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Syrian Civil War

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Title: Syrian Civil War  
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Collection: 2010S Civil Wars, 2010S in Syria, 2011 in Syria, 2012 in Syria, 2013 in Syria, 2014 in Syria, Arab Winter by Country, Civil Wars Involving the States and Peoples of Asia, Conflicts in 2011, Conflicts in 2012, Conflicts in 2013, Conflicts in 2014, Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant in Syria, Ongoing Conflicts, Politics of Syria, Protests in Syria, Rebellions in Syria, Syrian Civil War, Wars Involving France, Wars Involving Hezbollah, Wars Involving Iran, Wars Involving Iraq, Wars Involving Jordan, Wars Involving Lebanon, Wars Involving Qatar, Wars Involving Russia, Wars Involving Saudi Arabia, Wars Involving Syria, Wars Involving the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, Wars Involving Turkey
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Syrian Civil War

The Syrian Civil War (Arabic: الحرب الأهلية السورية‎), also known as the Syrian Uprising, is an ongoing armed conflict taking place in Syria. The unrest began in the early spring of 2011 within the context of Arab Spring protests, with nationwide protests against President Bashar al-Assad's government, whose forces responded with violent crackdowns. The conflict gradually morphed from popular protests to an armed rebellion after months of military sieges.[1]

The armed opposition consists of various groups that were formed during the course of the conflict, primarily the Free Syrian Army, which was the first to take up arms in 2011, and the Islamic Front formed in 2013. In 2013, Hezbollah entered the war in support of the Syrian army.[2][3] In the east, the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), a jihadist militant group originating from Iraq, made very rapid military gains in both Syria and Iraq, eventually conflicting with the other rebels. In July 2014, ISIL controlled a third of Syria's territory and most of its oil and gas production, thus establishing itself as the major opposition force.[4]

By July 2013, the Syrian government was in control of approximately 30–40% of the country's territory and 60% of the Syrian population.[5] A United Nations report in late 2012 described the conflict as being "overtly sectarian in nature", between mostly Alawite government forces, militias and other Shia groups[6] fighting largely against Sunni-dominated rebel groups,[7][8] although both opposition and government forces have denied it.[9][10] Due to foreign involvement this conflict has been called a proxy war.[11]

As of April 2014 the death toll had risen above 190,000.[12] International organizations have accused forces on all sides of severe human rights violations, with many massacres occurring.[13][14] Chemical weapons have been used many times during the conflict as well.[15][16] Government forces are responsible for the majority of war crimes and civilian casualties, followed then by ISIL.[17][18] In addition, tens of thousands of protesters and activists have been imprisoned and there are reports of torture in state prisons.[19]

The severity of the humanitarian disaster in Syria has been outlined by the UN and many international organizations. More than 6.5 million Syrians have been displaced, more than 3 million Syrians have fled the country to countries such as Lebanon, Jordan, Turkey, Egypt, and Iraq and become refugees, and millions more have been left in poor living conditions with shortages of food and drinking water. At the end of August 2014, 35,000 refugees were awaiting registration, while estimates of several hundred thousand more were not included in official figures as they were unregistered.[20]


  • Background 1
    • Assad government 1.1
    • Demographics 1.2
    • Socio-economics 1.3
    • Human rights 1.4
  • Course of events 2
    • Protests, civil uprising, and defections (January 2011 – July 2011) 2.1
    • Protests and armed insurgency (July 2011 – October 2011) 2.2
    • Escalation (November 2011 – March 2012) 2.3
    • Ceasefire attempt (April 2012 – May 2012) 2.4
    • Renewed fighting (June 2012 – July 2012) 2.5
    • Battles of Damascus and Aleppo (July 2012 – October 2012) 2.6
    • Rebel offensives (November 2012 – April 2013) 2.7
    • Government and Hezbollah offensives (April 2013 – June 2013) 2.8
    • Continued fighting (July 2013 – October 2013) 2.9
    • Government and Hezbollah offensives (October 2013 – December 2013) 2.10
    • Fighting between ISIL and other rebel groups (January 2014 – March 2014) 2.11
    • Continued government and Hezbollah offensive (March 2014) 2.12
    • Continued fighting (March 2014 – May 2014) 2.13
    • Presidential election (June 2014) 2.14
    • ISIL offensive and continued fighting (June 2014 – August 2014) 2.15
    • ISIL offensives and U.S. airstrikes (August 2014 – present) 2.16
  • Advanced weaponry and tactics 3
    • Chemical weapons 3.1
    • Cluster bombs 3.2
    • Scud missile attacks 3.3
    • Suicide bombings 3.4
    • Barrel bombs 3.5
    • Thermobaric and incendiary weapons 3.6
  • Belligerents 4
    • Syrian government and affiliated parties 4.1
      • Syrian Army 4.1.1
      • National Defense Force 4.1.2
      • Shabiha 4.1.3
      • Hezbollah 4.1.4
      • Iran 4.1.5
    • Opposition parties 4.2
      • Hizb ut-Tahrir 4.2.1
      • Syrian National Council 4.2.2
      • Syrian National Coalition 4.2.3
        • Free Syrian Army
      • Islamic Front 4.2.4
      • Mujahideen 4.2.5
        • Al-Nusra Front
      • Syrian Kurds 4.2.6
    • Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) 4.3
  • Reporting, censoring and propaganda 5
  • International reaction 6
  • Humanitarian help 7
  • Foreign involvement 8
  • Impact 9
    • Deaths 9.1
    • Illness 9.2
    • Refugees 9.3
    • Human rights violations 9.4
    • Threats against Syrian sects and minorities 9.5
    • Economy 9.6
    • Crime wave 9.7
    • Cultural heritage 9.8
  • Spillover 10
  • See also 11
  • References 12
  • Further reading 13
  • External links 14


Assad government

Syria became an independent republic in 1946, although democratic rule was ended by a coup in March 1949, followed by two more coups that same year.[21][22] A popular uprising against military rule in 1954 saw the army transfer power to civilians; from 1958 to 1961 a brief union with Egypt replaced Syria's parliamentary system with a highly centralized presidential regime.[23] The Ba'ath Syrian Regional Branch government came to power in 1963 after a successful coup d'état. In 1966, another coup overthrew the traditional leaders of the party, Michel Aflaq and Salah al-Din al-Bitar.[24] General Hafez al-Assad, the Minister of Defense, seized power in a "corrective revolution" in November 1970, becoming Prime Minister. In March 1971, Assad declared himself President, a position that he held until his death in 2000. Since then, the secular Syrian Regional Branch has remained the dominant political authority in what is virtually a single-party state in Syria; Syrian citizens may only approve the President by referendum and – until the government-controlled multi-party 2012 parliamentary election – could not vote in multi-party elections for the legislature.[25]

