World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Syrian reactions to the Syrian Civil War

Article Id: WHEBN0034817958
Reproduction Date:

Title: Syrian reactions to the Syrian Civil War  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Syrian Civil War, Suheir Atassi, Moaz al-Khatib, Riad Seif, Death of Hamza Ali Al-Khateeb
Collection: Syrian Civil War
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

Syrian reactions to the Syrian Civil War


  • Arrests and convictions 1
  • Censorship 2
  • Allegations of rape 3
  • Concessions from Syrian Government 4
    • 26 February constitutional referendum 4.1
      • Rallies in support of the Assad government 4.1.1
  • Media coverage 5
    • Internet activists 5.1
      • Other 5.1.1
  • References 6

Arrests and convictions

Days before protests planned for 5 February 2011, Syrian authorities arrested several political activists, such as businessman Ghassan al-Najar, leader of the Islamic Democratic movement,[1] the writer Ali al-Abdallah,[2] Abbas Abbas, from the Syrian Communist Party[3] and several other political personalities of Kurdish background, such as Adnan Mustafa.[4]

On 14 February,

  1. ^ "Arrest of leader of the Islamic Democratic movement in Syria". Elaph. Retrieved 12 February 2011. 
  2. ^ "Start of the trial exhibits and the Syrian writer Ali Abdullah". Retrieved 12 February 2011. 
  3. ^ "Jailed prominent Syrian opposition for seven and a half years". Retrieved 12 February 2011. 
  4. ^ "Syrian authorities detain national identity Adnan Mustafa Abu Ammar". Retrieved 12 February 2011. 
  5. ^ Taylor, Paul (16 February 2011). "Egypt-Inspired Protests Gain Pace Across Region". Reuters. 
  6. ^ "Syria arrests opposition leader as protests continue". CNN. 22 March 2011. Retrieved 22 March 2011. 
  7. ^ a b Fassihi, Farnaz (25 March 2011). "Troops Open Fire on Syrian Protesters". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 25 March 2011. 
  8. ^ "Al Jazeera journalist missing in Syria". Al Jazeera. 2 May 2011. Retrieved 2 May 2011. 
  9. ^ "Al-Jazeera: Dorothy Parvaz free after Syria detention". BBC News. 18 May 2011. Retrieved 21 June 2011. 
  10. ^ Sly, Liz (8 June 2011). "‘Gay Girl in Damascus’ may not be real". The Washington Post. Retrieved 1 February 2012. 
  11. ^ Peralta, Eyder; Carvin, Andy (12 June 2011). Gay Girl In Damascus' Turns Out To Be An American Man"'". NPR. Retrieved 21 June 2011. 
  12. ^ Black, Ian; Weaver, Matthew (5 October 2011). "Syria attacks 'media fabrications' by showing 'beheaded' woman alive on TV". The Guardian (UK). Retrieved 13 November 2011. 
  13. ^ J. David Goodman. "U.S. Accuses Virginia Man of Espionage at Syria Protests" (12 October 2011). New York Times.
  14. ^ Mozgovaya, Natasha (7 June 2011). "U.S. raps Syria over claim of photographing D.C. demonstrations". Haaretz Daily Newspaper. Retrieved 20 January 2012. 
  15. ^ "Details and translation of the leaked wanted suspects list from Syrian security". Tabeer. Retrieved 26 January 2012. 
  16. ^ Preston, Jennifer (9 February 2011). "Syria Restores Access to Facebook and YouTube". The New York Times. 
  17. ^ York, Jillian. "Unblocking Syria's Social Media". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 13 February 2011. 
  18. ^ Ali, Nour (25 August 2011). "Syrian forces beat up political cartoonist Ali Ferzat". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 20 January 2012. 
