World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Taiwanese Braille

Article Id: WHEBN0036535602
Reproduction Date:

Title: Taiwanese Braille  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Mainland Chinese Braille, Braille, Chinese language, Standard Chinese, Mandarin Chinese
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

Taiwanese Braille

Taiwanese Braille
Languages Standard Chinese
Parent systems
Night writing
Print basis
A quadriscriptal text in Chinese and Roman print and braille. In the lower right corner is the character 結 jié, written in braille as gyé; compare 西 at the center top, rendered in braille as syī.

Taiwanese Braille is the braille script used on Taiwan for Taiwanese Mandarin (Guoyu).[1] Although based marginally on international braille, the majority of consonants have been reassigned;[2] also, like Mainland Chinese Braille, Taiwanese Braille is a semi-syllabary.

An example is,
⠅ (braille pattern dots-13) ⠒ (braille pattern dots-25) ⠂ (braille pattern dots-2) ⠳ (braille pattern dots-1256) ⠈ (braille pattern dots-4) ⠙ (braille pattern dots-145) ⠞ (braille pattern dots-2345) ⠈ (braille pattern dots-4) ⠓ (braille pattern dots-125) ⠱ (braille pattern dots-156) ⠐ (braille pattern dots-5) ⠅ (braille pattern dots-13) ⠡ (braille pattern dots-16) ⠐ (braille pattern dots-5) ⠗ (braille pattern dots-1235) ⠩ (braille pattern dots-146) ⠁ (braille pattern dots-1)
ㄨㄛ ˊ ˇ ㄧㄢ ˇ ˋ ˋ ˋ
guó diǎn hào



Pinyin b p m f d t n l g k h j q x zh ch sh r z c s
Braille ⠕ (braille pattern dots-135) ⠏ (braille pattern dots-1234) ⠍ (braille pattern dots-134) ⠟ (braille pattern dots-12345) ⠙ (braille pattern dots-145) ⠋ (braille pattern dots-124) ⠝ (braille pattern dots-1345) ⠉ (braille pattern dots-14) ⠅ (braille pattern dots-13) ⠇ (braille pattern dots-123) ⠗ (braille pattern dots-1235) ⠅ (braille pattern dots-13) ⠚ (braille pattern dots-245) ⠑ (braille pattern dots-15) ⠁ (braille pattern dots-1) ⠃ (braille pattern dots-12) ⠊ (braille pattern dots-24) ⠛ (braille pattern dots-1245) ⠓ (braille pattern dots-125) ⠚ (braille pattern dots-245) ⠑ (braille pattern dots-15)

The braille letters for zhuyin/pinyin ㄍ g (/k/), ㄘ c (/tsʰ/), and ㄙ s (/s/) double for the alveolo-palatal consonantsj (/tɕ/), ㄑ q (/tɕʰ/), and ㄒ x (/ɕ/).[3] The latter are followed by close front vowels, namely ㄧ i (/i/) and ㄩ ü (/y/), so the distinction between z, c, s (or g, k, h) and j, q, x in zhuyin and pinyin is redundant.

Medial + rime

Each medial + rime in zhuyin is written with a single letter in braille.

Zhuyin /ㄦ
Pinyin -i/er a o e ê ai ei ao ou an en ang eng
Braille ⠱ (braille pattern dots-156) ⠜ (braille pattern dots-345) ⠣ (braille pattern dots-126) ⠮ (braille pattern dots-2346) ⠢ (braille pattern dots-26) ⠺ (braille pattern dots-2456) ⠴ (braille pattern dots-356) ⠩ (braille pattern dots-146) ⠷ (braille pattern dots-12356) ⠧ (braille pattern dots-1236) ⠥ (braille pattern dots-136) ⠭ (braille pattern dots-1346) ⠵ (braille pattern dots-1356)
Zhuyin ㄧㄚ ㄧㄛ ㄧㄝ ㄧㄞ ㄧㄠ ㄧㄡ ㄧㄢ ㄧㄣ ㄧㄤ ㄧㄥ
Pinyin i ia io ie iai iao iu ian in iang ing
Braille ⠡ (braille pattern dots-16) ⠾ (braille pattern dots-23456) ⠴ (braille pattern dots-356) ⠬ (braille pattern dots-346) ⠢ (braille pattern dots-26) ⠪ (braille pattern dots-246) ⠎ (braille pattern dots-234) ⠞ (braille pattern dots-2345) ⠹ (braille pattern dots-1456) ⠨ (braille pattern dots-46) ⠽ (braille pattern dots-13456)
Zhuyin ㄨㄚ ㄨㄛ ㄨㄞ ㄨㄟ ㄨㄢ ㄨㄣ ㄨㄤ ㄨㄥ
Pinyin u ua uo uai ui uan un uang ong
Braille ⠌ (braille pattern dots-34) ⠔ (braille pattern dots-35) ⠒ (braille pattern dots-25) ⠶ (braille pattern dots-2356) ⠫ (braille pattern dots-1246) ⠻ (braille pattern dots-12456) ⠿ (braille pattern dots-123456) ⠸ (braille pattern dots-456) ⠯ (braille pattern dots-12346)
Zhuyin ㄩㄝ ㄩㄢ ㄩㄣ ㄩㄥ
Pinyin ü üe üan ün iong
Braille ⠳ (braille pattern dots-1256) ⠦ (braille pattern dots-236) ⠘ (braille pattern dots-45) ⠲ (braille pattern dots-256) ⠖ (braille pattern dots-235)

is used for both the empty rime -i ([ɨ]), which is not written in zhuyin, and the rime ㄦ er ([ɑɻ]). See for example 斯 () located above the word Daguerre in the image at right.

Tone Marks

Tone: 1 2 3 4 0
Zhuyin na ˊ ˇ ˋ ˙
Pinyin ˉ ˊ ˇ ˋ na

Tone is always marked.[4] This includes toneless syllables such as 了 le, rendered in the image above-right.


Print __ ﹏﹏ …… —— ——
Print 「 」 『 』 ( ) 〔 〕 { }


  1. ^ Not for Taiwanese Hokkien, which commonly goes by the name "Taiwanese"
  2. ^ Only p m d n g c a e ê ü (from p m d n k j ä è dropped-e ü) approximate the French norm. Other letters have been reassigned so that the sets of letters in groups such as d t n l and g k h are similar in shape.
  3. ^ [sic] One might expect ㄐ j (/tɕ/) to pair with ㄗ z (/ts/), by analogy with the others. Compare here, where the character 學 xué is rendered "süé". Historically it could have been either. The principal behind the assignments seems to be that, of the historically appropriate pairs of letters g~z, k~c, and h~s, the letter with the fewer dots is used for j, q, x.
  4. ^
  5. ^ 萬明美, 2001, 「視障教育」, 五南圖書出版股份有限公司, p. 74 ff

External links

  • 國語點字自學手冊, National Taiwan Library
    (a copy here)
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.