Bashar al-Assad, the President of Syria and Asma al-Assad, his wife – who is a British-born and British-educated Sunni Muslim,[26] initially inspired hopes for democratic and state reforms and a "Damascus Spring" of intense social and political debate took place between July 2000 and August 2001.[27] The period was characterized by the emergence of numerous political forums or salons, where groups of like-minded people met in private houses to debate political and social issues. Political activists such as Riad Seif, Haitham al-Maleh, Kamal al-Labwani, Riyad al-Turk and Aref Dalila were important in mobilizing the movement.[28] The most famous of the forums were the Riad Seif Forum and the Jamal al-Atassi Forum. The Damascus Spring largely ended in August 2001 with the arrest and imprisonment of ten leading activists who had called for democratic elections and a campaign of civil disobedience.[29] From 2001 even reformists in Parliament had begun to criticize the legacy of stagnation since the rule of former President Hafez al-Assad; Bashar al-Assad has talked about reform but carried out very little, and he has failed to deliver on promised reforms since 2000, analysts say.[30]


Ethno-religious composition of people of Syria (% of 22,538,256)[31][32]

  Sunni (64%)
  Alawite (12%)
  Kurd-Sunni (9%)
  Christian (10%)
  Druze (3%)
  Ismaeli (1%)
  Turkmen-Sunni, Circassian-Sunni, and others (1%)

The Assad family comes from the minority Alawite religious group, an offshoot of Shi'ite Islam that comprises an estimated 12 percent of the total Syrian population.[33] It has maintained tight control on Syria's security services,[34] generating resentment among some Sunni Muslims,[35] a religious group that makes up about three-quarters of Syria's population. Ethnic minority Syrian Kurds have also protested and complained over ethnic discrimination and denial of their cultural and language rights.[36][37] Assad's younger brother Maher al-Assad commands the army's elite Fourth Armoured Division, and his brother-in-law, Assef Shawkat, was the deputy minister of defense until the latter's assassination in the 18 July 2012 Damascus bombing.


Discontent against the government was strongest in Syria's poorer areas, predominantly among conservative Sunnis.[38] These included cities with high poverty rates, such as Daraa and Homs, rural areas hit hard by a drought in early 2011, and the poorer districts of large cities. Socio-economic inequality increased significantly after free market policies were initiated by Hafez al-Assad in his later years, and accelerated after Bashar al-Assad came to power. With an emphasis on the service sector, these policies benefited a minority of the nation's population, mostly people who had connections with the government, and members of the Sunni merchant class of Damascus and Aleppo.[38] By 2011, Syria was facing a deterioration in the national standard of living and steep rises in the prices of commodities.[39] The country also faced particularly high youth unemployment rates.[40]

Human rights

The state of human rights in Syria has long been the subject of harsh criticism from global organizations.[41] The country was under emergency rule from 1963 until 2011, banning public gatherings of more than five people,[42] and effectively granting security forces sweeping powers of arrest and detention.[43] Bashar al-Assad is widely regarded as having been unsuccessful in implementing democratic change, with a 2010 report from Human Rights Watch stating that he had failed to substantially improve the state of human rights since taking power, although some minor aspects had seen improvement.[44]

In December 2010, mass anti-government protests began in Tunisia and later spread across other parts of the Arab world, including Syria. By February 2011, revolutions occurred in Tunisia and Egypt, while Libya began to experience its own civil war. Numerous other Arab countries also faced protests, with some attempting to calm the masses by making concessions and governmental changes. The uprisings in Tunisia and Egypt are supposed to have inspired the mid-March 2011 protests in Syria.[45]

Rights of free expression, association and assembly were strictly controlled in Syria even before the uprising.[46] The authorities harass and imprison human rights activists and other critics of the government, who are often indefinitely detained and tortured in poor prison conditions.[46] Women and ethnic minorities have faced discrimination in the public sector.[46] Thousands of Syrian Kurds were denied citizenship in 1962 and their descendants continued to be labeled as "foreigners".[47] A number of riots in 2004 prompted increased tension in Syria's Kurdish areas,[48][49] and there have been occasional clashes between Kurdish protesters and security forces ever since.

Course of events

Protests, civil uprising, and defections (January 2011 – July 2011)

Protests and armed insurgency (July 2011 – October 2011)

Escalation (November 2011 – March 2012)

Ceasefire attempt (April 2012 – May 2012)

Renewed fighting (June 2012 – July 2012)

Battles of Damascus and Aleppo (July 2012 – October 2012)

Rebel offensives (November 2012 – April 2013)

Government and Hezbollah offensives (April 2013 – June 2013)

Continued fighting (July 2013 – October 2013)

Government and Hezbollah offensives (October 2013 – December 2013)

Fighting between ISIL and other rebel groups (January 2014 – March 2014)

Continued government and Hezbollah offensive (March 2014)

Continued fighting (March 2014 – May 2014)

Presidential election (June 2014)

ISIL offensive and continued fighting (June 2014 – August 2014)

ISIL offensives and U.S. airstrikes (August 2014 – present)

Advanced weaponry and tactics

Chemical weapons

Map of the August 2013 Ghouta chemical attacks.

A UN fact-finding mission was requested by member states to investigate 16 alleged chemical weapons attacks. Seven of them have been investigated (nine were dropped for lack of "sufficient or credible information") and in four cases the UN inspectors confirmed use of sarin gas. The reports, however, did not blame any party of using chemical weapons.[50] Many countries, including the United States and the European Union have accused the Syrian government of conducting several chemical attacks, the most serious of them being the 2013 Ghouta attacks. Following this incident and international pressure, the destruction of Syria's chemical weapons began.

Cluster bombs

The Syrian army began using cluster bombs in September 2012. Steve Goose, director of the Arms division at Human Rights Watch said "Syria is expanding its relentless use of cluster munitions, a banned weapon, and civilians are paying the price with their lives and limbs,” "The initial toll is only the beginning because cluster munitions often leave unexploded bomblets that kill and maim long afterward."[51]

Scud missile attacks

In December 2012, the Syrian government began using Scud missiles on rebel-held towns, primarily targeting Aleppo.[52] On 19 February, four Scud missiles were fired, three landed in Aleppo city and one on Tell Rifaat town, Aleppo governorate. Between December and February, at least 40 Scud missile landings were reported.[53] Altogether, Scud missiles killed 141 people in the month of February.[54] The United States condemned the Scud missile attacks.[55] On 1 March, a Scud missile landed in Iraq. It is believed that the intention was to hit the Deir Ezzor governorate.[56] On 29 March, a Scud missile landed on Hretan, Aleppo, killing 20 and injuring 50.[57] On 28 April, a Scud missile landed on Tell Rifaat, killing four, two of them women and two of them children, SOHR reported.[58] On 3 June, a surface to surface missile, not confirmed as a Scud, hit the village of Kafr Hamrah around midnight killing 26 people including six women and eight children according to SOHR.[59]

Suicide bombings

Rebel suicide bombings began in December 2011; the Al-Nusra Front has claimed responsibility for 57 out of 70 similar attacks through April 2013.[3][60] The bombings have claimed numerous civilian casualties - leading to a drop in support for the armed terror gangs. Salah, 31, who gave only a first name, said he was not an Assad supporter, nor, for that matter, an Alawite, though he stressed that attacking those groups was not justified. The bombing convinced him that Western-backed rebels aimed to destroy Syria because its army is one of the few in the region not “funded, trained and controlled by the United States”.[61] Such bombing led to 47 - mainly Alawite - children being killed in Homs on October 1, 2014.[62]