  19. ^ "Prominent Syrian Cartoonist Attacked, Beaten". Voice of America. 25 August 2011. Retrieved 20 January 2012. 
  20. ^ Stuart, Lucy (6 July 2011). "Amnesty cites murder, torture, rape, mutilation in Syria". Al Arabiya. Retrieved 13 November 2011. 
  21. ^ Abouzeid, Rania (20 June 2011). "Syria: In Search of the Rape Victims Among the Refugees". Time. Retrieved 13 November 2011. 
  22. ^ "Syrian refugees tell of rape, murder and destruction". BBC News. 23 June 2011. Retrieved 13 November 2011. 
  23. ^ "President al-Assad Issues Legislative Decree Reducing Mandatory Military Service by Three Months". Syrian Arab News Agency. 20 March 2011.
  24. ^ "Syrian mourners call for revolt, forces fire tear gas". Reuters. 19 March 2011. Retrieved 19 March 2011. 
  25. ^ "Syria to free child prisoners". Al Jazeera. 20 March 2011. Retrieved 20 March 2011. 
  26. ^ President al-Assad Issues Decree on Discharging Governor of Daraa from His Post, SANA, 24 March 2011.
  27. ^ "In Syrian flashpoint town, more deaths reported". CNN. 25 March 2011. Retrieved 25 March 2011. 
  28. ^ "Protests prompt Syria to pledge reforms". Al Jazeera. 24 March 2011. Retrieved 1 February 2012. 
  29. ^ "Syria unrest: Government pledges political reforms". BBC News. 24 March 2011. Retrieved 24 March 2011. 
  30. ^ "Syrian authorities release 260 prisoners – lawyer".  
  31. ^ "Syria turmoil: Political inmates 'freed' after protests". BBC News. 26 March 2011. Retrieved 26 March 2011. 
  32. ^ "'"Syria 'to lift emergency law. Al Jazeera. 27 March 2011. Retrieved 27 March 2011. 
  33. ^ "Syrian cabinet resigns amid unrest". Al Jazeera. 29 March 2011. Retrieved 15 April 2011. 
  34. ^ "Assad orders review of Syrian laws". Al Jazeera. 31 March 2011. Retrieved 1 April 2011. 
  35. ^ "Syria Reverses Ban on Islamic Face Veil in Schools". Al Arabiya (Damascus). Associated Press. 6 April 2011. Retrieved 1 February 2012. 
  36. ^ "Stateless Kurds in Syria granted citizenship". CNN. 7 April 2011. Retrieved 13 November 2011. 
  37. ^ "Assad attempts to appease minority Kurds". Al Jazeera. 7 April 2011. Retrieved 7 April 2011. 
  38. ^ "Syria Frees 48 Kurds, Hoping To Ease Grievances". Reuters Africa. Reuters. 7 April 2011. Retrieved 7 April 2011. 
  39. ^ "Syrian Kurds to enjoy citizenship rights". Voice of Russia. 6 April 2011. Retrieved 7 April 2011. 
  40. ^ "Syria to lift emergency law". Al Jazeera. 16 April 2011. Retrieved 17 April 2011. 
  41. ^ "President al-Assad address the New Government". DayPress (Damascus). 17 April 2011. Retrieved 1 February 2012. 
  42. ^ "Syria to lift decades-old emergency law". Al Jazeera. 19 April 2011. Retrieved 19 April 2011. 
  43. ^ "Decrees on Ending State of Emergency, Abolishing SSSC, Regulating Right to Peaceful Demonstration". Syrian Arab News Agency. 22 April 2011. Retrieved 23 April 2011. 
  44. ^ Oweis, Khaled Yacoub; Karouny, Mariam; al-Khalidi, Suleiman; Aboudi, Sami (21 April 2011). "Syria's Assad ends state of emergency". Beirut, Amman, Cairo. Reuters. Retrieved 21 April 2011. 
  45. ^ Cabinet: Comprehensive Plan for Reform in Various Fields, Employment Programs in Private Sector], SANA, 1 May 2011.
  46. ^ Syrian Cabinet: Comprehensive Plan for Reform in all Fields], SANA on DayPress, 1 May 2011.
  47. ^
  48. ^ "Syria releases 552 political prisoners". The Hindu. Associated Press. 5 January 2012. Retrieved 22 February 2012. 
  49. ^ "'"Syria's Assad grants general amnesty 'for uprising crimes.  
