World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Sun Myung Moon

Article Id: WHEBN0000029074
Reproduction Date:

Title: Sun Myung Moon  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Unification Church, Moon Kook-jin, Unification Church of the United States, 2012, Unification Church and North Korea
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

Sun Myung Moon

Sun Myung Moon
Moon in Las Vegas, Nevada, 4 April 2010
Born Mun Yong-myeong
(1920-02-25)25 February 1920
Jeong-ju, North P'yŏng'an, Japanese Korea
(now North Pyongan, North Korea)
Died 3 September 2012(2012-09-03) (aged 92)
Gapyeong, South Korea
Nationality Korean
Occupation Religious leader, businessperson, media mogul, political activist
Known for Founder of Unification Church
Spouse(s) Choi Sun-kil (1944–1953)
Hak Ja Han (1960–2012)
Children 16
Korean name
Hangul 문선명
Revised Romanization Mun Seon-myeong
McCune–Reischauer Mun Sŏnmyŏng
Birth name
Hangul 문용명
Hanja 文龍明
Revised Romanization Mun Yong-myeong
McCune–Reischauer Mun Yongmyŏng

Sun Myung Moon (Korean 문선명; born Mun Yong-myeong; 25 February 1920 – 3 September 2012) was a Korean religious leader, businessperson, political activist, and media mogul.[1][2] A self-proclaimed messiah, he was the founder of the Unification Church and of its widely noted "Blessing" or mass wedding ceremony.[3][4] His business interests included News World Communications, an international news media corporation[5] which founded The Washington Times and owns other media in several countries,[5][6][7] and Tongil Group, a South Korean business group (chaebol) active in manufacturing, pharmaceuticals, tourism, and publishing.[8][9][10]

Born in what is now North Korea, Moon's family converted to Christianity when he was a child.[11] In 1954, he founded the Unification Church in Seoul, South Korea based on conservative, family-oriented teachings from new interpretations of the Bible.[11][12] He outlined these principles in his book, Explanation of the Divine Principle.[4][11] In the 1960s and 1970s, he was a leading figure in a wave of new religious movements that raised controversy on several issues.[1] Followers, who were then sometimes called "Moonies", considered him their True Father while critics labeled him a cult leader.[13][14][15] In 1982, he was found guilty of willfully filing false federal income tax returns and sentenced to 18 months in federal prison in a controversial case.[4][16][17]

Determined to spread his influence beyond religion and improve the church's image with the public, Moon became active in conservative politics, courted world leaders, founded numerous civic organizations and expanded his business interests and [1][11][18] An ardent anti-communist and advocate for Korean reunification, his support helped turn The Washington Times into a respected newspaper in conservative circles.[19][20]

Early life

Sun Myung Moon was born Mun Yong-myeong on 25 February 1920, in modern-day North P'yŏng'an Province, North Korea, at a time when Korea was under Japanese rule. He was the younger of two sons in a farming family of eight children.[12] Moon's family rejected the Shinto faith pushed by the country’s Japanese rulers and followed Confucianist beliefs until he was around 10 years old, when they converted to Christianity and joined the Presbyterian Church.[21] When he was 15, Moon said that Jesus Christ anointed him to carry out his unfinished work by becoming parent to all of humanity.[3][15][22]

In 1941, Moon began studying electrical engineering at Waseda University in Japan.[13] During this time he cooperated with Communist Party members in the Korean independence movement against Imperial Japan.[23] In 1943, he returned to Seoul and married Sun Kil Choi on 28 April 1945, and they had a son, Sung Jin Moon on 2 April 1946.[1]

Following World War II, Korea was divided along the 38th parallel into two trusteeships: the United States and the Soviet Union.[15][24] Pyongyang was the center of Christian activity in Korea until 1945. From the late forties 166 priests and other religious figures were killed or disappeared in concentration camps, including Francis Hong Yong-ho, bishop of Pyongyang[25] and all monks of Tokwon abbey.[26][27] Moon was arrested by the North Korean authorities on allegations of spying for South Korea and given a five-year sentence to the Hŭngnam labor camp.[12] In 1950, during the Korean War he escaped and fled to Pusan, South Korea.[28][29][30]

Unification church

Founding of church in South Korea

Moon emerged from his years in the labor camp as a staunch anti-communist.[12] His teachings viewed the [12][33] On 8 January 1957, Moon and Choi divorced.[1]


Exposition of the Divine Principle

The Divine Principle or Exposition of the Divine Principle (Korean 원리강론/原理講論, translit. wonli ganglon) is the main theological textbook of the Unification Church. It was co-written by Moon and early disciple Hyo Won Eu and first published in 1966. A translation entitled Divine Principle was published in English in 1973. The book lays out the core of Unification theology, and is held to have the status of scripture by believers. Following the format of systematic theology, it includes (1) God's purpose in creating human beings, (2) the fall of man, and (3) restoration – the process through history by which God is working to remove the ill effects of the fall and restore humanity back to the relationship and position that God originally intended.[34]

God is viewed as the creator,[35] whose nature combines both masculinity and femininity,[35] and is the source of all truth, beauty, and goodness. Human beings and the universe reflect God's personality, nature, and purpose.[35] "Give-and-take action" (reciprocal interaction) and "subject and object position" (initiator and responder) are "key interpretive concepts",[36] and the self is designed to be God's object.[36] The purpose of human existence is to return joy to God.[37] The "four-position foundation" is "another important and interpretive concept",[37] and explains in part the emphasis on the family.[37]

The Divine Principle was labeled as Bible and for its rejection of a literal Second Coming of Jesus.[38] Protestant commentators have also criticized Unification Church teachings as being contrary to the Protestant doctrine of salvation by faith alone.[39][40] In their influential book The Kingdom of the Cults (first published in 1965), Walter Ralston Martin and Ravi K. Zacharias disagreed with the Divine Principle on the issues of the divinity of Christ, the virgin birth of Jesus, the Unification Church's belief that Jesus should have married, the necessity of the crucifixion of Jesus, and a literal resurrection of Jesus as well as a literal second coming of Jesus.[41]


Moon introduced the concept of "indemnity" as a part of the process by which human beings and the world are restored to God's ideal.[42][43][44][45] The concept of indemnity is explained at the start of the second half of the Divine Principle, "Introduction to Restoration":

What, then, is the meaning of restoration through indemnity? When someone has lost his original position or state, he must make some condition to be restored to it. The making of such conditions of restitution is called indemnity. .... God's work to restore people to their true, unfallen state by having them fulfill indemnity conditions is called the providence of restoration through indemnity.[46]