Barrel bombs

A barrel bomb is a type of improvised explosive device used by the Syrian Air Force. Typically, a barrel is filled with a large amount of TNT, and possibly shrapnel (such as nails) and oil, and dropped from a helicopter. The resulting detonation can be devastating.[63][64][65]

Thermobaric and incendiary weapons

Thermobaric weapons, also known as "fuel-air bombs," have been used by the government side during the Syrian civil war. Since 2012, rebels have said that the Syrian Air Force (government forces) is using thermobaric weapons against residential areas occupied by the rebel fighters, such as during the Battle of Aleppo and also in Kafr Batna.[66][67] A panel of United Nations human rights investigators reported that the Syrian government used thermobaric bombs against the strategic town of Qusayr in March 2013.[68] In August 2013, the BBC reported on the use of napalm-like incendiary bombs on a school in northern Syria.[69]


Syrian government and affiliated parties

Syrian Army

Two destroyed Syrian Army tanks in Azaz, August 2012

Before the uprising and war broke out, the force of the Syrian Army was estimated at 325,000 regular troops, of which 220,000 were 'army troops' and the rest in the navy, air force and air defenses. There were also approximately 280,000–300,000 reservists. Since June 2011, defections of soldiers have been reported. By July 2012, the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights estimated that tens of thousands of soldiers have defected, and a Turkish official estimated that 60,000 soldiers have defected. According to Western experts, these defections have not as yet decreased the strength of the Syrian military, since the defecting soldiers were mainly Sunnis without access to vital command and control in the army.

National Defense Force

The Syrian NDF was formed out of pro-government militias. They receive their salaries, and their military equipment from the government,[70][71] and numbers around 100,000.[72][73] The force acts in an infantry role, directly fighting against rebels on the ground and running counter-insurgency operations in coordination with the army, which provides them logistical and artillery support. The force has a 500-strong women's wing called "Lionesses of National Defense" which operates checkpoints.[74] NDF soldiers are allowed to take loot from battlefields, which can then be sold for extra money.[70]


The Shabiha are unofficial pro-government militias drawn largely from Assad's

  • Syria Conflict at BBC News
  • Syrian uprising: A year in turmoil at The Washington Post
  • Syria Pulse collected news and commentary at Al Monitor
  • Latest Syria developments at NOW Lebanon
  • Syria collected news and commentary at The Guardian
  • Syria collected news and commentary at The New York Times
  • Syria news, all the latest and breaking Syria news at The Daily Telegraph
  • Syria collected coverage at Al Jazeera English
  • The battle for Syria (documentary films). Sources: TV news air footage (video documentary + English subtitles The battle for Syria on YouTube, official video documentary and the official text of the [4]).VGTRK
  • [5] Hizb ut-Tahrir Syria Media Office
  • Syrian diary (documentary films). Sources: TV news air footage (video documentary + English subtitles Syrian diary on YouTube), official video documentary of the [6].VGTRK
Human rights bodies
  • FAO – Syria crisis
Supranational government bodies
  • Fox News exclusive interview with Syrian President Bashar Al-Assad Fox News, 18 September 2013
  • Interview with Bashar Assad: 'In the End, a Lie Is a Lie' Der Spiegel, 7 October 2013
  • President Bashar al-Assad’s interview with Agence France Presse AFP 20-01-2014 20 January 2014
  • A discussion of the causes of the civil war at the United Nations University for Peace.
  • First ever broadcast interview with Jabhat al Nusra founder Abu Mohammed al-Joulani

External links

  • Hinnebusch, Raymond (2012). "Syria: From 'Authoritarian Upgrading' to Revolution?".  
  • International Crisis Group (13 July 2011). "Popular Protest in North Africa and the Middle East (VII): The Syrian Regimes Slow-Motion Suicide" (PDF). Middle East/North Africa Report N°109. Retrieved 22 July 2011. 
  • Landis, Joshua (2012). "The Syrian Uprising of 2011: Why the Asad Regime Is Likely to Survive to 2013". Middle East Policy 19 (1): 72–84.  
  • Lawson, Fred Haley, ed. (1 February 2010). Demystifying Syria. Saqi.  
  • Rashdan, Abdelrahman. Syrians Crushed in a Complex International Game. 21 March 2012. Retrieved 28 May 2012.
  • Van Dam, Nikolaos (15 July 2011). The Struggle for Power in Syria: Politics and Society under Asad and the Ba'ath Party. I. B. Tauris.  
  • Wright, Robin (2008). Dreams and Shadows: The Future of the Middle East. New York: Penguin Press. pp. 212–261.  
  • Ziadeh, Radwan (2011). Power and Policy in Syria: Intelligence Services, Foreign Relations and Democracy in the Modern Middle East. London: I. B. Tauris.  