  50. ^ "5,255 Detainees Set Free Due to Amnesty Decree No. 10 for 2012".  
  51. ^ "Syria's deputy oil minister defects". AlJazeera.,com. 8 March 2012. Retrieved 8 March 2012. 
  52. ^ "Syrian referendum on new constitution announced for 26 Feb.".  
  53. ^ "Syria to hold referendum on new draft constitution". 15 February 2012. Retrieved 15 February 2012. 
  54. ^ "Syria parliament election 90 days after new constitution".  
  55. ^ "Thousands Attend Pro-Assad Rally". Dailymotion. 19 October 2011. Retrieved 20 January 2012. 
  56. ^ Pro-Assad rally in Damascus decries ‘one-year conspiracy’, RT, March 15, 2012,
  57. ^ Aneja, Atul (21 November 2011). "Massive pro-Assad rallies in Syria".  
  58. ^ "Pro-Assad rally in Syria draws thousands". MwcNews. 26 October 2011. Retrieved 20 January 2012. 
  59. ^ "Syria unrest: Aleppo sees huge pro-Assad rally".  
  60. ^ "Pro Assad Rally – 10 – Tartous, 03-11-2011". YouTube. Retrieved 20 January 2012. 
  61. ^ "Lattakia pro-Assad rally draws tens of thousands, security forces kill 9".  
  62. ^ Marsh, Katherine (22 March 2011). "Syrian uprising spread after troops kill at least five". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 22 March 2011. 
  63. ^ a b "Syrians flee imminent assault on town". Al Jazeera. 15 June 2011. Retrieved 21 June 2011. 
  64. ^ "Damascus show of support for Syrian President Assad". BBC News. 15 June 2011. Retrieved 21 June 2011. 
  65. ^ Black, Ian; Hassan, Nidaa (15 June 2011). "Syrian regime rallies support while Assad promises to address nation on TV". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 21 June 2011. 
  66. ^ "Assad issues amnesty in bid to woo public". United Press International. 21 June 2011. Retrieved 21 June 2011. 
  67. ^ "Syria’s President Assad- should he resign?". Retrieved 7 February 2012. 
  68. ^ "World Development Indicators 2011". World Bank. Retrieved 3 February 2012. 
  69. ^ "قوى المعارضة في سوريا". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 10 March 2011. 
  70. ^ "معتقلو الرأي في سوريا". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 9 March 2011. 
  71. ^ "ضيق لاستبعاد سياسيين من عفو سوريا". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 11 March 2011. 
  72. ^ "ر - سوريا .. الإصلاح والحرية". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 17 April 2011. 
  73. ^ "Now let's have a no-fly zone for Syria and Yemen". The Daily Telegraph (London). 23 March 2011. Retrieved 23 March 2011. 
  74. ^ "Media Watch: Beware the 'trusted' source". ABC (Australia). 16 May 2011. Retrieved 13 November 2011. 
  75. ^ "Gigantisk DR-bommert uden konsekvenser –". 18 May 2011. Retrieved 13 November 2011. 
  76. ^ OnSyria
  77. ^ a b "Assad decrees general amnesty over unrest: SANA". The Lebanon Daily Star. 15 January 2012. Retrieved 1 February 2012. 
  78. ^ "Syrian activist Haitham al-Maleh freed under amnesty". BBC News. 8 March 2011. Retrieved 8 March 2011. 
  79. ^ "Syria Frees 80-Year-Old Former Judge in Amnesty". Reuters. 8 March 2011. Retrieved 8 March 2011. 
  80. ^ "12 rights groups in Syria demand end to emergency". Google News. Agence France-Presse. Retrieved 8 March 2011. 
  81. ^ "Opposition leader Ribal Al-Assad is optimistic to changes in Syria". Elaph. 16 February 2011. Retrieved 16 February 2011. 
  82. ^ "Assad's exiled cousin warns Syria risks civil war". NOW Lebanon. 5 April 2011. Retrieved 20 April 2011. 