The Divine Principle goes on to explain three types of indemnity conditions. Equal conditions of indemnity pay back the full value of what was lost. The biblical verse "life for life, eye for eye, tooth for tooth" (Exod.21:23-24) is quoted as an example of an equal indemnity condition. Lesser conditions of indemnity provide a benefit greater than the price that is paid. Faith, baptism, and holy communion are mentioned as examples of lesser indemnity conditions. Greater conditions of indemnity come about when a person fails in a lesser condition. In that case a greater price must be paid to make up for the earlier failure. Abraham's attempted sacrifice of his son Isaac (Gen. 22:1-18) and the Israelites' 40 years of wandering in the wilderness under Moses (Num.14:34) are mentioned as examples of greater indemnity conditions.[46] The Divine Principle then explains that an indemnity condition must reverse the course by which the mistake or loss came about. Indemnity, at its core, is required of humans because God is pure, and purity cannot relate directly with impurity. Indemnification is the vehicle that allows a "just and righteous" God to work through mankind. Jesus' statement that God had forsaken him (Matt.27:46) and Christianity's history of martyrdom are mentioned as examples of this.[46] The Divine Principle then states that human beings, not God or the angels, are the ones responsible for making indemnity conditions.[46][47][48]

In 2005 scholars Daske and Ashcraft explained the Unificationist concept of indemnity:

To restart the process toward perfection, God has sent messiahs to earth who could restore the true state of humanity's relationship with God. Before that can happen, however, humans must perform good deeds that cancel the bad effects of sin. Unificationists call this 'indemnity'. Showing love and devotion to one's fellow humans, especially within families, helps pay this indemnity.[49]

Other Christian commentators have criticized the concept of indemnity as being contrary to the Christian doctrine of salvation by faith. Radio and television evangelist Bob Larson said, "Moon's doctrine of sinless perfection by 'indemnity', which can apply even to deceased ancestors, is a denial of the salvation by grace offering through Jesus Christ." Christian historian Ruth Tucker said: "In simple language indemnity is salvation by works."[47][48] Donald Tingle and Richard Fordyce, ministers with the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ) who debated two Unification Church theologians in 1977, wrote:

In short, indemnity is anything you want to make it, since you establish the conditions. The zeal and enthusiasm of the Unification Church members is not so much based on love for God as it is compulsion to indemnify one's own sins.[50]

Other commentators have criticized the Divine Principle for saying that the First World War, the Second World War, the Holocaust, and the Cold War served as indemnity conditions to prepare the world for the establishment of the Kingdom of God.[51]

Cheon Seong Gyeong - Sexual Organs Doctrine

Moon's doctrine that is centered on sexual motif becomes more conspicuous in his new scriptures called the Cheon Seong Gyeong. In the book he explained that man and woman's sexual organs are the three parts of the Three Great Original Palaces and the Most Holy Place, and praised that these sexual reproductive organs are holy, holy, and holy.[52]

How did man and woman come into existence? What makes them different? How do they become one? Centering on what do man and woman unite? Centering on the sexual organs. This is how they harmonize. Love is perfected in this place. True love is perfected for the first time there. That is also where the lives of man and woman are united, and their lineages interchanged and planted. The sexual organs are the original palace of the ideal love and lineage. The absolute original place is called the original palace, and no one can change its value. (228-51, 1992.3.3)

Sun Myung Moon, Cheon Seong Gyeong[53][54]

What is the sexual organ, the original palace where man and woman make love? It is the palace of love, life and lineage. Grandfathers and grandmothers treasure it, as do fathers and mothers, husbands and wives, and all sons and daughters yet to be born. Is there any woman or man who does not treasure it? Then why did they become such a bad thing? People regard any word connected to sex as bad. Why is it bad? It should be holy. You should accept words connected to sex as holy. The sexual organs connect to eternal love to bring forth eternal life and eternal lineage. They are the most precious things. (210-101, 1990.12.1)

Sun Myung Moon, Cheon Seong Gyeong[53][54]

Second marriage and Blessing ceremonies

Marriage to Hak Ja Han, True Parents, True Family

Moon and Hak Ja Han
Moon and Hak Ja Han

Moon has said that Jesus called upon him to carry out his unfinished work, including his failure to marry.[17] Jesus was divine but not God; he was supposed to be the second Adam who would create a perfect family by joining with the ideal wife and creating a pure family that would have begun humanity's liberation from its sinful condition.[13] When Jesus was crucified before marrying, he redeemed mankind spiritually but not physically. That task was left to the "True Parents" - Moon and Han - who would link married couples and their families to God.[13][18][22]

Moon married his second wife, [58][59][60]

The members of the Unification Movement generally address or refer to Rev. and Mrs. Moon as "Father" and "Mother" or "True Father" and "True Mother."[61] Their children are known as the "True Children."[62]

Blessing ceremonies

Moon and Han preside over a blessing ceremony in 1982
Moon and Han preside over a blessing ceremony in 1982

Moon was renowned for presiding over mass "blessing ceremonies", the most famous ritual of the Unification Church.[4][15][21][63] The ceremonies gained international attention for joining thousands of identically dressed brides and grooms - many who had never met before - in matrimony.[2] Meant to highlight the church's emphasis on traditional morality, they brought Moon both fame and notoriety.[64]

36 couples participated in the first ceremony in 1961 for members of the early church in Seoul, South Korea. The ceremonies continued to grow in scale; over 2,000 couples participated in the 1982 one at New York's Madison Square Garden, the first outside South Korea.[11][13] In 1997, about 30,000 couples took part in a ceremony in Washington, DC.[65]

In church doctrine, the wedding (or marriage re-dedication) ceremony removes couples from the lineage of sinful humanity and grafts them into God’s sinless lineage.[15][21] For single members of the church, the ceremony is the culmination of a process towards an arranged marriage. Romantic liaisons are forbidden until the members are ready to be matched.[66]

Moon matched couples from differing races and nationalities as part of his belief that all of humanity should be united: "International and intercultural marriages are the quickest way to bring about an ideal world of peace. People should marry across national and cultural boundaries with people from countries they consider to be their enemies so that the world of peace can come that much more quickly."[4][11][22]

World fame

In the 1970s, Moon, who had seldom before spoken to the general public, gave a series of public speeches to audiences in the United States, Washington D.C.[67] [68]

In 1971, Moon moved to the United States, which he had first visited in 1965. He remained a citizen of the Republic of Korea and maintained a residence in South Korea.[69] In 1972, Moon founded the International Conference on the Unity of the Sciences, a series of scientific conferences.[70][71] The first conference had 20 participants, while the largest conference in Seoul in 1982, had 808 participants from over 100 countries.[72][73] Participants included Nobel laureates John Eccles (Physiology or Medicine 1963, who chaired the 1976 conference),[74] Eugene Wigner (Physics 1963).[75]

In 1974, Moon asked church members in the United States to support President [76]

In 1982, Moon sponsored the film Inchon about the Korean War, which was not successful critically or financially.[77]

