World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Strike and dip

Article Id: WHEBN0003511290
Reproduction Date:

Title: Strike and dip  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Marcellus Formation, Homoclinal ridge, Thrust fault, 1991 Sierra Madre earthquake, 1971 San Fernando earthquake
Collection: Structural Geology
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Strike and dip

A standard Brunton compass, used commonly by geologists for strike and dip measurements
Stratum compass to measure dip and dip direction in one step

Strike and dip refer to the orientation or attitude of a geologic feature. The strike line of a bed, fault, or other planar feature, is a line representing the intersection of that feature with a horizontal plane. On a geologic map, this is represented with a short straight line segment oriented parallel to the strike line. Strike (or strike angle) can be given as either a quadrant compass bearing of the strike line (N25°E for example) or in terms of east or west of true north or south, a single three digit number representing the azimuth, where the lower number is usually given (where the example of N25°E would simply be 025), or the azimuth number followed by the degree sign (example of N25°E would be 025°).

The dip gives the steepest angle of descent of a tilted bed or feature relative to a horizontal plane, and is given by the number (0°-90°) as well as a letter (N,S,E,W) with rough direction in which the bed is dipping. One technique is to always take the strike so the dip is 90° to the right of the strike, in which case the redundant letter following the dip angle is omitted (right hand rule, or RHR). The map symbol is a short line attached and at right angles to the strike symbol pointing in the direction which the planar surface is dipping down. The angle of dip is generally included on a geologic map without the degree sign. Beds that are dipping vertically are shown with the dip symbol on both sides of the strike, and beds that are flat are shown like the vertical beds, but with a circle around them. Both vertical and flat beds do not have a number written with them.

Strike and dip of the beds. 1-Strike, 2-Dip direction, 3-Apparent dip 4-Angle of dip
Strike and dip
Strike line and dip of a plane describing attitude relative to a horizontal plane and a vertical plane perpendicular to the strike line

Another way of representing strike and dip is by dip and dip direction. The dip direction is the azimuth of the direction the dip as projected to the horizontal (like the trend of a linear feature in trend and plunge measurements), which is 90° off the strike angle. For example, a bed dipping 30° to the South, would have an East-West strike (and would be written 090°/30° S using strike and dip), but would be written as 30/180 using the dip and dip direction method.

Strike and dip are determined in the field with a compass and clinometer or a combination of the two, such as a Brunton compass named after D.W. Brunton, a Colorado miner. Compass-clinometers which measure dip and dip direction in a single operation (as pictured) are often called "stratum" or "Klar" compasses after a German professor. Smartphone apps are also now available, that make use of the internal accelerometer to provide orientation measurements. Combined with the GPS functionality of such devices, this allows readings to be recorded and later downloaded onto a map.[1]

Any planar feature can be described by strike and dip. This includes sedimentary bedding, faults and fractures, cuestas, igneous dikes and sills, metamorphic foliation and any other planar feature in the Earth. Linear features are measured with very similar methods, where "plunge" is the dip angle and "trend" is analogous to the dip direction value.

Apparent dip is the name of any dip measured in a vertical plane that is not perpendicular to the strike line. True dip can be calculated from apparent dip using trigonometry if you know the strike. Geologic cross sections use apparent dip when they are drawn at some angle not perpendicular to strike.

Notes

  1. ^ Weng Y.-H., Sun F.-S. & Grigsby J.D. (2012). "GeoTools: An android phone application in geology". Computers & Geosciences 44: 24–30.  

References

  • Compton, Robert R. (1985). Geology in the Field. New York: J. Wiley and Sons.  
  • Lahee, Frederic Henry (1961) [1916]. Field Geology (6th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.  
  • Tarbuck, Edward J.; Lutgens, Frederick K. (2008). Earth: An Introduction to Physical Geology0-13-092025-8 (9th ed.). Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Pearson Prentice Hall.  
  • "Digital Cartographic Standard for Geologic Map Symbolization". FGDC Geological Data Subcommittee.  

External links

  •  "Dip".  
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.