High School of Science in New York, with entrance based on academic performance.

After graduation in 1960, Carmichael enrolled at Howard University, a historically black university in Washington, D.C.. His professors included Sterling Brown,[5][6] Nathan Hare,[7] and Toni Morrison, a writer who later won the Nobel Prize.[8] Carmichael and Tom Kahn, a Jewish-American student and civil-rights activist, helped to fund a five-day run of the Three Penny Opera, by Berthold Brecht and Kurt Weill:

Tom Kahn—very shrewdly—had captured the position of Treasurer of the Liberal Arts Student Council and the infinitely charismatic and popular Carmichael as floor whip was good at lining up the votes. Before they knew what hit them the Student Council had become a patron of the arts, having voted to buy out the remaining performances. It was a classic win/win. Members of the Council got patronage packets of tickets for distribution to friends and constituents.[5]

Carmichael's apartment on Euclid Street was a gathering place for his activist classmates.[4] He graduated in 1964 with a degree in philosophy.[2] Carmichael was offered a full graduate scholarship to Harvard University, but turned it down.[9]

Political activism

While at Howard, Carmichael had joined the Nonviolent Action Group (NAG), the Howard campus affiliate of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC).[10] Kahn introduced Carmichael and the other SNCC activists to Bayard Rustin, an African-American leader who became an influential adviser to SNCC.[11] Inspired by the sit-ins in the South, during college Carmichael became more active in the Civil Rights Movement.

Freedom Rides

In his first year at the university, in 1961, he participated in the Freedom Rides of the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) to desegregate the bus station restaurants along U.S. Route 40 between Baltimore and Washington, D.C. and was frequently arrested, spending time in jail. He was arrested so many times for his activism that he lost count, sometimes estimating at least 29 or 32. In 1998, he told the Washington Post that he thought the total was fewer than 36.[4]

Along with eight other riders, on June 4, 1961, Carmichael traveled by train from New Orleans, Louisiana, to Jackson, Mississippi, to integrate the formerly "white" section on the train.[12] Before getting on the train in New Orleans, they encountered white protestors blocking the way. Carmichael says: "They were shouting. Throwing cans and lit cigarettes at us. Spitting on us."[13][14] Eventually, they were able to board the train. When the group arrived in Jackson, Carmichael and the eight other riders entered a "white" cafeteria. They were charged with disturbing the peace, arrested and taken to jail.

Eventually, Carmichael was transferred to the infamous Parchman Farm in Sunflower County, Mississippi, along with other Freedom Riders.[2][15] He gained notoriety for being a witty and hard-nosed leader among the prisoners.[16]

He served 49 days with other activists at the Parchman State Prison Farm. At 19 years of age, Carmichael was the youngest detainee in the summer of 1961.[17] He spent 53 days at Parchman Farm in "a six-by-nine cell. Twice a week to shower. No books, nothing to do. They would isolate us. Maximum security."[17] Carmichael said about the Parchman Farm sheriff:

The sheriff acted like he was scared of black folks and he came up with some beautiful things. One night he opened up all the windows, put on ten big fans and an air conditioner and dropped the temperature to 38 degrees [Fahrenheit; 3 °C]. All we had on was T-shirts and shorts.[17]

While being hurt one time, Carmichael began singing to the guards, "I'm gonna tell God how you treat me," to which the rest of the prisoners joined in.[18]

Carmichael kept the group's morale up while in prison, often telling jokes with Steve Green and the other Freedom Riders, and making light of their situation. He knew their situation was serious.

What with the range of ideology, religious belief, political commitment and background, age, and experience, something interesting was always going on. Because no matter our differences, this group had one thing in common, moral stubbornness. Whatever we believed, we really believed and were not at all shy about advancing. We were where we were only because of our willingness to affirm our beliefs even at the risk of physical injury. So it was never dull on death row.[13]

In a 1964 interview with author Robert Penn Warren, Carmichael reflected on his motives for going on the rides, saying,

I thought I have to go because you've got to keep the issue alive, and you've got to show the Southerners that you're not gonna be scared off, as we've been scared off in the past. And no matter what they do, we're still gonna keep coming back.[19]


Mississippi and Cambridge, Maryland

In 1964, Carmichael became a full-time field organizer for SNCC in Mississippi. He worked on the [22]

He also worked closely with Gloria Richardson, who led the SNCC chapter in Cambridge, Maryland.[23] During a protest with Richardson in Maryland in June 1964, Carmichael was hit directly in a chemical gas attack by the National Guard and had to be hospitalized.[24]