In 1982 [82] The Washington Times was a favorite read for President Ronald Reagan, but never a financial success.[83] By 1991, Moon said he spent about $1 billion on the paper[84] (by 2002 roughly $1.7 billion),[85] which he called "the instrument in spreading the truth about God to the world".[86]

In August 1985, seven years before the Geneva to debate the theme "The situation in the world after the fall of the communist empire."[87]

United States v. Sun Myung Moon

In 1982, Moon was convicted in the United States of filing false federal income tax returns and conspiracy. His conviction was upheld on appeal in a split decision. Moon was given an 18-month sentence and a $15,000 fine. He served 13 months of the sentence at the Federal Correctional Institution, Danbury before being released on good behavior to a halfway house.[88]

The case was the center of national freedom of religion and free speech debates.[89] Prof. Laurence H. Tribe of the Harvard University Law School argued that the trial by jury had "doomed (Moon) to conviction based on religious prejudice."[90] The American Baptist Churches in the U.S.A, the National Council of Churches, the National Black Catholic Clergy Caucus, and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference filed briefs in support of Moon.[91] Many notable clergy, including Jerry Falwell and Joseph Lowery, signed petitions protesting the government's case and spoke out in defense of Moon.[92][93]

1990s events

In April 1990, Moon visited the Soviet Union and met with President Mikhail Gorbachev. Moon expressed support for the political and economic transformations under way in the Soviet Union. At the same time the Unification Church was expanding into formerly communist nations.[94] In 1991, he met with Kim Il Sung, the North Korean President, to discuss ways to achieve peace on the Korean peninsula, as well as on international relations, tourism, etc.[95] In 1994, Moon was officially invited to the funeral of Kim Il Sung, in spite of the absence of diplomatic relations between North Korea and South Korea.[96]

Twenty first Century events

In 2000, Moon sponsored a United Nations conference which proposed the formation of "a religious assembly, or council of religious representatives, within the structure of the United Nations."[97]

In 2003 Moon sponsored the first Peace Cup international club football tournament.[98][99][100] The Los Angeles Galaxy, which competes in Major League Soccer, played in South Korea in the Peace Cup.[101] During the event Pelé, widely regarded as the best soccer player of all time and former Brazilian Sports Minister, met with Moon.[102]

On 12 September 2005, at the age of 85, Moon inaugurated the Universal Peace Federation with a 120-city world speaking tour.[103] At each city, Moon delivered his speech titled "God's Ideal Family – the Model for World Peace".

In April 2008, Moon appointed his youngest son Hyung Jin Moon to be the new leader of the Unification Church and the worldwide Unification Movement, saying, "I hope everyone helps him so that he may fulfil his duty as the successor of the True Parents."[104]

In 2009, Moon's autobiography, As a Peace-Loving Global Citizen (Korean: 평화를 사랑하는 세계인으로),[105] was published by Gimm-Young Publishers in South Korea. The book became a best-seller in Korea and Japan.[106][107][108][109]

By 2010, Moon had given much of the responsibility for the Unification Church's religious and business activities to his children, who were then in their 30s and 40s.[110] In 2012, the South Korean press reported that Moon traveled worldwide in his private jet which cost $50 million.[111][112]

Illness and death

On 14 August 2012, after suffering from [116] Moon died on the morning of 3 September 2012 (1:54 am KST) at the age of 92.[117]

Honorary degrees and other recognition

Moon held [121] He was a member of the Honorary Committee of the Unification Ministry of the Republic of Korea.[122] In 1985, Moon and his wife received Doctor of Divinity degrees from Shaw University.[123]

In 2004, at event in the Dirksen Senate Office Building, in Washington, D.C., Moon was honored as the Messiah. This was criticized by The New York Times and The Washington Post as a possible violation of the principle of separation of church and state in the United States. Some of the political figures who had attended the event later told reporters that they had been misled as to its nature.[124][125]

Moon was posthumously awarded North Korea's National Reunification Prize in 2012[126] and a meritorious award by K-League.[127][128] On the first anniversary of Moon's death, North Korean leader Kim Jong-un expressed condolences to Han and the family saying: "Kim Jong-un prayed for the repose of Moon, who worked hard for national concord, prosperity and reunification and world peace."[129]

In 2013, [130]

Views on the role of Moon to church members

The Divine Principle itself says about Moon: "With the fullness of time, God has sent one person to this earth to resolve the fundamental problems of human life and the universe. His name is Sun Myung Moon. For several decades he wandered through the spirit world so vast as to be beyond imagining. He trod a bloody path of suffering in search of the truth, passing through tribulations that God alone remembers. Since he understood that no one can find the ultimate truth to save humanity without first passing through the bitterest of trials, he fought alone against millions of devils, both in the spiritual and physical worlds, and triumphed over them all. Through intimate spiritual communion with God and by meeting with Jesus and many saints in Paradise, he brought to light all the secrets of Heaven."[131]

In 1978 Rodney Sawatsky wrote in an article in Theology Today: "Why trust Rev. Moon's dreams and visions of the new age and his role in it, we ask? Most converts actually have had minimal contact with him. Frederick Sontag (Sun Myung Moon and the Unification Church, Abingdon, 1977) in his interviews with Moon appears to have found a pleasant but not an overwhelming personality. Charisma, as traditionally understood, seems hardly applicable here. Rather, Moon provides a model. He suffered valiantly, he knows confidently, he prays assuredly, he lives lovingly, say his followers. The Divine Principle is not an unrealizable ideal; it is incarnate in a man, it lives, it is imitable. His truth is experienced to be their truth. His explanation of the universe becomes their understanding of themselves and the world in which they live."[132]

In 1980 Sociologist Irving Louis Horowitz commented: "The Reverend Moon is a fundamentalist with a vengeance. He has a belief system that admits of no boundaries or limits, an all-embracing truth. His writings exhibit a holistic concern for the person, society, nature, and all things embraced by the human vision. In this sense the concept underwriting the Unification church is apt, for its primary drive and appeal is unity, urging a paradigm of essence in an overly complicated world of existence. It is a ready-made doctrine for impatient young people and all those for whom the pursuit of the complex has become a tiresome and fruitless venture."[133]

In 1998 investigative journalist Peter Maass wrote in an article in The New Yorker: "There are, certainly, differing degrees of devotion among Moon's followers; the fact that they bow at the right moment or shout Mansei! in unison doesn't mean they believe everything Moon says, or do precisely what he commands. Even on important issues, like Moon's claiming to be the messiah, there are church members whom I met, including a close aide to Moon, who demur. A religious leader whom they respect and whose theology they believe, yes; the messiah, perhaps not."[134]

In his 2004 book The New Religious Movement Experience in America religious scholar Eugene V. Gallagher wrote: "The Divine Principle's analysis of the Fall sets the stage for the mission of Rev. Moon, who in the last days brings a revelation that offers humankind the chance to return to an Edenic state. The account in the Divine Principle offers Unificationists a comprehensive context for understanding human suffering."[135]

