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Ted Cruz

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Ted Cruz

Ted Cruz
United States Senator
from Texas
Assumed office
January 3, 2013
Serving with John Cornyn
Preceded by Kay Bailey Hutchison
Solicitor General of Texas
In office
January 9, 2003 – May 12, 2008
Governor Rick Perry
Preceded by Julie Parsley
Succeeded by James C. Ho[1]
Personal details
Born Rafael Edward Cruz
(1970-12-22) December 22, 1970
Calgary, Alberta, Canada
Political party Republican
Spouse(s) Heidi Nelson (m. 2001)
Children 2
Alma mater Princeton University
(A.B., 1992)
Harvard Law School
(J.D., 1995)
Religion Protestantism (Southern Baptist)[2]
Website Senate website
Campaign website

Rafael Edward "Ted" Cruz (born December 22, 1970)[3] is an American politician and the junior U.S. Senator from Texas. A Republican, Cruz was elected to the U.S. Senate in 2012 and is the first Hispanic American to serve as a U.S. senator representing Texas.[4][2][5] He is the chairman of the subcommittee on the Oversight, Agency Action, Federal Rights and Federal Courts, U.S. Senate Judiciary Committee.[6] He is also the chairman of the United States Senate Commerce Subcommittee on Space, Science and Competitiveness, U.S. Senate Commerce Committee.

Between 1999 and 2003, Cruz was the director of the Office of Policy Planning at the [11] Cruz is one of three Senators of Cuban descent.[13]

Cruz was the Republican nominee for the Senate seat vacated by fellow Republican Kay Bailey Hutchison.[14] On July 31, 2012, he defeated Lieutenant Governor David Dewhurst in the Republican primary runoff, 57%–43%.[15] Cruz defeated former state Representative Paul Sadler in the general election on November 6, 2012. He won 56%–41% over Sadler.[15][16] Cruz openly identifies with the Tea Party movement and has been endorsed by the Republican Liberty Caucus.[17] On November 14, 2012, Cruz was appointed vice-chairman of the National Republican Senatorial Committee.[18]

On March 23, 2015, Cruz announced during an assembly at Liberty University he would run for the Republican Party nomination in the 2016 U.S. Presidential election.

Contents

  • Early life and ancestry 1
  • Education 2
  • Legal career 3
    • Clerkships 3.1
    • Private practice 3.2
    • Bush Administration 3.3
    • Texas Solicitor General 3.4
    • Private practice 3.5
  • U.S. Senate 4
    • 2012 election 4.1
    • Legislation 4.2
      • Senate bill 2195 4.2.1
      • Committee assignments 4.2.2
    • Comments on President Obama 4.3
    • Relationships with fellow Republicans 4.4
  • Political positions 5
  • Presidential campaign 6
  • Personal life 7
  • Accolades 8
  • Electoral history 9
  • See also 10
  • References 11
  • External links 12

Early life and ancestry

Cruz was born on December 22, 1970,[7][16] in Calgary, Alberta, to parents Eleanor Elizabeth Darragh Wilson and Rafael Bienvenido Cruz.[19][20][21] At the time of his birth, Cruz' parents were working in the oil business as owners of a seismic-data processing firm for oil drilling.[20][22][23][24][25]

Cruz's father was born in Cuba, and two of Ted's paternal great-grandparents were from the Canary Islands in Spain. Cruz's mother was born in Wilmington, Delaware, of three quarter Irish and one quarter Italian ancestry.[26][27] His father left Cuba in 1957 to attend the University of Texas at Austin, becoming a naturalized U.S. citizen in 2005.[20][28][29][30] His mother earned an undergraduate degree in mathematics from Rice University in the 1950s.[31]

On his father's side, Cruz had two older half-sisters, Miriam and Roxana Cruz.[32] On his mother's side Cruz had a half-brother, Michael Wilson (1960 - 1965), who died before Cruz was born.[32] Cruz learned of the deceased sibling from his mother during his teenage years.[32]