He soon became project director for Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (MFDP), as the regular Democratic Party did not represent African Americans in the state. At the end of Freedom Summer, Carmichael went to the 1964 Democratic Convention in support of the MFDP, which sought to have its delegation seated.[25] But, the MFDP delegates were refused voting rights by the Democratic National Committee, who chose to seat the regular white Jim Crow delegation. Carmichael, along with many SNCC staff members, left the convention with a profound sense of disillusionment in the American political system, and what he later called "totalitarian liberal opinion." [26]

Accusations of misogyny

In November 1964 Carmichael made a joking remark in response to a SNCC position paper written by his friends Casey Hayden and Mary E. King on the position of women in the movement. In the course of an irreverent comedy monologue he performed at a party after SNCC's Waveland conference, Carmichael said, "The position of women in the movement is prone."[27] A number of women were offended. In a 2006 The Chronicle of Higher Education article, historian Peniel E. Joseph later wrote:

While the remark was made in jest during a 1964 conference, Carmichael and black-power activists did embrace an aggressive vision of manhood — one centered on black men's ability to deploy authority, punishment, and power. In that, they generally reflected their wider society's blinders about women and politics.[28]

When asked about the comment, former SNCC field secretary Casey Hayden stated: "Our paper on the position of women came up, and Stokely in his hipster rap comedic way joked that 'the proper position of women in SNCC is prone'. I laughed, he laughed, we all laughed. Stokeley was a friend of mine."[29] A former SNCC worker identified only as "Tyler" on the Internet claimed: "I will forever remember Stokely Carmichael as the one who said 'the position of women in the movement is prone'. This viciously anti-women outlook is another reason why all of these nationalist movements went nowhere."[29] In her memoir, Mary E. King wrote that Carmichael was "poking fun at his own attitudes" and that "Casey and I felt, and continue to feel, that Stokely was one of the most responsive men at the time that our anonymous paper appeared in 1964."[30]

Carmichael appointed several women to posts as project directors during his tenure as chairman of SNCC; by the latter half of the 1960s (considered to be the "Black Power era"), more women were in charge of SNCC projects than during the first half.[31]

Selma to Montgomery Marches

Having developed aversion to working with the Democratic Party after the 1964 convention experience, Carmichael decided to leave the MFDP. Instead he began exploring SNCC projects in Alabama in 1965. During the period of the Selma to Montgomery Marches, he was recruited by James Forman to participate in a "second front" to stage protests at the Alabama State Capitol in March 1965. Carmichael became disillusioned with the growing struggles between SNCC and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference(SCLC), who opposed Forman's strategy. He thought SCLC was working with affiliated black churches to undercut it.[32] He was also frustrated to be drawn again into nonviolent confrontations with police, which he no longer found empowering. After seeing protesters brutally beaten again, he collapsed from stress, and his colleagues urged him to leave the city.[33]

Within a week, Carmichael returned to protesting, this time in Selma, to participate in the final march along Route 80. He initiated a grassroots project in "Bloody Lowndes" County, along the march route.[34] This was a county known for white violence, where SCLC and Dr. King had previously tried and failed to organize its black residents.[35]

Lowndes County Freedom Organization

In 1965, working as a SNCC activist in the black-majority black panther as its mascot, over the white-dominated local Democratic Party, whose mascot was a white rooster. Since federal protection from violent voter suppression by the Ku Klux Klan and other white opponents was sporadic, most Lowndes County activists openly carried arms.

Although black residents and voters outnumbered whites in Lowndes, their candidate lost the county-wide election of 1965. In 1966, several LFCO candidates ran for office in the general election but failed to win.[36] In 1970, the LCFO merged with the statewide Democratic Party, and former LCFO candidates won their first offices in the county.[37][38]

Chair of SNCC and Black Power

Carmichael became chairman of SNCC in 1966, taking over from John Lewis, who later was elected to the US Congress. A few weeks after Carmichael took office, James Meredith was shot and wounded by a shotgun during his solitary "March Against Fear". Carmichael joined Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., Floyd McKissick, Cleveland Sellers and others to continue Meredith's march. He was arrested during the march and, upon his release, he gave his first "Black Power" speech, using the phrase to urge black pride and socio-economic independence:

According to historian David J. Garrow, who won a Pulitzer Prize for his book Bearing the Cross: Martin Luther King, Jr., and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, a few days after Carmichael used the "Black Power" slogan at the "Meredith March Against Fear," he reportedly told King: "Martin, I deliberately decided to raise this issue on the march in order to give it a national forum and force you to take a stand for Black Power." King responded, "I have been used before. One more time won't hurt."[39]

While Black Power was not a new concept, Carmichael's speech brought it into the spotlight. It became a rallying cry for young African Americans across the country who were frustrated about slow progress in civil rights. Everywhere that Black Power spread, if accepted, credit was given to the prominent Carmichael. If the concept was condemned, he was held responsible and blamed.[40] According to Carmichael: "Black Power meant black people coming together to form a political force and either electing representatives or forcing their representatives to speak their needs [rather than relying on established parties]".[41] Strongly influenced by the work of Frantz Fanon and his landmark book Wretched of the Earth, along with others such as Malcolm X, Carmichael led SNCC to become more radical. The group focused on Black Power as its core goal and ideology.