Further reading

  1. ^ Khaled Yacoub Oweis, Erika Solomon (22 February 2012). "Bombardment of Syria's Homeless kills 21 people". Reuters. Retrieved 21 July 2014. 
  2. ^ a b c Bassem Mroue (May 25, 2013). "Hezbollah chief says group is fighting in Syria". Associated Press. Retrieved May 25, 2013. 
  3. ^ a b c "Al Nusrah Front claims 3 more suicide attacks in Daraa". 27 November 2012. 
  4. ^ a b "ISIS Consolidates". 2014-08-01. Retrieved 2014-08-11. 
  5. ^ Hubbard, Ben (17 July 2013). "Momentum Shifts in Syria, Bolstering Assad's Position". The New York Times. Retrieved 10 August 2013. 
  6. ^ Martin Chulov (12 March 2014). "Controlled by Iran, the deadly militia recruiting Iraq's men to die in Syria". The Guardian. Najaf. Retrieved 2014-05-21. 
  7. ^ "Sunni v Shia, here and there". The Economist. Retrieved 14 September 2013
  8. ^ "'"UN says Syria conflict is 'overtly sectarian. 20 December 2012. 
  9. ^ "Nasrallah says Hezbollah will not bow to sectarian threats". NOW News. 14 June 2013. Retrieved 21 October 2013. 
  10. ^ "Syria Opposition Contradicts U.N., Says Conflict not Sectarian".  
  11. ^ "
  12. ^ Smith, Laura. "'"More than 191,000 dead in Syria, UN rights chief slams 'global paralysis. CNN. Retrieved 15 October 2014. 
  13. ^ Abdelaziz, Salma. "'"Syrian rebels blame 'heinous' executions on 'extremists. CNN. Retrieved 15 October 2014. 
  14. ^ "UN human rights probe panel reports continuing 'gross' violations in Syria". United Nations. 24 May 2012. Retrieved 12 September 2013. 
  15. ^ . 27 August 2014 Retrieved 15 October 2014. 
  16. ^ "UN Commission: ISIS Not The Sole Agent Of Death And Destruction In Syria". The Huffington Post. 16 September 2014. Retrieved 14 October 2014. 
  17. ^ Retrieved 27 November 2014. 
  18. ^ . 27 August 2014 Retrieved 15 October 2014. 
  19. ^ "inside bashar assads torture chambers". yahoo news. Retrieved 15 October 2014. 
  20. ^ "Syrian refugees biggest humanitarian crisis". Middle East Star. 28 August 2014. Retrieved 30 August 2014. 
  21. ^ Douglas Little (1990). "Cold War and Covert Action: The United States and Syria, 1945–1958.". Middle East Journal 44 (1). 
  22. ^ "1949–1958, Syria: Early Experiments in Cover Action, Douglas Little, Professor, Department of History, Clark University" (PDF). 
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  24. ^ Wilson, Scott (25 April 2011). "Syria escalates attacks against demonstrators". The Seattle Times. 
  25. ^ "Protests in Syria Pose Challenges for the U.S". NPR. 
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  28. ^
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  38. ^ a b "Rebels in Syria's largest city of Aleppo mostly poor, pious and from rural backgrounds". Fox News Channel. Associated Press. 16 October 2012. Retrieved 28 January 2013. 
  39. ^ Saleeby, Suzanne (16 February 2012). "Sowing the Seeds of Dissent: Economic Grievances and the Syrian Social Contract's Unraveling". Jadaliyya. 
  40. ^ "Youth Exclusion in Syria: Social, Economic, and Institutional Dimensions". Journalist's Resource. Retrieved 11 August 2012. 
  41. ^ "World Report 2010 Human Rights Watch World Report 2010", p. 555.
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  44. ^ Black, Ian (16 July 2010). "Syrian human rights record unchanged under Assad, report says". The Guardian (London). 
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  50. ^ "Sarin in Syria: UN inspectors struggle to verify competing claims". Retrieved 2014-03-20. 
  51. ^ "Syria: Mounting Casualties from Cluster Munitions". Human Rights Watch. 16 March 2013. 
  52. ^ Saad, Waida; Rick, Gladstone (22 February 2013). "Scud Missile Attack Reported in Aleppo". The New York Times. Retrieved 8 August 2013. 
  53. ^ Sevil Küçükkoşum. "Syria fired more than 40 Scud missiles in two months". Hürriyet Daily News. 
  54. ^ Sly, Liz (26 February 2013). "Ballistic missile strikes on Aleppo signal new escalation in Syria war". The Washington Post. 
  55. ^ "U.S. condemns Scud attack in Syria, invites opposition for talks". NBC News. 24 February 2013. 
  56. ^ Weaver, Matthew (1 March 2013). "Syria crisis: Scud missile lands in Iraq". The Guardian (London). 
  57. ^ Abdulrahim, Raja; Selo, Lava (29 March 2013). "20 dead in Scud missile attack in Syria, activists say". Los Angeles Times. 
  58. ^ "NGO: Missile fired on Syria town kills 4 civilians". Al Arabiya. 28 April 2013. 
  59. ^ "Syrian missile kills 26 in village near Aleppo 3 June 2013". France 24. 6 December 2012. 
  60. ^ "Suicide bomber kills 16 in Syrian capital". 8 April 2013. 
  61. ^ Barnard, Anne (8 April 2013). "Wider Use of Car Bombs Angers Both Sides in Syrian Conflict". The New York Times. Retrieved 28 April 2013. 
  62. ^ "Syria: Public Protests after Suicide Bomber Kills 47 Children in a School".  
  63. ^ "Syria's deadly barrel bombs". 2012-09-02. Retrieved 2014-05-21. 
  64. ^ McElroy, Damien. "Syrian regime deploys deadly new weapons on rebels". Retrieved 2014-05-21. 
  65. ^ BBC, Jonathan Marcus, Barrel bombs show brutality of war; AFP 20 December 2013 AFP report on Aleppo bombing
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  73. ^ "Syria’s civil war: The regime digs in". The Economist. 15 June 2013. 
  74. ^ Adam Heffez (28 November 2013). "Using Women to Win in Syria".  
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  76. ^ a b The Syrian Shabiha and Their State. (PDF).
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See also

The fight between ISIL and the Kurds in the town of Kobani on the Turkish border has led to rioting throughout Turkey and to brief [239] occupations of a number of parliament buildings in Western Europe.

With porous borders with most of its neighbors, the fighting has spilled over them, causing fears of a regional war. In June 2014, members of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) crossed the border from Syria into northern Iraq, and have taken control of large swaths of Iraqi territory as the Iraqi Army abandoned its positions. The Syrian Civil War has led to incidents of sectarian violence in northern Lebanon between supporters and opponents of the Syrian government, and armed clashes between Sunnis and Alawites in Tripoli.[238] Fighting between rebels and government forces has spilled into Lebanon on several occasions.


The war has produced its own particular artwork. A late Summer 2013 exhibition in London at the P21 Gallery was able to show some of this work.[237]

UNESCO listed all six Syria's World Heritage sites as endangered but direct assessment of damage is not possible. It is known that the Old City of Aleppo was heavily damaged during battles being fought within the district, while Palmyra and Crac des Chevaliers suffered minor damage. Illegal digging is considered a grave danger, and hundreds of Syrian antiquities, including some from Palmyra, appeared in Lebanon. Three archeological museums are known to have been looted; in Raqqa some artifacts seem to have been destroyed by foreign Islamists due to religious objections.[236]

The civil war has caused significant damage to Syria's cultural heritage, including World Heritage Sites. Destruction of antiquities has been caused by shelling, army entrenchment, and looting at various tells, museums, and monuments.[234] A group called Syrian Archaeological Heritage Under Threat is monitoring and recording the destruction in an attempt to create a list of heritage sites damaged during the war and gain global support for the protection and preservation of Syrian archaeology and architecture.[235]

Cultural heritage

Rebel forces sometimes relied on criminal networks to obtain weapons and supplies. Black market weapon prices in Syria's neighboring countries have significantly increased since the start of the conflict. To generate funds to purchase arms, some rebel groups have turned towards extortion, stealing, and kidnapping.[75]

Criminal networks have been used by both the government and the opposition during the conflict. Facing international sanctions, the Syrian government relied on criminal organizations to smuggle goods and money in and out of the country. The economic downturn caused by the conflict and sanctions also led to lower wages for Shabiha members. In response, some Shabiha members began stealing civilian properties, and engaging in kidnappings.[75]

By July 2012, the human rights group Women Under Siege had documented over 100 cases of rape and sexual assault during the conflict, with many of these crimes believed to be perpetrated by the Shabiha and other pro-government militias. Victims included men, women, and children, with about 80% of the known victims being women and girls.[233]

As the conflict has expanded across Syria, many cities have been engulfed in a wave of crime as fighting caused the disintegration of much of the civilian state, and many police stations stopped functioning. Rates of thievery increased, with criminals looting houses and stores. Rates of kidnappings increased as well. Rebel fighters were sighted stealing cars and destroying an Aleppo restaurant in which Syrian soldiers had eaten.[232]

Doctors and medical staff treating injured rebel fighters and civilians in Aleppo

Crime wave

By July 2013, the Syrian economy had shrunk 45 percent since the start of the conflict. Unemployment increased fivefold, the value of the Syrian currency decreased to one-sixth its pre-war value, and the public sector lost USD $15 billion.[229][230] By the end of 2013, the UN estimated total economic damage of the Syrian civil war at $143 billion.[231]


Many Syrian Christians reported to have fled after they were targeted by the anti-government rebels.[227][228] (See: Sectarianism and minorities in the Syrian Civil War#Christians.)