Activities and interests


In 1964 Moon founded the Korean Culture and Freedom Foundation, which promoted the interests of South Korea and sponsored Radio Free Asia. Former U.S. Presidents Harry S. Truman, Dwight D. Eisenhower and Richard Nixon were honorary presidents or directors at various times.[136]

In 1972 Moon predicted the decline of communism, based on the teachings of the Divine Principle: "After 7,000 biblical years — 6,000 years of restoration history plus the millennium, the time of completion — communism will fall in its 70th year. Here is the meaning of the year 1978. Communism, begun in 1917, could maintain itself approximately 60 years and reach its peak. So 1978 is the border line and afterward communism will decline; in the 70th year it will be altogether ruined. This is true. Therefore, now is the time for people who are studying communism to abandon it."[137]

In 1980, Moon asked church members to found New York.[138] In the 1980s, it was active in 21 countries. In the United States it sponsored educational conferences for Christian leaders[139] as well as seminars and conferences for Senate staffers and other activists.[140] In 1986, it produced the anti-communist documentary film Nicaragua Was Our Home.[141]

Moon and his church are known for their efforts to promote Korean unification.[19] In 2003, Korean Unification Church members started a political party in South Korea. It was named "The Party for God, Peace, Unification, and Home." In its inauguration declaration, the new party said it would focus on preparing for Korean reunification by educating the public about God and peace.[142] Moon was a member of the Honorary Committee of the Unification Ministry of the Republic of Korea.[143] In 2012 Moon was posthumously awarded North Korea's National Reunification Prize.[126]

Official events have periodically been held in honor of Sun Myung Moon in the municipalities of Korea.[144] Moon's projects have been lobbied in the National Congress of Brazil by Brazilian MPs.[145][146][147] Moon has held dialogues between members of the Israeli Knesset and the Palestinian Parliament as part of his Middle East Peace Initiatives.[148]


News World Communications, is an international news media corporation[5] founded by Moon in 1976. It owns United Press International, The World and I, Tiempos del Mundo (Latin America), The Segye Ilbo (South Korea), The Sekai Nippo (Japan), the Zambezi Times (South Africa), The Middle East Times (Egypt).[6] Until 2008 it published the Washington D.C.-based newsmagazine Insight on the News.[5] Until 2010, it owned the Washington Times. On 2 November 2010, Sun Myung Moon and a group of former Times editors purchased the Times from News World.[7]

[8] Among Tongil Group’s chief holdings are: The Ilwha Company, which produces ginseng and related products; Ilshin Stone, building materials; and Tongil Heavy Industries, machine parts including hardware for the South Korean military.[10]

The church is the largest owner of U.S. sushi restaurants and in the Kodiak region of Alaska, is the area's largest employer.[149][150] The church owns the only automobile manufacturing plant in North Korea, Pyeonghwa Motors, and is the second largest exporter of Korean goods.[151][152][153][154]

In 1989, Moon founded Seongnam Ilhwa Chunma,[155] the most successful soccer club in Korean football, having won a record 7 league titles, 2 FA Cups, 3 League Cups, and 2 AFC Champions League titles.

In 2004, Moon held an opening ceremony of the largest helicopter manufacturer in Asia, with 500 VIPs participating. Called Washington Times Aviation, the company produces Sikorsky helicopters on a sub-contract basis.[156] The same year, Moon launched a $1.5-billion construction project to build 70-story twin skyscrapers in Seoul.[157] The next year he bought an area of 46,000 m² in Seoul, also for the construction of skyscrapers.[158] Currently the project is under construction and scheduled to be completed by 2013.[159]

In 2011, construction of $18 million Yeosu Expo Hotel was completed; the hotel located at Moon-owned The Ocean Resort in Yeosu, the venue of the Expo 2012.[160] The opening ceremony was attended by the governor of the province.[160][161] Another one, The Ocean Hotel, was completed in February 2012.[162] Moon-owned Yeongpyeong Resort, The Ocean Resort and Pineridge Resort are scheduled to host the Expo 2012,[163][164] 2018 Winter Olympics[165][166] and Formula 1.[167] Moon also managed the FIFA-accredited Peace Cup.[168] The FIFA itself has funded more than $2m for the Peace Cup since 2003.[169]

Race relations

Although conservative on most other issues, Moon took a strong stance against [170]

In 1981 he said that he himself was a victim of racial prejudice in the United States (concerning his prosecution on tax charges in United States v. Sun Myung Moon), saying: "I would not be standing here today if my skin were white or my religion were Presbyterian. I am here today only because my skin is yellow and my religion is Unification Church. The ugliest things in this beautiful country of America are religious bigotry and racism."[171]

Several African American organizations and individuals spoke out in defense of Moon at this time including the National Black Catholic Clergy Caucus, the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, the National Conference of Black Mayors,[172] and Joseph Lowery who was then the head of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference.[173]

In a later controversy over the use of the word "Moonie" by the American news media, which was said to be offensive, Moon's position was supported by civil rights activists Ralph Abernathy[174][175][176] and James Bevel.[177]

In 2000 Moon and The Nation of Islam leader Louis Farrakhan got together to sponsor the Million Family March,[178] a rally in Washington D.C to celebrate family unity and racial and religious harmony; as well as to address other issues, including abortion, capital punishment, health care, education, welfare and Social Security reform, substance abuse prevention, and overhaul of the World Bank and International Monetary Fund.[179] In his keynote speech Farrakhan called for racial harmony.[180]


In 1962, Moon and other church members founded the Little Angels Children’s Folk Ballet of Korea, a children's dance troop which presents traditional Korean folk dances. He said that this was to project a positive image of South Korea to the world.[181] In 1990, Moon founded the $8-million Universal Ballet project, with Soviet-born Oleg Vinogradov as its art director and Moon's daughter-in-law Julia as its prima ballerina. It was described by The New York Times as the top ballet company in Asia.[182]