"Everyone in Syria has seen what is happening in Arab countries but in Syria there are many minorities. Everyone has arms and everyone will want to defend their own people. It is like what happened in Iraq."

On 16 February, government critic and director of the Organisation for Democracy and Freedom in Syria (ODFS) Ribal al-Assad, son of Rifaat al-Assad and cousin to Syrian President Bashar al-Assad, held a press conference in London, in which he made it clear that he "does not want to see a Syrian revolution, but a peaceful change of power".[81] In a 5 April interview, Ribal al-Assad warned of Syria's risk for a civil war, saying[82]

On 15 January 2012, state of emergency which had been in effect for almost 50 years.[80]


To try and add some badly-needed credibility to the videos, protestors often explicitly mention the date and location of the scene. Sometimes current newspaper issues are also shown. The largest collection of these videos is found on, which currently has more than 200,000 videos.[76]


Since international news media was banned in Syria, the main source of information - and disinformation - has been private videos usually taken by mobile phone cameras and uploaded to YouTube. As with many second-hand reports, such videos are difficult to verify independently, and several TV stations have shown older footage from Iraq and Lebanon, which was claimed to have been filmed in Syria.[74][75]


Internet activists

On 23 March, a column was published in The Daily Telegraph by Con Coughlin, the newspaper's executive foreign editor, calling for the creation of a no-fly zone over Syria to protect innocent protesters.[73]

Under criticism from Internet activists for failing to acknowledge the Syrian uprising, Al Jazeera provided analysis of the largest opposition parties in Syria that might have great political influence following any change of power: Syrian People's Democratic Party, Muslim Brotherhood, National Salvation Front, Movement for Justice and Development, Reform Party, Arab Socialist Movement, Arab Socialist Union, Arab Revolutionary Workers Party, Communist Labour Party, and others.[69] On 9 March 2011, Al Jazeera continued its reporting with an analysis of political detainees in Syria,[70] and two days later another special report reported that many activists were displeased that the general decree of amnesty did not include political prisoners.[71] Al Jazeera launched an Internet page for the Syrian revolt as part of its "Arab Revolution Spring" portal.[72]

Media coverage

According to a poll conducted by YouGov for the Qatari institute The Doha Debates, that sampled 97 Syrian online users, 55% of Syrians polled in December 2011 did not want Assad to resign.[67] As of 2009, Syria has 19.6% Internet users as percentage of population according to the World Bank.[68]

The day after Assad addressed the nation on 20 June, state television reported that over one million people gathered in Umayyad Square in Damascus, and there were demonstrations in Homs, Aleppo, Sweida, Latakia, Deraa, Hasaka, Tartous, and elsewhere to express support for the reforms the president said he would carry out.[66]

[63] State television reported that two million people attended to express Syrian national unity and Syria's rejection of foreign interference in its internal affairs.[65][64][63] boulevard.Mezzeh down Syrian flag carried a 2.3 kilometres (1.4 mi)-long Damascus In mid-June, rallies in support of Assad and his government increased; protests held in front of the French and Turkish embassies over their condemnations of the Syrian government's response to the unrest, and on 15 June, people at a pro-government demonstration in [7] on 25 March.Damascus Pro-Assad rallies were held in the capital city of [62]

Since the start of the uprising, large crowds[55] have rallied in the support of the Assad government, especially in the cities of Damascus,[56][57][58] Aleppo,[59] Tartous,[60] and Lattakia[61] Such rallies have been held since March 2011, and have increased following the suspension of Syria from the Arab League.

A pro-Assad student rally at Tishreen University, Latakia

Rallies in support of the Assad government

Parliamentary elections were held within 90 days after ratification of the new constitution.[54]

On 15 February, Syrian state television announced that the government will hold a referendum on a new constitution on 26 February 2012, in an attempt to end the eleven-month conflict.[52] One of the amendments in the draft would replace the old article 8, which entrenches the power of the Ba'ath party, with a new article reading: The state's political system is based on political pluralism and power is practiced democratically through voting.[53]

26 February constitutional referendum

On 8 March, Syria's deputy oil minister Abdo Hussameldin announced his defection and resignation on a YouTube video, denouncing Russia and China for backing the regime and advising his colleagues to abandon the "sinking ship".[51]

On 15 January 2012, president Al-Assad issued a general amnesty for those imprisoned for crimes committed in the context of the uprising.[49] According to state news agency SANA, 5,255 detainees have been released as of 22 January, with the release of further prisoners still continuing.[50]

As part of the Arab League peace plan, Syria released 3,500 prisoners on 3 January and a further 552 detainees on 5 January.[48]

On 28 December, the state released 755 detainees "whose hands were not stained with Syrian blood".