During the controversial

  • Kwame Ture on Zionism
  • February 17, 1968 on
  • consciousness and unconsciousness
  • With H. Rap Brown, Oakland, 1968 (longer version of PBS clip)
  • Appearances on C-SPAN
    • C-SPAN interview, "Life and Career of Kwame Ture", April 15, 1998
    • Memorial service for Kwame Ture, January 9, 1999
  • University of Nebraska Omaha, 1993


  • Stokely Carmichael-Lorna D. Smith Collection, 1964-1972 (5 linear ft.) is housed in the Department of Special Collections and University Archives at Stanford University Libraries

Research resources

  • Stokely Carmichael at the Internet Movie Database
  • Stokely Carmichael at DMOZ
  • Stokely Carmichael
  • Stokely Carmichael page. Stokely Carmichael spoke to an enthusiastic crowd at Garfield High School in Seattle, Washington, on April 19, 1967. Audio and slideshow. Retrieved May 3, 2005.
  • Stokely Carmichael FBI Records - Stokely Carmichael records at FBI's The Vault Project.
  • ProfileOne Person, One Vote

External links

  • Carmichael, Stokely (and Michael Thelwell), Ready for Revolution: The Life and Struggles of Stokely Carmichael (Kwame Ture). New York: Scribner, 2005, 848 pages. ISBN 0-684-85004-4.
  • Carmichael, Stokely (and Charles V. Hamilton), Black Power: The Politics of Liberation. Vintage; reissued 1992, 256 pages. ISBN 0-679-74313-8.
  • Carmichael, Stokely, Stokely Speaks: Black Power Back to Pan-Africanism. Random House, 1971, 292 pages. ISBN 0-394-46879-1.
  • Joseph, Peniel E., Waiting 'Til The Midnight Hour: A Narrative History of Black Power in America. Henry Holt, 2007. 399 pages. ISBN 0-8050-8335-9