The successive governments of Hafez and Bashar al-Assad have been closely associated with the country's minority Alawite religious group,[226] an offshoot of Shia, whereas the majority of the population, and most of the opposition, is Sunni. Alawites started to be threatened and attacked by dominantly Sunni rebel fighting groups like the Al-Nusra Front and the FSA since December 2012 (see Sectarianism and minorities in the Syrian Civil War#Alawites).

Map of Syria's ethno-religious composition in 1976

Threats against Syrian sects and minorities

Enforced disappearances and arbitrary detentions have also been a feature since the Syrian uprising began. [225]

ISIL forces have been accused by UN of using public executions, amputations and lashings in a campaign to instill fear. "Forces of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant have committed torture, murder, acts tantamount to enforced disappearance and forced displacement as part of attacks on the civilian population in Aleppo and Raqqa provinces, amounting to crimes against humanity", said the report from 27 August 2014.[224]

UN reported also that "siege warfare is employed in a context of egregious human rights and international humanitarian law violations. The warring parties do not fear being held accountable for their acts." Armed forces of both sides of the conflict blocked access of humanitarian convoys, confiscated food, cut off water supplies and targeted farmers working their fields. The report pointed to four places besieged by the government forces: Muadamiyah, Daraya, Yarmouk camp and Old City of Homs, as well as two areas under siege of rebel groups: Aleppo and Hama.[220][221] In Yarmouk Camp 20,000 residents are facing death by starvation due to blockade by the Syrian government forces and fighting between the army and Jabhat al-Nusra, which prevents food distribution by UNRWA.[220][222] The UN further stated that government sieges have left more than 250,000 subjected to relentless shelling and bombardment. "They are denied humanitarian aid, food and such basic necessities as medical care, and must choose between surrender and starvation,” the members of the UN Commission of Inquiry said.[223]

According to three international lawyers,[214] Syrian government officials could face war crimes charges in the light of a huge cache of evidence smuggled out of the country showing the "systematic killing" of about 11,000 detainees. Most of the victims were young men and many corpses were emaciated, bloodstained and bore signs of torture. Some had no eyes; others showed signs of strangulation or electrocution.[215] Experts say this evidence is more detailed and on a far larger scale than anything else that has yet emerged from the 34-month crisis.[216][217] On 30 January 2014, Human Rights Watch released a report detailing, between June 2012 and July 2013, government forces razing to the ground seven anti-government districts in the cities of Damascus and Hama, equating to an area the size of 200 football fields. Witnesses spoke of explosives and bulldozers being used to knock down buildings.[218] Satellite imagery was provided as part of the report and the destruction was characterized as collective punishment against residents of rebel-held areas.[219]

[213][212][211] (EMHRN) report entitled “Violence against Women, Bleeding Wound in the Syrian Conflict”, approximately 6,000 women have been raped (including gang-rape) since the start of the conflict - with figures likely to be much higher given that most cases go unreported.Euro-Mediterranean Human Rights NetworkBy late November 2013, according to the
Syria's civil war victims
[210][209] investigating human rights abuses in Syria confirms at least 9 intentional mass killings in the period 2012 to mid-July 2013, identifying the perpetrator as Syrian government and its supporters in eight cases, and the opposition in one.commission The U.N. [208][207][206][205] According to various human rights organizations and United Nations, human rights violations have been committed by both the government and the rebels, with the 'vast majority of the abuses having been committed by the Syrian government'.

Human rights violations

The violence in Syria has caused millions to flee their homes. In August 2012, the United Nations said more than one million people were internally displaced,[199] and, in September 2013, the UN reported that more than 6.5 million Syrians had been displaced, of whom 2 million fleeing to neighboring countries, 1 in 3 of those refugees (about 667,000 people) seeking safety in tiny Lebanon (normally 4.8 million population).[200] Others have fled to Jordan, Turkey, and Iraq. Turkey has accepted +1.000.000 (2014) Syrian refugees, half of whom are spread around a cities and dozen camps placed under the direct authority of the Turkish Government. Satellite images confirmed that the first Syrian camps appeared in Turkey in July 2011, shortly after the towns of Deraa, Homs, and Hama were besieged.[201] In September 2014, the UN stated that the number of Syrian refugees had exceeded 3 million.[202] According to the Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs, Sunnis are leaving for Lebanon and undermining Hizbullah's status. The fleeing Syrian refugees has caused the "Jordan is Palestine" threat to be diminished due to the onslaught of new refugees in Jordan. Additionally, "the West Bank is undergoing emigration pressures which will certainly be copied in Gaza if emigration is allowed."[203] Greek Catholic Patriarch Gregorios III Laham claims more than 450,000 Syrian Christians have been displaced by the conflict.[204]

Syrian refugees in Lebanon living in cramped quarters (6 August 2012).


Once-rare infectious diseases have spread in rebel held areas, primarily affecting children, brought on by the collapse of sanitation and deteriorating living conditions. These include measles, typhoid, hepatitis, dysentery, tuberculosis, diphtheria, whooping cough, leishmaniasis, (a disfiguring parasitic skin disease). Of particular concern is the contagious and crippling Poliomyelitis which as of late 2013 doctors and international public health agencies report more than 90 cases of. Critics of the government complain that it has brought on the spread of disease by cutting off vaccination, sanitation and safe-water services to "areas considered politically unsympathetic" even before the uprising.[198]


On 20 August 2014, a new U.N. study concludes at least 191,369 people have died in Syrian conflict.