On 12 December, local elections took place for the first time under a new local administration law. The reformed electoral law gives the local administrations more powers and financial independence, ensures supervision of the electoral process by judicial committees, and abolishes the "closed lists" system which guaranteed 50 per cent of all municipal seats to the Ba'athist National Progressive Front.[47]

On 24 July, a draft law was created, to be debated by parliament, to allow more political parties, under the conditions that they were not based on religious, tribal or ethnic beliefs and does not discriminate against gender or race. Protesters have dismissed the law as superficial, as Article 8 of the Syrian Constitution, which grants the Ba'ath Party the role of leader of the state and society, would need to be repealed.

On 30 April, Prime Minister Adel Safar announced a comprehensive plan for reforms in the coming weeks in three areas: political reform, security and judicial reform; economic reform and social policies; and the development of administration and governmental work.[45][46]

On 19 April, a bill was approved by the Syrian government to lift the emergency law.[42] Two days later, Assad signed legislative decree 50 into law.[43][44]

On 16 April, Assad spoke to the People's Assembly in a televised speech, stating that he expected his government to lift the emergency law the following week. He acknowledged there is a gap between citizens and the state, and that government has to "keep up with the aspirations of the people".[40] Later in the day he welcomed the new ministers in the Cabinet of Syria with a speech containing more specifics.[41] He spoke of the importance of reaching "a state of unity, unity between the government, state institutions and the people"; stressed the need for dialogue and consultation in multiple channels, popular support, trust and transparency; explained the interrelatedness of reform and the needs of citizens for services, security and dignity. He stated the first priorities were citizenship for Kurds, lifting the state of emergency in the coming week or at the latest the week after, regulating demonstrations without chaos and sabotage, political party law, local administration law in both structure and elections, and new and modern media law, all with public timeframes. The next topics were unemployment, the economy, rural services, attracting investment, the public and private sectors, justice, corruption, petty bribery, tax reform and reducing government waste, followed by tackling government itself with more participation, e-government, decentralization, effectiveness and efficiency, as well as closer cooperation with civil society, mass organizations and trade unions.

On 7 April, Assad relieved the Governor of Homs province from his duties and issued a decree granting nationality to thousands of Kurds living in the eastern al Hasakah province[37] while the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said the 48 Kurds were released, more than a year after they were arrested in the eastern city of Raqqa.[38] This came a day after Assad met with Kurdish tribal leaders to discuss citizenship issues concerning the Kurds of Syria’s north-eastern provinces, as hundreds of thousands of Kurds were stripped of their citizenship rights as a result of the 1962 national census.[39]

The government, dominated by the Shia Alawite sect, also made some concessions to the majority Sunni and some minority populations in April. On 6 April, it was reported that teachers would once again be allowed to wear the niqab, and that the government had closed the country's only casino.[35] Of the 200,000 descendants of Syrian Kurds denied citizenship in 1962, 120,000 who were labeled "foreigners" were granted citizenship.[36]

On 31 March, Assad set up a committee of legal experts to study legislation that would pave the way to replacing decades-old emergency laws. The committee was to complete its study by 25 April. Assad also set up a judicial committee tasked with investigating the circumstances that led to the death of Syrian civilians and security forces in the cities of Daraa and Latakia.[34]

On 29 March, the Syrian cabinet submitted its official resignation to Assad.[33]

On 27 March, Bouthaina Shaaban confirmed that the emergency law would be lifted, but did not say when.[32]

On 26 March, Syrian authorities freed 260 political prisoners – 70 according to other sources – mostly Islamists, held in Saidnaya prison.[30][31]

