Tanwin

In some Semitic languages, such as Arabic, nunation (Arabic: تنوينtanwīn) is the addition of a final nūn sound to a noun or adjective to indicate that it is fully declinable and syntactically unmarked for definiteness.

Symbol
ـٌ


ـٍ


ـً

Transliteration
-un

-in

-an

There are three of these vowel diacritics, and the signs indicate, from left to right, the endings -un (nominative case), -in (genitive), and -an (accusative). The sign ـً‎ is most commonly written in combination with اalif (ـًا‎), ةً‎ (tā’ marbūṭah تاء مربوطة) or stand-alone ءً‎ (hamzah همزة). An alif should always be written unless the word ends in tā’ marbūṭah or hamzah or is a diptote, even though the -un, -an or -in is not written. Nunation is used only in literary Arabic; it is absent in everyday spoken Arabic, and many Arabic textbooks introduce even literary Arabic without these endings.

Since Arabic has no indefinite article, nouns in a syntactic context unmarked for definiteness are generally indefinite; this has led to the extremely common but inaccurate belief that nunation is a marker for indefiniteness and is analogous to an indefinite article. The lack of a marker for definiteness does not necessarily make a word indefinite; in fact, many definite nouns (proper names) take nunation, as for example in the expression أشهد أن محمداً رسول الله (ashhadu anna Muḥammadan rasūlu Allāh: "I witness that Muhammad is the messenger of God."), in which the name Muḥammad, a definite noun, is nunated.

Nunation may also refer to the -n  ending of duals in Akkadian (until it was dropped in the Old Babylonian period).[1]

See also

References

External links

  • Nunation
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.