One problem has been determining the number of "armed combatants" who have died, due to some sources counting rebel fighters who were not government defectors as civilians.[192] At least half of those confirmed killed have been estimated to be combatants from both sides, including 52,290 government fighters and 29,080 rebels, with an additional 50,000 unconfirmed combatant deaths.[183] In addition, UNICEF reported that over 500 children had been killed by early February 2012,[193] and another 400 children have been reportedly arrested and tortured in Syrian prisons;[194] both of these claims have been contested by the Syrian government. Additionally, over 600 detainees and political prisoners are known to have died under torture.[195] In mid-October 2012, the opposition activist group SOHR reported the number of children killed in the conflict had risen to 2,300,[196] and in March 2013, opposition sources stated that over 5,000 children had been killed.[184] In January 2014, a report was released detailing the systematic killing of more than 11,000 detainees of the Syrian government.[197]

Estimates of deaths in the conflict vary widely, with figures, per opposition activist groups, ranging from 123,805 and 191,369.[183][184][185][186] On 2 January 2013, the United Nations stated that 60,000 had been killed since the civil war began, with UN High Commissioner for Human Rights Navi Pillay saying "The number of casualties is much higher than we expected, and is truly shocking."[187] Four months later, the UN's updated figure for the death toll had reached 80,000.[188] On 13 June, the UN released an updated figure of people killed since fighting began, the figure being exactly 92,901, for up to the end of April 2013. Navi Pillay, UN high commissioner for human rights, stated that: "This is most likely a minimum casualty figure." The real toll was guessed to be over 100,000.[189][190] Some areas of the country have been affected disproportionately by the war; by some estimates, as many as a third of all deaths have occurred in the city of Homs.[191]

Total deaths over the course of the conflict in Syria (18 March 2011 – 18 October 2013)



The plans revealed in September also involve Iraq in targeting ISIL. U.S. warplanes have launched 158 strikes in Iraq over the past five weeks while emphasizing a relatively narrow set of targets. The Pentagon's press secretary, John Kirby, said the air campaign in Iraq, which began Aug. 8, will enter a more aggressive phase.[182]

On September 12, US Secretary of State John Kerry met Turkish leaders to secure backing for U.S.-led action against ISIL, but Ankara showed reluctance to play a frontline role. Kerry stated that it was "not appropriate" for Iran to join talks on confronting ISIL.[181]

On September 11, 2014 Congress expressed support to give President Obama the $500 million he wants to arm and train moderate Syrian rebels. The question of whether the president has authority to continue airstrikes beyond the 60-day window granted by the War Powers Resolution remained unresolved.[180]

On 21 August 2014, two days after U.S. photojournalist James Foley was beheaded, the U.S. military admitted a covert rescue attempt involving dozens of U.S. Special Operations forces had been made to rescue Americans and other foreigners held captive in Syria by ISIL militants. The rescue attempt is the first known U.S. military ground action inside Syria. The resultant gunfight resulted in one U.S. soldier being injured. The rescue was unsuccessful as the captives were not in the location targeted.

French television France 24 reported that the Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant, with perhaps 3,000 foreign jihadists among its ranks,[178] "receives private donations from the Gulf states."[179] The major Syrian Kurdish opposition group, the PYD, was reported to get logistic and training support from Iraqi Kurdistan.

The main Syrian opposition body – the Syrian coalition – receives political, logistic and military support from the United States, Britain and France.[168][169][170] Some Syrian rebels get training from the CIA at bases in Qatar, Jordan and Saudia Arabia.[171][172][173] The Syrian coalition also receives logistic and political support from Sunni states, most notably Turkey, Qatar and Saudi Arabia; all the three major supporting states however have not contributed any troops for direct involvement in the war, though Turkey was involved in border incidents with the Syrian Army. The Financial Times and The Independent reported that Qatar had funded the Syrian rebellion by as much as $3 billion.[174][175] It reported that Qatar was offering refugee packages of about $50,000 a year to defectors and family.[175] Saudi Arabia has emerged as the main group to finance and arm the rebels.[176] According to confessions of a captured FSA commander, the opposition also received minor military support from Israel.[177] Israeli military doctors treat wounded rebels who appeal for aid.

Both the Syrian government and the opposition have received support, militarily and diplomatically, from foreign countries leading the conflict to often be described as a proxy war. The major parties supporting the Syrian Government are Iran and Hezbollah. Both of these are involved in the war politically and logistically by providing military equipment, training and battle troops. The Syrian government has also received arms from Russia and SIGINT support directly from GRU,[166] in addition to significant political support from Russia.[167]

Map of countries surrounding Syria (black) with military involvement.
  Countries that support the Syrian government
  Countries that support the Syrian rebels
(Note: the disputed Crimean peninsula is striped)

Foreign involvement

The diarrhoea and hepatitis A have increased by more than twofold since the beginning of 2013. Due to fighting, the normal vaccination programs cannot be undertaken. The displaced refugees may also pose a risk to countries to which they have fled.[165]

Other countries in the region have also contributed various levels of aid. Iran has been exporting between 500 and 800 tonnes of flour daily to Syria.[162] Israel has provided treatment to 750 Syrians in a field hospital located in Golan Heights. Rebels say that 250 of their fighters received medical treatment there.[163] On 26 April 2013, a humanitarian convoy, inspired by Gaza Flotilla, departed from Turkey to Syria. Called Hayat ("Life"), it is set to deliver aid items to IDPs inside Syria and refugees in neighboring countries: Turkey, Lebanon, Jordan, Iraq, and Egypt. Syrian refugees make up one quarter of Lebanon's population, mostly consisting of women and children.[164]

Financial information on the response to the SHARP, as well as assistance to refugees and for cross-border operations, can be found on UNOCHA's Financial Tracking Service. As at 18 September 2013, the top ten donors to Syria were: United States, European Commission, Kuwait, United Kingdom, Germany, Canada, Japan, Australia, Saudi Arabia, and Denmark.[159] USAID and other government agencies in US delivered nearly $385 million of aid items to Syria in 2012 and 2013. The United States is providing food aid, medical supplies, emergency and basic health care, shelter materials, clean water, hygiene education and supplies, and other relief supplies.[160] Islamic Relief has stocked 30 hospitals and sent hundreds of thousands of medical and food parcels.[161]

US non-lethal aid to Syrian opposition forces, May 2013

The international humanitarian response to the conflict in Syria is coordinated by the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UNOCHA) in accordance with General Assembly Resolution 46/182.[157] The primary framework for this coordination is the Syria Humanitarian Assistance Response Plan (SHARP) which appealed for USD $1.41 billion to meet the humanitarian needs of Syrians affected by the conflict.[158] Official United Nations data on the humanitarian situation and response is available at an official website managed by UNOCHA Syria (Amman). UNICEF is also working alongside these organizations to provide vaccinations and care packages to those in need. It has launched a vaccination campaign to eradicate polio from the region, as 17 cases have come up since the war broke over three years ago.

Humanitarian help

The United Nations Security Council resolutions in 2011 and 2012, which would have threatened the Syrian government with targeted sanctions if it continued military actions against protestors.[156] The United Nations prepared an international peace conference in Geneva on 22 January 2014, in which both the Syrian government and opposition have promised to participate.

Esther Brimmer (U.S.) speaks at a United Nations Human Rights Council urgent debate on Syria, February 2012

International reaction

Reporting on this war is difficult and dangerous: journalists are being attacked, detained, reportedly tortured, over hundred reportedly killed already by October 2012. Technical facilities (internet, telephone etc.) are being sabotaged by the Syrian government. Both sides in this war try to disqualify their opponent by framing or indicating them with negative labels and terms (‘terrorists’, ‘propaganda’, ‘biased’, ‘US conspiracy’, 'Syrian regime'), or by presenting false on-line evidence.[153]

Reporting, censoring and propaganda

ISIL has recruited more than 6,300 fighters in July 2014 alone.[151] In September 2014, reportedly some Syrian rebels and ISIL signed a "non-aggression" agreement in a suburb of Damascus, citing inability to deal with both ISIL and the Syrian army's attacks at once.[152] Some Syrian rebels have, however, decried the news on the "non-aggression" pact.