  1. ^ a b c d e Walkin, Daniel J. (2 September 2012). "Rev. Sun Myung Moon, Self-Proclaimed Messiah Who Built Religious Movement, Dies at 92". The New York Times. p. A17.  
  2. ^ a b News desk (2 September 2012). "Religious Leader, Media Mogul Rev. Sun Myung Moon Dies at Age 92". PBS NewsHour. 1996-2013 MacNeil/Lehrer Productions. Retrieved 20 June 2013. 
  3. ^ a b Xaykaothao, Doualy (3 September 2013). "Sun Myung Moon, Unification Church Founder, Dies". NPR (National Public Radio). Retrieved 16 June 2013. The Rev. Sun Myung Moon, founder of the Unification Church, has died at the age of 92 in Korea. Unification church members viewed him as a messiah, despite allegations of cult-like behavior and financial fraud. Moon was known for presiding over mass weddings and starting the conservative newspaper The Washington Times. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f Hyung-Jin Kim (2 September 2012). "Unification Church founder Rev. Sun Myung Moon dies at 92". USA Today.  
  5. ^ a b c d "Who Owns What: News World Communications". The Columbia Journalism Review. 2003-11-24. Retrieved 2008-02-02. 
  6. ^ a b Yahoo! Finance profile
  7. ^ a b Shapira, Ian (3 November 2010). "Moon group buys back Washington Times". Washington Post. p. C1. 
  8. ^ a b Kim, Hyung-eun (12 April 2010). "Business engine of a global faith". Joong Ang Daily. 
  9. ^ Kirk, Don (2 May 1998). "Reverend Moon's Group Wants to Talk Investment : Seoul Nods At Church's Foray North".  
  10. ^ a b Kirk, Donald (2 May 2010). "Sons rise in a Moon’s shadow".  
  11. ^ a b c d e f Urquhart, Conal (2 September 2013). "Sun Myung Moon, founder of the Moonies, dies in South Korea". The Guardian (London). 2013 Guardian News and Media Limited.  
  12. ^ a b c d e Brown, Emma (2 September 2012). "Sun Myung Moon dies at 92; Washington Times owner led the Unification Church". The Washington Post.  
  13. ^ a b c d e Schoifet, Mark (2 September 2012). "Sun Myung Moon, Church Head Who Ran Business Empire, Dies". Business Week. Bloomberg News. Retrieved 12 June 2013. As Moon's popularity grew, anti-Moon organizations began forming around the country. Defectors told tales of non-stop indoctrination at church-run camps, including yelling and physical abuse by instructors. Recruits weren't allowed time alone; someone even accompanied them to the bathroom. 
  14. ^ A+E Networks. (September 2013). "Sun Myung Moon.biography". Retrieved 16 June 2013. Best Known For Sun Myung Moon was founder and leader of the Unification Church, a religious movement whose followers were labeled "Moonies." 
  15. ^ a b c d e Richard Greene; K.J. Kwon; Greg Botelho (3 September 2013). "Rev. Moon, religious and political figure, dies in South Korea at 92". CNN. Retrieved 16 June 2013. 
  16. ^ Emma Brown (2 September 2012). "Sun Myung Moon dies at 92; Washington Times owner led the Unification Church". Washington Post. Retrieved 25 September 9. 
  17. ^ a b Associated Press (2009-10-13). "Big wedding: 20,000 gather for mass nuptials". NBC News. Retrieved 16 June 2013. Over the next two decades, the weddings grew in scale and began to involve followers from Japan, Europe, Africa, Latin America, the U.S. and elsewhere. A 1982 mass wedding at Madison Square Garden in New York, the first held outside South Korea, drew tens of thousands of participants — and protesters. The ceremonies had been smaller in recent years. 
  18. ^ a b Hagerty, Barbara Bradley (2 September 2012). "Rev. Moon, A 'Savior' To Some, Lived A Big Dream". (National Public Radio). Retrieved 19 June 2013. 
  19. ^ a b Sun Myung Moon's Groundbreaking Campaign to Open North Korea, The Atlantic, Armin Rosen, 6 September 2012
  20. ^ Kang, Seongbin; Jane Chung (15 September 2012). "Unification Church head Sun Myung Moon buried in Korea". Chicago Tribune. Reuters. Retrieved 16 June 2013. 
  21. ^ a b c Unification Church: Mass Moonie Marriage in the US, BBC News, Saturday, 29 November 1997.
  22. ^ a b c Moon, Reverend Sun Myung (2010). As a peace-loving global citizen (May 2010 ed. ed.). [Washington, D.C.]: Washington Times Foundation.  
  23. ^ Moon, Sun Myung (2009). As a Peace-Loving Global Citizen. Gimm-Young Publishers.  
  24. ^ . "Unification Church". HD JONGKYO. Retrieved 17 October 2014. 
  25. ^ "Korea, for a reconciliation between North and South". 30 Days. 24 March 2006. Retrieved 21 April 2010. 
  26. ^ "The Martyrs of Tokwon: Historical Preliminary Notes". Missionary Benedictines of St. Ottilien. Retrieved 10 April 2012. 
  27. ^ "Thank You Father Kim Il Sung". U.S. Commission on International Religious Freedom, November 2005. Retrieved 10 April 2012. 
  28. ^ Wakin, Daniel J. (2012-09-02). "Rev. Sun Myung Moon, 92, Unification Church Founder, Dies". The New York Times.  
  29. ^ Woo, Elaine (2012-09-03). "Sun Myung Moon dies at 92; led controversial Unification Church". Los Angeles Times.  
  30. ^ Brown, Emma (2012-09-04). "Sun Myung Moon dies at 92; Washington Times owner led the Unification Church". The Washington Post.  
  31. ^ Christianity: A Global History, David Chidester, HarperCollins, 2001, ISBN 0062517708, 9780062517708, pages 514 to 515
  32. ^ "Unification Church founder Rev. Moon dies at 92". CBC News/The Canadian Press. Associated Press. 2 September 2013. Retrieved 19 June 2013. 
  33. ^ NBC News staff and news services (2 September 2012). "Sun Myung Moon, founder of Unification Church, dies at 92". WORLDNEWS on NBC NEWS. Retrieved 20 June 2013. 
  34. ^ Korean Moon: Waxing of Waning?, Leo Sandon Jr., Theology Today, Vol 35, No 2, July 1978, "The movement's official doctrinal statement, and a part of the revelation, is the Divine Principle. Both an oral tradition and a written one and published in several versions, Divine Principle is the Completed Testament. The Rev. Moon claims to have come not to destroy or abrogate the Old and New Testaments, but to fulfill them-to "complete" them. To his Moonist followers, the Rev. Moon is primarily "true father," probably the Messiah, and only secondarily a theologian. In an effort to systematize Moon's teachings, several members of the Unification Church in Korea have put together a developing theological system in Divine Principle which is impressive in its imaginative nature, coherence, and consistency, if not in its Christian orthodoxy. As the most complete expression of Moonist teachings to date, Divine Principle is the basic text of the Unification Church.4 The two major divisions of the system are the doctrines of Creation and Restoration. There are many subsets to these major divisions, but Creation and Restoration are the foci for the Moonist theological system."