Further reading

  1. ^ "Kwame Touré", Freedom Riders, American Experience website (PBS)
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Kaufman, Michael T. "Kwame Touré, Rights Leader Who Coined 'Black Power,' Dies at 57", New York Times, November 16, 1998. Accessed March 27, 2008. (alternate url)
  3. ^ a b c "Kwame Touré Biography",, Accessed June 27, 2007.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g Paula Spahn, "The Undying Revolutionary: As Stokely Carmichael, He Fought for Interracial Relationships. Now Kwame Ture's Fighting For His Life," Washington Post, April 8, 1998, p. D 1. Accessed via online cache June 27, 2007.
  5. ^ a b Thelwell, Ekwueme Michael (1999–2000). "The professor and the activists: A memoir of Sterling Brown". The Massachusetts Review 40 (4): 634–636.  
  6. ^ Stuckey, Sterling. Going Through the Storm: The Influence of African American Art in History. Oxford University Press, 1994, p. 142, ISBN 0-19-508604-X, 9780195086041.
  7. ^ Safire, William Safire's Political Dictionary. Oxford University Press, 2008, p. 58, ISBN 0-19-534334-4, ISBN 978-0-19-534334-2.
  8. ^ Haskins, Jim. Toni Morrison: Telling a Tale Untold. Twenty-First Century Books, 2002, p. 44, ISBN 0-7613-1852-6, ISBN 978-0-7613-1852-1.
  9. ^ Bruce Watson, Freedom Summer: The Savage Season That Made Mississippi Burn and Made America a Democracy, p. 177 (Viking, 2010).
  10. ^ "Stokely Carmichael", King Encyclopedia, The Martin Luther King, Jr. Research and Education Institute, Stanford University. Accessed November 20, 2006.
  11. ^ Smethurst, James (2010). "The Black arts movement and historically Black colleges and universities". African-American poets: 1950s to the present 2. Chelsea House. pp. 112–113. 
  12. ^ Carmichael, Stokely (2005). Ready for Revolution. New York: Scribner. pp. 171–215. 
  13. ^ a b Arsenault, Raymond (2006). Freedom Riders. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 362–363.  
  14. ^ Carmichael, Ready for Revolution (2003), p. 192.
  15. ^ Carmichael, Stokely, and Michael Thelwell. Ready for Revolution: The life and Struggles of Stokely Carmichael (Kwame Ture). Simon and Schuster, 2003. p. 201. Retrieved from Google Books July 23, 2010. ISBN 0-684-85003-6, ISBN 978-0-684-85003-0.
  16. ^ PBS. "Stokely Carmichael Biography". PBS. Retrieved April 8, 2011. 
  17. ^ a b c "Freedom Rides and White Backlash". Retrieved April 8, 2011. 
  18. ^ Cwiklik, Robert (1993). Stokely Carmichael and Black Power. Brookfield, Connecticut: The Millbrook Press. pp. 14–15. 
  19. ^ Robert Penn Warren Center for the Humanities. "Stokely Carmichael". Robert Penn Warren's Who Speaks for the Negro? Archive. Retrieved 5 November 2014. 
  20. ^ "Stokely Carmichael" King Encyclopedia, Martin Luther King Jr. Institute for Research and Education
  21. ^ "American Forum - Stokely Carmichael, Freedom Summer and the Rise of Black Militancy" Miller Center of the Humanities, University of Virginia
  22. ^ Joann Gavin "Kwame Ture-Memories" Civil Rights Movement Veterans website
  23. ^ Faith S. Holsaert, et al, Hands on the Freedom Plow: Voices of Women in SNCC (University of Illinois Press, 2010), p. 285-287
  24. ^ "Cambridge, Maryland & The White Backlash" Civil Rights Movement Veterans website
  25. ^ "Mississippi Summer Project" Civil Rights Movement Veterans website
  26. ^ "MFDP Challenge to the Democratic Convention" Civil Rights Movement Veterans website
  27. ^ Cheryl Lynn Greenberg "SNCC: Born of the Sit-Ins, Dedicated to Action-Remembrances of Mary Elizabeth King" Veterans of the Civil Rights Movement website
  28. ^ Peniel E. Joseph (July 21, 2006). "Black Power's Powerful Legacy". The Chronicle Review. Retrieved July 23, 2014. 
  29. ^ a b c Mike Miller, "Kwame Ture (Stokely Carmichael) - Memories", January 1999.
  30. ^ Mary E. King, Freedom Song: A Personal Story of the 1960s Civil Rights Movement (William Morrow Co., 1988), pp. 451-52.
  31. ^ (University of North Carolina Press, 2003), pp. 310-11.Ella Baker and the Black Freedom Movement: A Radical Democratic VisionBarbara Ransby,
  32. ^ Kwame Ture, Ready for Revolution: The Life and Struggles of Stokely Carmichael (Simon and Shuster, 2003), p. 441-446
  33. ^ Taylor Branch, At Canaan's Edge: America in the King Years 1965-1968 (Simon and Shuster, 2006), pp. 109-110
  34. ^ Taylor Branch, At Canaan's Edge: America in the King Years 1965-1968 (Simon and Shuster, 2006), p. 132, 192
  35. ^ "1965-Cracking Lowndes" Civil Rights Movement Veterans timeline
  36. ^ Lowndes County Freedom Organization Black
  37. ^ "Lowndes County Freedom Organization", Encyclopedia of Alabama
  38. ^ "The Black Panther Party" (pamphlet), Merrit Publishers, June 1966.
  39. ^ David J. Garrow, Bearing the Cross (1986).
  40. ^ Bennet Jr., Lerone (September 1966). "Stokely Carmichael Architect of Black Power". Ebony Magazine. 
  41. ^ "Stokely Carmichael," King Encyclopedia, The Martin Luther King, Jr. Research and Education Institute, Stanford University. Accessed November 20, 2006.