The Syrian government did not begin to fight ISIL until June 2014 despite its having a presence in Syria since April 2013, according to Kurdish officials.[150]

In summer 2014 the ISIL controlled a third of Syria. It established itself as the dominant force of Syrian opposition, defeating Jabhat al-Nusra in Deir Ezzor province and claiming control over most of Syria's oil and gas production.[4]

Called Dā'ash or the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (abbrv. ISIL or ISIS [Islamic State of Iraq and Syria] or self styled "Islamic State") made rapid military gains in Northern Syria starting in April 2013 and as of Mid 2014 controls large parts of that region, where the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights describes it as "the strongest group".[147] It has imposed strict Sharia law over land that it controls. The group was, until 2014, affiliated with al-Qaeda, led by the Iraqi fighter Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi, and has an estimated 7,000 fighters in Syria, including many non-Syrians. It has been praised as less corrupt than other militia groups, and criticized for abusing human rights[148] and for not tolerating non-Islamist militia groups, foreign journalists or aid workers, whose members it has expelled, imprisoned.[149] or executed. According to Michael Weiss, ISIL has not been targeted by the Syrian government "with quite the same gusto" as other rebel factions.[102]

Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL)

The conflict between the Kurdish People's Protection Units (YPG) and Islamists groups such as al-Nusra Front have escalated since a group of Kurds expelled Islamists from the border town of Ras al-Ain.[146]

The Syrian Kurdish People's Protection Units (YPG), first entered this Syrian Civil War as belligerent in July 2012, by capturing a town, Kobanê, that until then was under control of the Syrian Assad-government (see Syrian Kurdistan campaign (2012–present)).

Since the outset of the civil war, most Kurdish political parties organised themselves into the Kurdish National Council.

Kurds – mostly Sunni Muslims, with a small minority of Yezidis – represented 10% of Syria's population at the start of the uprising in 2011. They had suffered from decades of discrimination and neglect, being deprived of basic civil, cultural, economic, and social rights.[143]:7 When protests began, Assad's government finally granted citizenship to an estimated 200,000 stateless Kurds, in an effort to try and neutralize potential Kurdish opposition.[144] This concession, combined with Turkish endorsement of the opposition and Kurdish under-representation in the Syrian National Council, has resulted in Kurds participating in the civil war in smaller numbers than their Syrian Arab Sunni counterparts.[144] Consequently, violence and state repression in Kurdish areas has been less severe.[144] In terms of a post-Assad Syria, Kurds reportedly desire a degree of autonomy within a decentralized state.[145]

Kurds showing their support for the PYD in Afrin during the conflict

Syrian Kurds

The relationship between the Al-Nusra Front and the indigenous Syrian opposition is tense, even though al-Nusra Front has fought alongside the FSA in several battles and some FSA fighters defected to the al-Nusra Front.[137] The Mujahideen's strict religious views and willingness to impose sharia law disturbed many Syrians.[138] Some rebel commanders have accused foreign jihadists of "stealing the revolution", robbing Syrian factories and displaying religious intolerance.[139] Al-Nusra Front has been accused of mistreating religious and ethnic minorities since their formation.[140] The estimated manpower of al-Nusra Front is approximately 6,000–10,000 people, including many foreign fighters.[141] On 10 March 2014, Al Nusra released 13 Christian nuns captured from Malouula, Damascus, in exchange for the release of 150 women from the Syrian government's prisons. The nuns reported that they were treated well by Al Nusra during their captivity, adding that they "were giving us everything we asked for" and that "no one bothered us".[142]

[136].al-Qaeda, the leader of Ayman al-Zawahiri The leader of al-Nusra, Abu Mohammad al-Golani, said that the group will not merge with the Islamic State of Iraq, but still maintain allegiance to [135] released an audio statement announcing that al-Nusra Front is its branch in Syria.Islamic state of Iraq In April 2013, the leader of the [3] The al-Nusra Front, being the biggest

Al-Nusra Front

In September 2013, leaders of 13 powerful rebel brigades rejected Syrian National Coalition and called Sharia law "the sole source of legislation". In a statement they declared that "the coalition and the putative government headed by Ahmad Tomeh does not represent or recognize us". Among the signatory rebel groups were Al-Nusra Front, Ahrar ash-Sham and Al-Tawheed.[133] In November 2013, seven Islamist groups combined to form the Islamic Front.

In October 2012, various Iraqi religious groups join the conflict in Syria on both sides. Radical Sunnis from Iraq, have traveled to Syria to fight against President Bashar al-Assad and the Syrian government.[132] Also, Shiites from Iraq, in Babil Province and Diyala Province, have traveled to Damascus from Tehran, or from the Shiite Islamic holy city of Najaf, Iraq to protect Sayyida Zeinab, an important mosque and shrine of Shia Islam in Damascus.[132]

Islamic campaign in support of Syrian opposition

The ICSR estimates that 2,000–5,500 foreign fighters have gone to Syria since the beginning of the protests, about 7–11 percent of whom came from Europe. It is also estimated that the number of foreign fighters does not exceed 10 percent of the opposition armed forces.[129] Another estimate puts the number of foreign jihadis at 15,000 by early 2014[130]), The European Commission expressed concerns that some of the fighters might use their skills obtained in Syria to commit acts of terrorism back in Europe in the future.[131]

In September 2013, US Secretary of State John Kerry stated that extremist groups make up 15–25% of rebel forces.[124] According to Charles Lister, about 12% of rebels are part of groups linked to al-Qaeda, 18% belong to Ahrar ash-Sham, and 9% belong to Suqour al-Sham Brigade.[125][126] These numbers contrast with a report by Jane's Information Group, a defence outlet, claiming almost half of all rebels being affiliated to Islamist groups.[127] Foreign fighters have joined the conflict in opposition to Assad. While most of them are jihadists, some individuals, such as Mahdi al-Harati, have joined to support the Syrian opposition.[128]


The Islamic Front (Arabic: ‏الجبهة الإسلامية‎, al-Jabhat al-Islāmiyyah) is a merger of seven rebel groups involved in the Syrian civil war[116] that was announced on 22 November 2013.[117] The group has between 40,000[118] and 60,000 fighters. An anonymous spokesman for the group has stated that it will not have ties with the Syrian National Coalition,[119] though a member of the political bureau of the group, Ahmad Musa, has stated that he hopes for recognition from the Syrian National Council in cooperation for what he suggested "the Syrian people want. They want a revolution and not politics and foreign agendas."[120] The group is widely seen as backed and armed by Saudi Arabia.[121][122][123]

Islamic Front

Abu Yusaf, a commander of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), said in August 2014 that many of the FSA members who had been trained by United States’ and Turkish and Arab military officers were now actually joining IS.[113] On the contrary to the ISIL commander's claims, by September 2014 the Free Syrian Army was joining an alliance and a common front with Kurdish militias including the YPG to fight ISIS.[114][115]

In May 2013, Salim Idriss, the FSA leader, acknowledged that "the rebels" were badly fragmented and lacked the military skill needed to topple the government of President Bashar al-Assad. Idriss said he was working on a countrywide command structure, but that a lack of material support was hurting that effort. “Now it is very important for them to be unified. But unifying them in a manner to work like a regular army is still difficult", Idriss said. He acknowledged common operations with Islamist group Ahrar ash-Sham but denied any cooperation with Islamist group al-Nusra Front.[112]

In April 2013, the US announced it would transfer $123 million in nonlethal aid to Syrian rebels through defected general Salim Idriss, leader of the FSA.[112]

[111] witnessed an FSA attack with a The New York Times In March 2012, two reporters of

FSA soldiers plan during the Battle of Aleppo (October 2012).