  35. ^ a b c Sontag, Fredrick (1977). Sun Myung Moon and the Unification Church. Abingdon. p. 102.  
  36. ^ a b Sontag, Fredrick (1977). Sun Myung Moon and the Unification Church. Abingdon. p. 107.  
  37. ^ a b c Sontag, Fredrick (1977). Sun Myung Moon and the Unification Church. Abingdon. p. 108.  
  38. ^ Unifying or Dividing? Sun Myung Moon and the Origins of the Unification Church George D. Chryssides, University of Wolverhampton, U.K. 2003
  39. ^ Daske, D. and Ashcraft, W. 2005, New Religious Movements, New York: New York University Press, ISBN 0-8147-0702-5 p142
  40. ^ Yamamoto, J. 1995, Unification Church, Grand Rapids, Michigan: Zondervan Press, ISBN 0-310-70381-6 p40
  41. ^ Walter Ralston Martin, Ravi K. Zacharias, The Kingdom of the Cults, Bethany House, 2003, ISBN 0764228218 pages 368-370
  42. ^ Daske, D. and Ashcraft, W. 2005, New Religious Movements, New York: New York University Press, ISBN 0-8147-0702-5 "To restart the process toward perfection, God has sent messiahs to earth who could restore the true state of humanity's relationship with God. Before that can happen, however, humans must perform good deeds that cancel the bad effects of sin. Unificationists call this "indemnity". Showing love and devotion to one's fellow humans, especially within families, helps pay this indemnity." p. 142.
  43. ^ Yamamoto, J. 1995, Unification Church, Grand Rapids, Michigan: Zondervan Press, ISBN 0-310-70381-6 "The doctrine of indemnity. Indemnity is that which people do to restore themselves to God's kingdom.
  44. ^ THE POWER OF THE PRINCIPLE: WHENCE IT CAME; WHERE IT WENT Richard Quebedeaux, "Rev. Moon calls such a mode of living, such a lifestyle, "restoration through indemnity." With indemnity viewed as a persistent pattern of behavior, not as a mere doctrine to be affirmed or a rational list of rules, God's ideal for human relationships is "restored" through restitution. Restitution-in the sense of a "natural law"-assuages resentment, because it is the means by which the powerful and enfranchised give the people who feel downtrodden and powerless what they believe is rightly theirs. Indemnity means that 'I'm here for you.'"
  45. ^ 1996 TranslationExposition of the Divine Principle
  46. ^ a b c d Exposition of the Divine Principle
  47. ^ a b Daske and Ashcraft
  48. ^ a b Yamamoto
  49. ^ Daske, D. and Ashcraft, W. 2005, New Religious Movements, New York: New York University Press, ISBN 0814707025 p142.
  50. ^ Tingle, D. and Fordyce, R. 1979, The Phases and Faces of the Moon: A Critical Examination of the Unification Church and Its Principles, Hicksville, New York: Exposition Press p53-55
  51. ^ Helm, S. Divine Principle and the Second Advent
  52. ^ "Cheon Seong Gyeong". Sun Myung Moon. Retrieved 18 October 2014. 
  53. ^ a b "Unification Church Leader Sun Myung Moon's Sexual Organs Doctrine". Amen News. Retrieved 18 October 2014. 
  54. ^ a b "Cheon Seong Gyeong". Sun Myung Moon. Retrieved 18 October 2014. 
  55. ^ Do As I Preach, and Not As I Do, TIME, Asian Edition, 28 September 1998, Vol. 152, NO. 12.
  56. ^ , Wednesday, 20 September 1995.San Francisco Chronicle"1,000 Cheer Rev. Moon in Oakland: Unification Church leader at end of national crusade," by Peter Fimrite,
  57. ^ Moon At Twilight: Amid scandal, the Unification Church has a strange new mission, Peter Maass New Yorker Magazine, 14 September 1998. "Moon sees the essence of his own mission as completing the one given to Jesus - establishing a 'true family' untouched by Satan while teaching all people to lead a God-centered life under his spiritual leadership."
  58. ^ Unifying or Dividing? Sun Myung Moon and the Origins of the Unification Church, by George D. Chryssides, University of Wolverhampton, U.K. A paper presented at the CESNUR 2003 Conference, Vilnius, Lithuania.
  59. ^ , Friday, 12 September 1997.The New York Times"Sharpton in Ceremonies Of Unification Church," by David Firestone,
  60. ^ , 29 Jan 1976; B1.Los Angeles Times"Messiah" by John Dart,
  61. ^ , Monday, 24 November 1997; Page A01.Washington Post"Stymied in U.S., Moon's Church Sounds a Retreat" by Marc Fisher and Jeff Leen,
  62. ^ , Wednesday, 10 March 1999; Page A1.Washington Post"Church's Pistol Firm Exploits a Niche" by John Mintz, "Justin Moon and his siblings are revered by church members as the Messiah's 'True Children'."
  63. ^ Woo, Elaine (3 September 2013). "Sun Myung Moon dies at 92; led controversial Unification Church". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 21 June 2013. South Korean immigrated to the U.S. and became the wealthy leader of an unorthodox religious movement that was labeled a cult and featured mass marriage ceremonies. 
  64. ^ Daily Mail Reporter (2 September 2012). "Moonie tears for the Messiah: Devotees say farewell to founder after death at 92... now what will become of his billion-dollar empire?". Daily Mail (London). Retrieved 21 June 2013. 
  65. ^ "Unification Church Mass Moonie Marriage in the US". BBC News. 29 November 1997. Retrieved 21 June 2013. 
  66. ^ HENNEBERGER, Melinda (22 September 1992). "A Look at Life After Mass Marriage; For 2,075 Couples (Give or Take 200), 10 Years Together, Thanks to Sun Myung Moon". The New York Times. Retrieved 21 June 2013. 
  67. ^ Richard Quebedeaux, Lifestyle : Conversations with Members of Unification Church. Retrieved 9 October 2012. 
  68. ^ "Moon Festival Draws 50,000 to Monument", Washington Post, 19 September 1976.
  69. ^ "Image of Moon's arrival" (JPG). Retrieved 29 April 2006. 
  70. ^ excerpt The Unification Church Studies in Contemporary Religion, Massimo Introvigne, 2000, Signature Books, Salt Lake City, Utah, ISBN 1-56085-145-7