  42. ^ "Quest for Black Power (1966-1970)". Atlanta in the Civil Rights Movement. Retrieved April 15, 2014. 
  43. ^ The Making of Black RevolutionariesJames Forman, , pp. xvi-xv (2nd ed. 1997). Accessed March 17, 2007.
  44. ^ Stokely Carmichael, "Black Power" speech. Accessed March 17, 2007.
  45. ^ Joshua Bloom and Waldo E. Martin, Black Against Empire: The History and Politics of the Black Panther Party (University of California Press, 2013), pp. 29, 41-42, 102-103, 128-130.
  46. ^ "Excerpt From SNCC Central Committee Meeting Regarding Forging a Relation With Saul Alinsky January, 1967" Jan 20, 1967
  47. ^ Wendy Plotkin, "Alinsky TWO: 1960s Organizing in an African-American Community", H-Net/H-Urban Seminar on History of Community Organizing & Community-Based Development
  48. ^ "Report on Draft Program" August 1966, Civil Rights Movement Veterans' website
  49. ^ "Of Stokely Carmichael And Black Power In America", Boston Public Radio
  50. ^ "Stokely Carmichael", King Encyclopedia, Martin Luther King Jr. Research and Education Institute
  51. ^ a b "African-American History Scholar Dr. Peniel Joseph", Tavis Smiley Show, March 10, 2014
  52. ^ Eric Michael Dyson, 'I May Not Get There With You:' The True Martin Luther King Jr.,(Simon and Schuster, 2000) p.66-67
  53. ^ "Protests - Events of 1967 - Year in Review". United Press International. 1967. p. 15. Retrieved March 26, 2009. 
  54. ^ (Harvard University Press, 1981), pg. 251In Struggle: SNCC and the Black Awakening of the 1960sClayborne Carson,
  55. ^ a b "KWAME TURE DEAD AT 57 CANCER FELLS FORMER STOKELY CARMICHAEL", Associated Press (New York Daily News), November 16, 1998
  56. ^ Jay Feldman, Manufacturing Hysteria: A History of Scapegoating, Surveillance, and Secrecy in Modern America (Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group, 2012), p. 275-278
  57. ^ "SNCC Says Carmichael Now Enroute to Hanoi", Associated Press, Lewiston Daily Sun, August 19, 1967
  58. ^ Seidman, Sarah. "Tricontinental Routes of Solidarity: Stokely Carmichael in Cuba", Journal of Transnational American Studies, 2012, pg. 8-11
  59. ^ "Stokely Carmichael Expelled by SNCC", Washington Post news service (Tuscaloosa News), Aug 22, 1968
  60. ^ Warden, Rob (February 10, 1976). "'"Hoover rated Carmichael as 'black messiah (PDF). Chicago Tribune. Retrieved July 20, 2012. 
  61. ^ Kathleen Cleaver and George Katsiaficas, Liberation, Imagination and the Black Panther Party (Routledge, 2014 edition), pp. 89-9.
  62. ^ Joshua Bloom and Waldo E. Martin, Black Against Empire: The History and Politics of the Black Panther Party (University of California Press, 2013), pp. 122-23.
  63. ^ Charlie Cobb, "From Stokely Carmichael to Kwame Ture", Hartford , Accessed March 17, 2007.
  64. ^ Andrew Sinclair, Viva Che!: The Strange Death and Life of Che Guevara, 1968/re-released in 2006, Sutton Publishing, ISBN 0-7509-4310-6, p. 67.
  65. ^  
  66. ^ Risen, Clay (2009). "April 4: U and Fourteenth". A Nation on Fire: America in the Wake of the King Assassination. Hoboken, N.J.: John Wiley & Sons. p. 63.  
  67. ^ Risen, Clay (2009). "April 5: 'Any Man's Death Diminishes Me'". A Nation on Fire: America in the wake of the King assassination. Hoboken, N.J.: John Wiley & Sons.  
  68. ^ Ward Churchill (2002), Agents of Repression: The FBI's Secret Wars Against the Black Panther Party and the American Indian Movement, South End Press,  
  69. ^ Robert Weisbrot, )Ready for Revolution"Stokely Speaks" (review of , New York Times, November 23, 2003. Accessed March 17, 2007.
  70. ^ "Miriam Makeba" biography, Answers.Com. Accessed June 27, 2007.
  71. ^ Associated Press, "Some Examples of CIA Misconduct", USA Today, June 27, 2007. Accessed January 9, 2014.
  72. ^ "Social Justice Movements: All-African People's Revolutionary Party", Columbia University website
  73. ^ [3]
  74. ^ [4], African Liberation Today
  75. ^
  76. ^
  77. ^ Schaefer, Richard T. (2008). Encyclopedia of Race, Ethnicity and Society. Thousand Oaks California: SAGE Publications. p. 523. 
  78. ^ Statement of Kwame Ture, undated, between 1996 diagnosis and 1998 death, Kwame Ture website. Accessed June 27, 2007.
  79. ^ a b c d Span, Paula (April 8, 1998). "The Undying Revolutionary: As Stokely Carmichael, He Fought for Black Power. Now Kwame Ture's Fighting For His Life". The Washington Post. pp. D01. 
  80. ^ Bhavnani, Mirza, Meetoo, Reena, Heidi, Veena (2005). Tackling the Roots of Racism: Lessons for Success. Bristol, England: The Policy Press. p. 235. 
  81. ^ Richard W. Race, "Analyzing ethnic education policy-making in England and Wales" (pdf), Sheffield Online Papers in Social Research, University of Sheffield, p. 12. Accessed June 20, 2006.
  82. ^ "Black Panther Leader Dies", BBC News, November 16, 1998. Accessed June 20, 2006.
  83. ^ Mike Miller, "Kwame Ture (Stokely Carmichael)-Memories", Civil Rights Movement Veterans website
  84. ^ Asante, Molefi Kete (2002), 10 Greatest African Americans: A Biographical Encyclopedia. Amherst, New York: Prometheus Books. ISBN 1-57392-963-8.