When he was a child, Cruz's mother told him that she would have to make an affirmative act to claim Canadian citizenship for him, so his family assumed that he did not hold Canadian citizenship.[33] In August 2013, after the Dallas Morning News pointed out that Cruz had dual Canadian-American citizenship,[34] he applied to formally renounce his Canadian citizenship and ceased being a citizen of Canada on May 14, 2014.[33][35]

Education

Cruz attended high school at Faith West Academy in Katy, Texas,[36] and later graduated from Second Baptist High School in Houston as valedictorian in 1988.[28][37][38] During high school, Cruz participated in a Houston-based group called the Free Market Education Foundation where he learned about free-market economic philosophers such as Milton Friedman, Friedrich Hayek, Frédéric Bastiat and Ludwig von Mises.[39] The program was run by Rolland Storey and Cruz entered the program at the age of 13.[25] At the same time, he changed his nickname from "Felito" to "Ted" after being teased about it by his peers.[40] Cruz was involved in theater during high school, though chose not to pursue an acting career. He would later say that he did not think he had the talent to succeed. Cruz later claimed to regret not serving in the military, saying he respected it "immensely."[41]

Cruz graduated cum laude from Princeton University with a Bachelor of Arts in Public Policy[42] from the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs in 1992.[5][7] While at Princeton, he competed for the American Whig-Cliosophic Society's Debate Panel and won the top speaker award at both the 1992 U.S. National Debating Championship and the 1992 North American Debating Championship.[43] In 1992, he was named U.S. National Speaker of the Year, as well as Team of the Year, with his debate partner, David Panton.[43] Cruz and Panton represented Harvard Law School at the 1995 World Debating Championship, making it to the semi-finals, where they lost to a team from Australia.[44][45][46] Princeton's debate team later named their annual novice championship after Cruz.[46]

Cruz's senior thesis on the separation of powers, titled "Clipping the Wings of Angels," draws its inspiration from a passage attributed to President James Madison: "If angels were to govern men, neither external nor internal controls on government would be necessary." Cruz argued that the drafters of the Constitution intended to protect the rights of their constituents, and that the last two items in the Bill of Rights offer an explicit stop against an all-powerful state. Cruz wrote: "They simply do so from different directions. The Tenth stops new powers, and the Ninth fortifies all other rights, or non-powers."[31][47]

After graduating from Princeton, Cruz attended [11]

Cruz currently serves on the Board of Advisors of the [11][53]

Legal career

Clerkships

Ted Cruz speaking in Nashua, New Hampshire.

Cruz served as a [11] and William Rehnquist, Chief Justice of the United States in 1996.[7] Cruz was the first Hispanic to clerk for a Chief Justice of the United States.[54]

Private practice

After Cruz finished his clerkships, he took a position with Cooper, Carvin & Rosenthal, now known as Cooper & Kirk, LLC, from 1997 to 1998.[55] While with the firm, Cruz worked on matters relating to the National Rifle Association, and helped prepare testimony for the impeachment proceedings against President Clinton.[56] Cruz also served as private counsel for Congressman John Boehner during Boehner's lawsuit against Congressman Jim McDermott for releasing a tape recording of a Boehner telephone conversation.[57]

Bush Administration

Cruz joined the [11][49] in which he wrote a U.S. Supreme Court brief on behalf of all 50 states.[65] The Supreme Court upheld the position of Cruz’s brief.

Cruz served as lead counsel for the state and successfully defended the multiple litigation challenges to the 2003 Texas congressional redistricting plan in state and federal district courts and before the U.S. Supreme Court, which was decided 5–4 in his favor in [11][66]

Cruz also successfully defended, in Vienna Convention on Consular Relations by failing to notify the convicted nationals of their opportunity to receive legal aid from the Mexican consulate.[56][67] They based their case on a decision of the International Court of Justice in the Avena case which ruled that by failing to allow access to the Mexican consulate, the US had breached its obligations under the Convention.[68] Texas won the case in a 6–3 decision, the Supreme Court holding that ICJ decisions were not binding in domestic law and that the President had no power to enforce them.[56][67]

Cruz has been named by American Lawyer magazine as one of the 50 Best Litigators under 45 in America,[59][69] by The National Law Journal as one of the 50 Most Influential Minority Lawyers in America,[70][71] and by Texas Lawyer as one of the 25 Greatest Texas Lawyers of the Past Quarter Century.[72][73]