  71. ^ Kety Quits Moon-Linked ICF Conference Harvard Crimson, 10 August 1976.
  72. ^ ICUS Statement of Purpose
  73. ^ Church Spends Millions On Its Image The Washington Post. 17 September 1984
  74. ^ Kety Quits Moon-linked ICF Conference, Harvard Crimson
  75. ^ Eugene Paul Wigner Papers Princeton University Library
  76. ^ Introvigne, Massimo, 2000, The Unification Church Studies in Contemporary Religion, Signature Books, Salt Lake City, Utah, ISBN 1-56085-145-7, excerpt page 16
  77. ^ Kempley, Rita (17 September 1982). "Mooning Over MacArthur". The Washington Post. p. Weekend At The Movies; Pg. 13. 
  78. ^ "Sun Myung Moon Paper Appears in Washington".  
  79. ^ Pak was founding president of the Washington Times Corporation (1982–1992), and founding chairman of the board. Bo Hi Pak, Appendix B: Brief Chronology of the Life of Dr. Bo Hi Pak, in Messiah: My Testimony to Rev. Sun Myung Moon, Vol I by Bo Hi Pak (2000), Lanham, MD: University Press of America.
  80. ^ Hall, Mimi (22 March 2001). "Bush, aides boost access of conservative media". USA Today. Retrieved 25 July 2009. 
  81. ^ Glaberson, William (27 June 1994). "The Media Business; Conservative Daily Tries to Expand National Niche". The New York Times. Retrieved 25 July 2009. 
  82. ^ New business models for news are not that new, Nikki Usher, Knight Digital Media Center, 2008-12-17, "And the Washington Times' conservative stance pursues its agenda from the Rev. Sun Myung Moon's Unification Church."
  83. ^ Wemple, Erik (2 September 2012). "As the Rev. Moon goes, so goes the Washington Times?". The Washington Post. Retrieved 14 November 2012. 
  84. ^ "Literally nine hundred million to one billion dollars has been spent to activate and run the Washington Times" -Sun Myung Moon, "True Family and True Universe centering on True Love", Founder's Address, 15th Anniversary of The Washington Times, 16 June 1997, Washington, DC.
  85. ^ Ahrens, Frank, "Moon Speech Raises Old Ghosts as the Times Turns 20", Washington Post, 23 May 2002. "As of this year, Moon and his businesses have plowed about $1.7 billion into subsidizing the Times, say current and former employees."
  86. ^ Chinni, Dante (2002). "The Other Paper: The Washington Times's role". Columbia Journalism Review. Archived from the original on 19 April 2006. Retrieved 29 April 2006. 
  87. ^ Projections about a post-Soviet world-twenty-five years later. // Goliath Business News
  88. ^ Moon's Japanese Profits Bolster Efforts in U.S., Washington Post, 16 September 2008.
  89. ^ "Clerics Urge Pardon For Rev. Moon". Chicago Tribune. 21 August 1985. 
  90. ^ "THE CITY; Arguments Heard In Moon's Appeal". The New York Times. 24 March 1983. 
  91. ^ Raspberry, William, "Did Unpopular Moonie Get a Fair Trial?", The Washington Post, 19 April 1984
  92. ^ "The Unification Church Aims a Major Public Relations Effort at Christian Leaders", Christianity Today, 19 April 1985.
  93. ^ Moon's financial rise and fall, Harvard Crimson, 11 October 1984.
  94. ^ EVOLUTION IN EUROPE; New Flock for Moon Church: The Changing Soviet Student from The New York Times
  95. ^ At Time of Change for Rev. Moon Church, a Return to Tradition // The New York Times, 14 October 2009
  96. ^ "mk 뉴스 — 金장례식에 日여자마술사 초청한 까닭". Retrieved 9 October 2012. 
  97. ^ International religious summit at U.N. receives criticism, Baptist Press, 28 August 2000.
  98. ^ "Peace Cup (South Korea)". RSSSF. Retrieved 2008-06-14. 
  99. ^ Korean influence: PSV's Hiddink hoping to win Peace CupSports Illustrated 21 July 2003
  100. ^ South Korea to host global peace cup in JulySports Illustrated 6 May 2003
  101. ^ Bell, Jack (14 July 2003). "MetroStars Midfielder Knows About Comebacks". The New York Times. 
  102. ^ サッカーの神様"ペレ氏と文鮮明師夫妻
  103. ^ "Family Federation for World Peace and Unification of U.S.A". Retrieved 29 April 2006. 
  104. ^ Son of Moonies founder takes over as church leader The Guardian, 28 April 2008
  105. ^ "네이버 책 :: 네이버는 책을 사랑합니다". Retrieved 14 October 2009. 
  106. ^ "문선명 자서전, 전국 목회자에 발송". Retrieved 9 October 2012. 
  107. ^ "문선명 총재 자서전 100만부 돌파". Retrieved 9 October 2012. 
  108. ^ "신경숙 소설 3위로 상승". Retrieved 9 October 2012. 
  109. ^ "덕혜옹주 4주 연속 1위". Retrieved 9 October 2012. 
  110. ^ Sons Rise in a Moon Shadow, Forbes, 12 April 2010
  111. ^ 통일교 과천 교회 박준철 현직 목사 탈퇴 기자 회견 54가지 비리 폭로 (in 한국어). Retrieved 9 October 2012. 
  112. ^ "통일교 과천 교회 박준철 현직 목사 탈퇴 기자 회견 54가지 비리 폭로". Retrieved 9 October 2012. 
  113. ^ Yoon, Sangwon (15 August 2012). "Unification Church Says Leader Moon Is ‘Gravely Ill’". Bloomberg L.P. Retrieved 16 August 2012. 
  114. ^ 3 September 2012 (3 September 2012). "The Rev Sun Myung Moon". The Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved 9 October 2012. 
  115. ^ Brown, Emma (2 September 2012). "Sun Myung Moon dies at 92; Washington Times owner led the Unification Church". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2 September 2012. 
  116. ^ "Sun Myung Moon illness ‘irreversible’: Unification Church". The Raw Story. 31 August 2012. Retrieved 4 September 2012. 
  117. ^ "The Rev. Sun Myung Moon, founder of The Times, dies at 92", Washington Times, 09/02/2012.
  118. ^ Moon Gets Honorary Degree From Argentine at the U.N. / New York Times, 17 November 1984
  119. ^ "학교법인 선문학원, 제7대 한학자 이사장 취임 : 대학뉴스 : 사회 : 뉴스 : 한겨레". Retrieved 3 September 2012. 
  120. ^ "Мир Религий // Досье // Мун Сон Мён". Retrieved 9 October 2012. 
  121. ^ Wakin, Daniel (2 September 2012). "Rev. Sun Myung Moon, Self-Proclaimed Messiah Who Built Religious Movement, Dies at 92". The New York Times. Retrieved 6 September 2012. 
  122. ^ "Ministry of Unification of the Republic of Korea, official webpage". Retrieved 9 October 2012. 
  123. ^ "Around The Nation: Divinity School Awards Moon Honorary Degree". The New York Times. 13 May 1985. 
  124. ^ Babington, Charles; Alan Cooperman (23 June 2004). "The Rev. Moon Honored at Hill Reception – Lawmakers Say They Were Misled". The Washington Post: A01. 
  125. ^ "Lawmakers Scurry From the Light". The New York Times. 27 June 2004. 
  126. ^ a b "Moon Sun Myung Awarded National Reunification Prize", Korean Central News Agency, 7 September 2012, retrieved 13 September 2012 