See also

In 2002, the American-born scholar Molefi Kete Asante listed Kwame Toure as one of his 100 Greatest African Americans.[84]

In his book on Carmichael, David J. Garrow criticized Ture's handling of the Black Power movement as "more destructive than constructive."[79] Garrow described the period in 1966 where Toure and other members of the SNCC managed to successfully register 2600 African American voters in Lowndes County, Alabama as the most consequential period in Toure's life "in terms of real, positive, tangible influence on people's lives."[79] Evaluations from Toure's associates are also mixed, with most praising his efforts and others criticizing him for failing to find constructive ways to achieve his objectives.[29] SNCC's final Chair, Phil Hutchings, who expelled Toure over a dispute concerning the Black Panther Party, wrote that, "Even though we kidded and called him 'Starmichael,' he could sublimate his ego to get done what was needed to be done...He would say what he thought, and you could disagree with it but you wouldn't cease being a human being and someone with whom he wanted to be in relationship."[83] Washington Post staff writer Paula Span described Carmichael as someone who was rarely hesitant to push his own ideology.[79] [51]

The civil rights leader Jesse Jackson spoke in celebration of Ture's life, stating: "He was one of our generation who was determined to give his life to transforming America and Africa. He was committed to ending racial apartheid in our country. He helped to bring those walls down".[82] NAACP Chair Julian Bond said that Carmichael "ought to be remembered for having spent almost every moment of his adult life trying to advance the cause of black liberation."[55]

Kwame Ture, along with [81]

In a final interview given in April 1998 to The Washington Post, Toure had criticized the limited economic and electoral progress made by African Americans in the U.S. during the previous 30 years. He acknowledged that blacks had won election to the mayor's office in major cities, but said that, as the mayors' power had generally diminished over earlier decades, such progress was essentially meaningless.[79]

In 1998 Toure died of prostate cancer at the age of 57 in Conakry, Guinea. He had said that his cancer "was given to me by forces of American imperialism and others who conspired with them."[2] He claimed that the FBI had infected him with cancer in an assassination attempt.[78]

After his diagnosis of prostate cancer in 1996, Toure was treated for a period in Cuba, while receiving some support from the Nation of Islam.[77] Benefit concerts for Toure were held in Denver; New York; Atlanta;[3] and Washington, D.C.,[4] to help defray his medical expenses. The government of Trinidad and Tobago, where he was born, awarded him a grant of $1,000 a month for the same purpose.[3] He went to New York, where he was treated for two years at the Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center, before returning to Guinea.[2]

Death and legacy

Later he married Marlyatou Barry, a Guinean doctor. They divorced some time after having a son, Bokar, together in 1981. By 1998, Marlyatou Barry and Bokar were living in Arlington County, Virginia, near Washington, DC. Relying on a statement from the All-African Peoples Revolutionary Party, Carmichael's 1998 obituary in The New York Times referred to his survivors as two sons, three sisters, and his mother, without further details.[2]

Carmichael had married Miriam Makeba, the noted singer from South Africa, while in the US in 1968. They divorced in Guinea after separating in 1973.

Marriage and family

Ture was ill when he gave his final speeches at Howard University; a standing room only crowd in Rankin Chapel paid tribute to him and he spoke boldly, as usual.[76] A small group of student leaders from Howard University and a former Party member traveled to Harlem (Sugar Hill) in New York City to bid farewell to Kwame Ture shortly before what was his return to Guinea. Also present that evening were Kathleen Cleaver and another Black Panther, Dhoruba bin Wahad. Ture was in good spirits though in pain. The group bidding farewell to Kwame Ture included African/Black men and women born in Africa, South America, the Caribbean and the USA.