On 24 March, Assad's media adviser, Buthaina Shaaban, said that the government will be "studying the possibility of lifting the emergency law and licensing political parties". The Syrian government also announced a cut in personal taxation rates, an increase in public sector salaries of 1,500 Syrian pounds ($32.60 US) a month and pledges to increase press freedom, create more employment opportunities, and reduce corruption.[27][28][29]

On 23 March, by regional decree 120, Faisal Ahmad Kolthoum was removed as Governor of Daraa.[26]

On 20 March, the Syrian government announced that it would release 15 children who had been arrested on 6 March for writing pro-democracy graffiti.[25]

On 19 March 2011 by legislative decree 35, Assad shortened the length of mandatory army conscription from 21 months to 18 months.[23][24]

Concessions from Syrian Government

Syrian activists claim government forces abducted and raped women in rebellious parts of the country, possibly using sexual violence as a means of quelling dissent. An opposition campaigner supplied The Globe and Mail with details about six previously unknown cases of violence against women, saying that more such incidents remain hidden as Damascus struggles to contain the uprising.[20] Syrian refugees fleeing to Turkey reported mass rape by Syrian soldiers, but there were other reports that in the Turkish refugee camp, more than 400 women were raped and sexually abused.[21][22]

Allegations of rape

In August 2011, Syrian security forces attacked the country's best-known political cartoonist, Ali Farzat, a noted critic of Syria's government and its five-month crackdown on pro-democracy demonstrators and dissent. Relatives of the severely beaten humorist told Western media the attackers threatened to break Farzat's bones as a warning for him to stop drawing cartoons of government officials, particularly Assad. Ferzat, who recently celebrated his 60th birthday, was hospitalized with fractures in both hands and blunt force trauma to the head.[18][19]

On 5 February 2011, Internet services were said to have been curbed, although Facebook and YouTube were reported to have been restored three days later.[16] Suggestions were made that easing the ban could be a way to track activists.[17]
As of 29 July 2011, social media censorship took these forms:
Facebook: Homepage is normally accessible. HTTPS connection is blocked so users aren't able to login.
YouTube: Homepage and all other pages are normally accessible but the streaming domain, however, is blocked. Users can surf the website but can't watch videos.
Twitter: No direct blocking, but it's undergoing heavy throttling (limiting the number of connections) rendering the service inaccessible.


In January 2012 a 718-page document claiming to be a leaked wanted suspects list from the Syrian Interior Ministry was published on the Internet. The list includes the names of thousands of dissidents accused of taking part in protests as well as armed activity against the Assad government. The document also names informants for the government.[15]

In October, Amnesty International published a report showing that at least 30 Syrian dissidents living in Canada, Chile, France, Germany, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom and United States, faced intimidation by Syrian embassy officials, and that in some cases, their relatives in Syria were harassed, detained and tortured. Syrian embassy officials in London and Washington, D.C. were alleged to have taken photographs and videos of local Syrian dissidents and sent them to Syrian authorities, who then retaliated against their families.[14]

A Syrian American man, Mohamad Anas Haitham Soueid, was charged by U.S. federal prosecutors on 5 October with tracking Syrian Americans supporting the uprising in the United States and passing information to Syrian authorities, who then arrested family members of the dissidents living in Syria. The U.S. government alleges that Soueid met with Assad during a two-week trip to Syria in summer 2011.[13]

Zainab al-Hosni, who was claimed to have been detained and beheaded by Syrian authorities, later turned out to be alive.[12]

Many news outlets reported that a prominent LGBT anti-government blogger called Amina Arraf was allegedly arrested by Syrian authorities, but questions arose of whether she was a real person in the first place.[10] She later tuned out to be an American man blogging under a false name, who had used a photo of a random British woman as that of "Amina".[11]

On 29 April Dorothy Parvaz of Al Jazeera arrived in Damascus and was not heard of for several days[8] The Syrian government later confirmed that she had been detained, she had attempted to enter the country illegally with an expired Iranian passport.[9] She was released on 18 May after detention in Syria and Iran.

On 22 March Syrian authorities arrested Loay Hussein, a human rights campaigner.[6] On 25 March there were reports of mass arrests and detentions of protesters taking place.[7]


This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.