  127. ^ 데얀, K리그 MVP..감독상은 최용수 '서울 천하'(종합)
  128. ^ '축구로 세계평화를…' 고(故) 문선명 통일교 총재, K리그 공로패
  129. ^ North Korean leader extends condolences over 1 yr anniversary of Unification Church founder death, Yonhap News, 20 August 2013
  130. ^ FULL TEXT: Tsvangirai Speech In South Korea. By Staff Reporter. Published: 25 February 2013
  131. ^ Divine Principle (translated 1966), Introduction
  132. ^ Rodney Sawatsky, 1978, Dialogue with the Moonies Theology Today.
  133. ^ Irving Louis Horowitz, Science, Sin, and Society: The Politics or Reverend Moon and the Unification Church, 1980, MIT Press
  134. ^ Peter Maass, Moon at Twilight, The New Yorker September 14, 1998.
  135. ^ Eugene V. Gallagher, 2004, The New Religious Movement Experience in America, Greenwood Press, ISBN 0313328072, page 23.
  136. ^ "Korean denies influence peddling". Bangor Daily News. Retrieved 21 March 2012. 
  137. ^ The Way of Restoration, (April, 1972)
  138. ^ "Moon's 'Cause' Takes Aim At Communism in Americas", The Washington Post, 28 August 1983.
  139. ^ Sun Myung Moon's Followers Recruit Christians to Assist in Battle Against Communism Christianity Today 15 June 1985
  140. ^ Church Spends Millions On Its Image, The Washington Post, 1984-09-17. "Another church political arm, Causa International, which preaches a philosophy it calls "God-ism," has been spending millions of dollars on expense-paid seminars and conferences for Senate staffers, Hispanic Americans and conservative activists. It also has contributed $500,000 to finance an anticommunist lobbying campaign headed by John T. (Terry) Dolan, chairman of the National Conservative Political Action Committee (NCPAC)."
  141. ^ Public TV Tilts Toward Conservatives, Fairness & Accuracy In Reporting "While conservatives dismiss Bill Moyers' world-class documentaries on our constitutional checks and balances as "propaganda," they never mention PBS's airing of unabashed right-wing agitprop films such as Nicaragua Was Our Home (the pro-contra film produced by Rev. Sun Myung Moon's CAUSA, which funded the contras after Congress' ban)...."
  142. ^ 'Moonies' launch political party in S Korea,The Independent (South Africa), 10 March 2003
  143. ^ "자유게시판". Retrieved 2012-05-23. 
  144. ^ Governmental news web-page of Tongyeong City, Republic of Korea
  145. ^ "Congressional papers of the Chamber of Deputies" (PDF). Retrieved 9 October 2012. 
  146. ^ "Congressional papers of the Chamber of Deputies" (PDF). Retrieved 9 October 2012. 
  147. ^ "Congressional papers of the Chamber of Deputies" (PDF). Retrieved 9 October 2012. 
  148. ^ Ghouse, Mike (21 February 2012). "Commitment to Israel-Palestine, Part 2". Huffington Post. 
  149. ^ Eng, Monica, Delroy Alexander and David Jackson "Sushi and Rev. Moon: How Americans' growing appetite for sushi is helping to support his controversial church", Chicago Tribune, 11 April 2006.
  150. ^ "Tooth and Claw | CAA". 27 June 2010. Retrieved 9 October 2012. 
  151. ^ "Policy Reform and Equity - Extending the Benefits of Development" (PDF). Retrieved 9 October 2012. 
  152. ^ Kirk, Donald, No, Not Yet. Palaver in Pyongyang doesn’t signal a northern manufacturing itch from Korea’s conglomerates., Forbes, 29 October 2007.
  153. ^ Demick, Barbara, "Who gave N. Korea those power tools?", Los Angeles Times, 27 September 2008.
  154. ^ "National News Briefs; Unification Church Head Charged in Fishing Case". The New York Times. 31 August 2000. 
  155. ^ CNN, Soccer World News//World Roundup
  156. ^ "Governmental web-page of the Republic of Korea". Retrieved 9 October 2012. 
  157. ^ "주간조선 — 1등 인터넷뉴스 조선닷컴". Retrieved 9 October 2012. 
  158. ^ '파크원 분쟁' 통일교재단, 前이사장 배임 고소 | 연합뉴스 (in 한국어). Retrieved 9 October 2012. 
  159. ^ "JoongAng Ilbo Tablet edition" (in 한국어). 28 April 2011. Retrieved 9 October 2012. 
  160. ^ a b "여수 거문도에 관광호텔 준공". Retrieved 9 October 2012. 
  161. ^ "Yeosoo EXPO Hotel". Retrieved 9 October 2012. 
  162. ^ "도정활동25시 > 현장스케치". 17 April 2012. Retrieved 9 October 2012. 
  163. ^ "Governmental webpage of Jeju Island, Republic of Korea". 3 February 2012. Retrieved 9 October 2012. 
  164. ^ CJ News
  165. ^ "Finance Today". 14 January 2009. Retrieved 9 October 2012. 
  166. ^ "2018 Winter Olympics". 27 May 2008. Retrieved 9 October 2012. 
  167. ^ Governmental web-page of Jeonnam City
  168. ^ Football (21 July 2005). "West Ham turn their attention to Baros".  
  169. ^ Governmental web-page of Daegu City
  170. ^ Restoration Through Indemnity And America's Role 1974-03-23
  171. ^ On the tax charges against him, in a speech at Foley Square in New York City (22 October 1981); published in a full page advertisement in the The New York Times (5 November 1981), as quoted in US Court of Appeals document s:U.S. v. Sun Myung Moon 718 F.2d 1210 (1983)
  172. ^ Raspberry, William, "Did Unpopular Moonie Get a Fair Trial?", Washington Post, 19 April 1984
  173. ^ Introvigne, Massimo, 2000, The Unification Church Studies in Contemporary Religion, Signature Books, Salt Lake City, Utah, ISBN 1-56085-145-7, excerpt
  174. ^ Gorenfeld, John (2008). Bad Moon Rising. PoliPointPress. p. 96.  
  175. ^ Leigh, Andrew (15 October 1989). "Inside Moon's Washington - The private side of public relations improving the image, looking for clout".  
  176. ^  
  177. ^ Hatch, Walter (13 February 1989). "Big names lend luster to group's causes - Church leader gains legitimacy among U.S. conservatives".  
  178. ^ Families Arrive in Washington For March Called by Farrakhan, New York Times, 16 October 2000
  179. ^ Million Family March reaches out to all
  180. ^ "Nation Of Islam - who are they?".  
  181. ^ Sewell first=Rhonda B. (28 February 2003). "Korean Culture Takes the Stage".  
  182. ^ Robertson, Allen (29 July 2001). "DANCE; A Small Place Reaches for Ballet's Big Time". The New York Times. 

Further reading

External links

  • Official website of the American Unification Church
  • Biography in church sponsored encyclopedia
  • Short biography at US church home page
  • Teachings Integrated videos and transcripts
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.