It was Fidel Castro who before the OLAS (Organization of Latin American States) Conference said "if imperialism touches one grain of hair on his head, we shall not let the fact pass without retaliation." It was he, who on his own behalf, asked them all to stay in contact with me when I returned to the United States to offer me protection.[75]

Ture and Cuba's president Fidel Castro were mutual admirers, sharing a common opposition to imperialism. In Ture's final letter, he wrote:

He often returned to speak to large (1,000+) audiences at his alma mater, Howard University, which generally included students and community residents. The Party worked to recruit students and other youth, and Ture hoped to attract them through his speeches. He also worked to raise the political consciousness of African/Black people. Shortly after the A-APRP was formed, he said that an initial goal was to bring "Africa" on the lips of Black people throughout the African Diaspora. He knew that many may not have consciously related to the continent in a positive way after generations away. Kwame Ture was convinced, according to those who worked closely with him, that the Party played a significant role in helping to raise international black consciousness of pan-Africanism.

While based in Guinea as home, Ture traveled a good part of the time. Britain and his birth country, Trinidad and Tobago, barred him from speaking at one time or another for fear that he would arouse African-descended people in those countries. In the last quarter of the 20th Century, Kwame Ture became the world's most active and prominent exponent of Pan-Africanism, defined by Nkrumah and the A-APRP as "The Liberation and Unification of Africa Under Scientific Socialism."

Routinely, Ture was regarded as the leader of the A-APRP, but his only title was "Organizer," and he was a member of the Central Committee. Beginning in the mid 1970s, the A-APRP began each May to sponsor African Liberation Day (ALD), a continuation of African Freedom Day begun by Kwame Nkrumah in 1958 in Ghana.[74] Although the Party was involved in or was primary or co-sponsor of other ALD annual observances, marches and rallies, the best-known and largest celebration of the event was held annually in Washington, DC, usually at Malcolm X Park at 16th and W Streets, NW.

Kwame Ture was convinced that the A-APRP was needed as a permanent mass-based organization on all continents and in all countries in which people of African descent lived. For the remainder of his life, a period often ignored by popular media, Ture worked for decades on a full-time basis as an "organizer" of the Party. He spoke on its behalf on several continents at innumerable college campuses, in community centers and other venues. He was instrumental in strengthening ties between the African/Black liberation movement and several revolutionary or progressive organizations, both African and non- African. Notable among them were the AIM (American Indian Movement) of the United States, New Jewel Movement (Grenada), NJAC (National Joint Action Committee - Trinidad and Tobago), Pan Africanist Congress (South Africa) and the Irish Republican Socialist Party.

Kwame Ture did not simply study with Sekou Toure and Kwame Nkrumah. The latter had been designated Co-President of Guinea after he was deposed by the US-backed coup in Ghana.[73] Kwame Ture worked overtly and covertly to "Take Nkrumah Back to Ghana" (according to the movement's slogan). He became a member of the PDG (Democratic Party of Guinea), the revolutionary ruling party of Guinea. He sought Nkrumah's permission to launch the All-African Peoples Revolutionary Party, which Nkrumah had called for in his book, Handbook of Revolutionary Warfare. After several discussions, Nkrumah gave his blessings.

For the final thirty years of his life, Kwame Ture was devoted to the All-African People's Revolutionary Party (A-APRP). His mentor Kwame Nkrumah had many ideas for unifying the African continent, and Ture used those ideas in a broader scope involving the entire African diaspora. He was a central committee member for the entire time that he participated in the A-APRP, and made many speeches in the Party's behalf.[72]

All-African People's Revolutionary Party

In 1986, two years after Touré's death in 1984, the military regime that took his place arrested Carmichael, for his past association with Touré, and jailed him for three days on suspicion of attempting to overthrow the government. Although Touré was known for jailing and torturing his opponents, Carmichael had never publicly criticized his namesake.[2]

Carmichael remained in Guinea after separation from the Black Panther Party. He continued to travel, write, and speak in support of international leftist movements. In 1971 he published his collected essays in a second book, Stokely Speaks: Black Power Back to Pan-Africanism. This book expounds an explicitly socialist, Pan-African vision, which he retained for the rest of his life. From the late 1970s until the day he died, he answered his phone by announcing, "Ready for the revolution!"[2]

Carmichael's suspicions about the CIA were affirmed in 2007, when previously secret CIA documents were declassified, revealing that the agency had tracked Carmichael from 1968 as part of their surveillance of black activists abroad. The surveillance continued for years.[71]

Carmichael changed his name to Kwame Touré, to honor the African leaders Nkrumah and Touré, who had become his patrons. At the end of his life, friends still referred to him interchangeably by both names, "and he doesn't seem to mind."[4]