Many Syrian soldiers subsequently deserted to join the FSA.[109] By December 2011, the estimated number of soldiers who had defected to the FSA was ranging from 1,000 to over 25,000.[110] The FSA functions more as an umbrella organization than a traditional military chain of command, and was first "headquartered" in Turkey, but moved its command headquarters to northern Syria in September 2012.

The formation of the Free Syrian Army (FSA) was announced on 29 July 2011 by a group of defecting Syrian Army officers. In a video, the men called upon Syrian soldiers and officers to defect to their ranks, and said the purpose of the Free Syrian Army was to defend civilian protesters from violence by the state, and "to bring this [Syrian] regime down".[108]

Free Syrian Army fighters being transported by pick up truck
Free Syrian Army

On 11 November 2012 in Doha, the National Council and other opposition forces united as the National Coalition for Syrian Revolutionary and Opposition Forces.[105] The following day, it was recognized as the legitimate government of Syria by numerous Persian Gulf states. Delegates to the Coalition's leadership council are to include women and representatives of religious and ethnic minorities, including Alawites. The military council will reportedly include the Free Syrian Army.[106] The main aims of the National Coalition are replacing the Bashar al-Assad government and "its symbols and pillars of support", "dismantling the security services", unifying and supporting the Free Syrian Army, refusing dialogue and negotiation with the al-Assad government, and "holding accountable those responsible for killing Syrians, destroying [Syria], and displacing [Syrians]".[107]

Syrian National Coalition

Formed on 23 August 2011, the National Council is a coalition of anti-government groups, based in Turkey. The National Council seeks the end of Bashar al-Assad's rule and the establishment of a modern, civil, democratic state. SNC has links with the Free Syrian Army. In November 2012, the council agreed to unify with several other opposition groups to form the Syrian National Coalition. The SNC has 22 out of 60 seats of the Syrian National Coalition.[104]

Syrian National Council

Formed in 1953 at Jerusalem, Hizb ut-Tahrir soon expanded its work for the reestablishment of Islamic Caliphate in Syria. Hizb ut-Tahrir members were persecuted in Syria from the 1950s and up to the Syrian Uprising of 2011 in which they played a role of igniting and supporting the revolution and guiding rebels to unite under an Islamic Umbrella and a clear Islamic political agenda and vision.

Hizb ut-Tahrir

Coalition members in Sabra.

Opposition parties

Iranian security and intelligence services are advising and assisting the Syrian military to preserve Bashar al-Assad's hold on power.[96] Those efforts include training, technical support, combat troops.[95][96] By December 2013 Iran was thought to have approximately 10,000 operatives in Syria.[97] Lebanese Hezbollah fighters backed by Tehran has taken direct combat roles since 2012.[97][100] In the summer of 2013, Iran and Hezbollah provided important battlefield support for Assad, allowing it to make advances on the opposition.[100] In 2014, coinciding with the peace talks at Geneva II, Iran has stepped up support for Syrian President Assad.[97][100] Syrian Minister of Finance and Economy announced that the "Iranian government has given more than 15 billion dollars" to Syria.[101] Iranian Revolutionary Guards Corps Quds Force commander Qasem Suleimani is in charge of Syrian President Assad's security portfolio and has overseen the arming and training of thousands of pro-government Shi'ite fighters.[102][103]

Since the start of the civil war, Iran has expressed its support for the Syrian government and has provided it with financial, technical, and military support, including training and some combat troops.[95] Iran and Syria are close strategic allies. Iran sees the survival of the Syrian government as being crucial to its regional interests.[96][97] Iran's supreme leader, Ali Khamenei, was reported in September 2011 to be vocally in favor of the Syrian government.[98] In the civil uprising phase of the Syrian civil war, Iran provided Syria with technical support based on Iran's capabilities developed following the 2009–2010 Iranian election protests.[98] As the uprising developed into the Syrian civil war, there were increasing reports of Iranian military support, and of Iranian training of NDF (National Defence Forces) both in Syria, and in Iran.[99]


On 25 May, Nasrallah announced that Hezbollah was fighting in the Syria against Islamic extremists and "pledged that his group will not allow Syrian militants to control areas that border Lebanon".[93] He confirmed that Hezbollah was fighting in the strategic Syrian town of Qusayr on the same side as Assad's forces.[2] In the televised address, he said, "If Syria falls in the hands of America, Israel and the takfiris, the people of our region will go into a dark period."[2] According to independent analysts, by the beginning of 2014, approximately 500 Hezbollah fighters had died in the Syrian conflict.[94]

On 12 May, Hezbollah, with the Syrian army, attempted to retake part of Qusayr.[90] By the end of the day, 60 percent of the city, including the municipal office building, were under pro-Assad forces.[90] In Lebanon, there have been "a recent increase in the funerals of Hezbollah fighters" and "Syrian rebels have shelled Hezbollah-controlled areas."[90] As of 14 May, Hezbollah fighters were reported to be fighting alongside the Syrian army, particularly in the Homs Governorate.[91] Hassan Nasrallah has called on Shiites and Hezbollah to protect the shrine of Sayida Zeinab.[91] President Bashar al-Assad denied in May 2013 that there were foreign fighters, Arab or otherwise, fighting for the government in Syria.[92]

General Secretary Hassan Nasrallah denied Hezbollah had been fighting on behalf of the Syrian government, stating in a 12 October 2012 speech that "right from the start the Syrian opposition has been telling the media that Hezbollah sent 3,000 fighters to Syria, which we have denied".[86] However, according to the Lebanese Daily Star newspaper, Nasrallah said in the same speech that Hezbollah fighters helped the Syrian government "retain control of some 23 strategically located villages [in Syria] inhabited by Shiites of Lebanese citizenship". Nasrallah said that Hezbollah fighters have died in Syria doing their "jihadist duties".[87] In 2012, Hezbollah fighters crossed the border from Lebanon and took over eight villages in the Al-Qusayr District of Syria.[88] The former secretary general of Hezbollah, Sheikh Subhi al-Tufayli, confirmed in February 2013 that Hezbollah was fighting for the Syrian army.[89]


Jaysh al-Sha'bi, allegedly with help from Iran and Hezbollah. As with the shabiha, the vast majority of Jaysh al-Sha'bi members are Alawite and Shi'ite volunteers.[84][85]


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