In 1968, he married Miriam Makeba, a noted singer from South Africa. They left the US for Guinea the next year. Carmichael became an aide to the Guinean president Ahmed Sékou Touré, and a student of the exiled Ghanaian president Kwame Nkrumah.[69] Makeba was appointed Guinea's official delegate to the United Nations.[70] Three months after his arrival in Guinea, in July 1969, Carmichael published a formal rejection of the Black Panthers, condemning them for not being separatist enough and for their "dogmatic party line favoring alliances with white radicals".[2]

Carmichael soon began to distance himself from the Panthers. He disagreed with them about whether white activists should be allowed to participate in the movement. The Panthers believed that white activists could help the movement, while Carmichael had come to agree with Malcolm X, and said that the white activists should organize their own communities first.

Travel to Africa

Carmichael held a press conference the next day, at which he predicted mass racial violence in the streets.[67] Since moving to Washington, D.C., Carmichael had been under nearly constant surveillance by the FBI. After the eruption of riots, FBI director J. Edgar Hoover instructed a team of agents to find evidence connecting Carmichael to these events. He was also subjected to COINTELPRO's bad-jacketing technique. Huey P. Newton suggested Carmichael was a CIA agent, a slander that led to Carmichael's break with the Panthers, and his exile from the U.S. the following year.[68]

Carmichael was present in D.C. the night after King's assassination in April 1968. He led a group through the streets, demanding that businesses close out of respect. Although he tried to prevent violence, the situation escalated beyond his control. Due to his reputation as a provocateur, the news media blamed Carmichael for the ensuing violence as mobs rioted along U Street and other areas of black commercial development.[66]

1968 D.C. riots

Carmichael visited the Institute of Phenomenological Studies, he was banned from re-entering Britain.[65]

The death of Che Guevara places a responsibility on all revolutionaries of the World to redouble their decision to fight on to the final defeat of Imperialism. That is why in essence Che Guevara is not dead, his ideas are with us.[64]

Carmichael lamented the 1967 execution of Marxist revolutionary Che Guevara, saying:

[63] (1967) with Black Power After stepping down as SNCC chair, Carmichael wrote the book

International activism

During this period, Carmichael was personally targeted by a section of [60] In July 1968, Hoover stepped up his efforts to divide the black power movement. Declassifed documents show a plan was launched to undermine the SNCC-Panther merger, as well as to "bad-jacket" Carmichael as a CIA agent. Both efforts were largely successful: Carmichael was formally expelled from SNCC that year, and rival Panthers began to denounce him.[61][62]


In May 1967, Carmichael stepped down as chairman of SNCC and was replaced by H. Rap Brown. SNCC was a collective and worked by group consensus rather than hierarchically; many members had become displeased with Carmichael's celebrity status. SNCC leaders had begun to refer to him as "Stokely Starmichael" and criticize his habit of making policy announcements independently, before achieving internal agreement.[4] According to historian Clayborne Carson, Carmichael did not protest the transfer of power and was "eager to relinquish the chair."[54] (It is sometimes mistakenly reported that Carmichael left SNCC completely at this time and joined the Black Panther Party, but those events did not occur until 1968.)[55]

Stepping down as chair

Transition out of SNCC

Carmichael joined King in New York on April 15, 1967, to share his views with protesters on race related to the Vietnam War:

Carmichael encouraged Martin Luther King Jr. to demand an unconditional withdrawal of US troops from Vietnam, even as some King advisers cautioned him that such opposition might have an adverse effect on financial contributions to the SCLC. King preached one of his earliest speeches calling for unconditional withdrawal with Carmichael seated in the front row at his invitation.[50] Carmichael privately took credit for pushing King towards [51][52]

SNCC conducted its first actions against the military draft and the Vietnam War under Carmichael's leadership.[48] Carmichael popularized the oft-repeated anti-draft slogan, "Hell no-We won't go!" during this time.[49]


Under Carmichael's term, SNCC continued to maintain coalition with several white radical organizations, most notably UC Berkeley in October 1966, Carmichael challenged the white left to escalate their resistance to the military draft in a manner similar to the black movement.[45] For a time in 1967, Carmichael considered an alliance with Saul Alinsky's Industrial Areas Foundation, and generally supported IAF's work in Rochester and Buffalo's black communities.[46][47]

Carmichael considered nonviolence to be a tactic as opposed to an underlying principle, which separated him from moderate civil rights leaders such as Martin Luther King, Jr. Carmichael criticized civil rights leaders who called for the integration of African Americans into existing institutions of the middle-class mainstream.


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