Private practice

After leaving the Solicitor General position in 2008, Cruz worked in a private law firm in Houston,

Party political offices
Preceded by
Kay Bailey Hutchison
Republican nominee for U.S. Senator from Texas
(Class 1)

2012
Most recent
United States Senate
Preceded by
Kay Bailey Hutchison
U.S. Senator (Class 1) from Texas
2013–present
Served alongside: John Cornyn
Incumbent
United States order of precedence (ceremonial)
Preceded by
Tim Kaine
United States Senators by seniority
82nd
Succeeded by
Elizabeth Warren

External links

  1. ^ Abby Livingston & Patrick Svitek, Ted Cruz Will Seek the Presidency, Texas Tribune (March 22, 2015).
  2. ^ a b c "Editorial: Texan of the Year finalist Ted Cruz".  
  3. ^ Gillman, Tod J. (18 August 2013). "Dual Citizenship". The Dallas Morning News. 
  4. ^ U.S. Senator Ted Cruz at U.S.-Cuba Democracy PAC 10th Annual Luncheon, Biltmore Hotel (Miami, FL), US-Cuba Democracy PAC, March 10, 2013.
    Loyola, Mario. Exile and the Revolution, Like all Cuban-Americans, Ted Cruz belongs to a family of exiles., National Review, November 4, 2011.
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  6. ^ "United States Senate Committee on the Judiciary".  
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  9. ^ "The Honorable Ted Cruz". Retrieved 20 April 2014. 
  10. ^ Fox News Latino Prospective 2016 Presidential Candidates Start Testing The Waters; 7 April 2014 "he was Texas' longest-serving solicitor general, between 2003 and 2008."
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  12. ^ Office of the Registrar (2006), University of Texas School of Law Catalog,  
  13. ^ "Explaining the Senate's growing conservative Latino caucus". WBEZ91.5. Retrieved 14 April 2014. 
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  15. ^ a b c d e f State of Texas (July 31, 2012). "Election Results". Office of the Secretary of State. Retrieved 17 August 2013. 
  16. ^ a b U.S. Senator Ted Cruz, Austin American-Statesman
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  18. ^ Gillman, Todd J. (November 14, 2012). "Ted Cruz to help Senate GOP with "grassroots" outreach".  
  19. ^ a b Ferguson, John Wayne (August 13, 2012). "Texplainer: Could Canadian-Born Ted Cruz Be President?".  
  20. ^ a b c Costa, Robert (August 28, 2013). "The Rise of Rafael Cruz".  
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  154. ^ Hawkins, John (December 31, 2014). "Top 10 Conservatives of 2013".  
  155. ^ Leary, Alex (January 7, 2014). "'"Sarasota GOP to honor Ted Cruz to be honored as 'Statesman of the Year.  
  156. ^ Ammann, Phil (January 7, 2014). "Sarasota GOP to honor Sen. Ted Cruz as its ‘Statesman of the Year’". www.saintpetersblog.com. Saint Petersblog. Retrieved 20 February 2014. 
  157. ^ "TEXAN OF THE YEAR 2013: TODAY’S FINALIST: TED CRUZ".  
  158. ^ Edelman, Adam (December 9, 2013). "TIME magazine releases finalists for 2013 ‘Person of the Year’ award".  

References

See also

General Election, November 6, 2012[15]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Ted Cruz 4,469,843 56.45
Democratic Paul Sadler 3,194,927 40.62
Libertarian John Jay Myers 162,354 2.06
Green David Collins 67,404 0.85
Total votes 7,864,822 100
2012 General Election
Republican runoff results, July 31, 2012[15]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Ted Cruz 631,316 56.8
Republican David Dewhurst 480,165 43.2
Total votes 1,111,481 100
2012 Republican primary runoff
Republican primary results, May 29, 2012[15]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican David Dewhurst 624,170 44.6
Republican Ted Cruz 479,079 34.2
Republican Tom Leppert 186,675 13.3
Republican Craig James 50,211 3.6
Republican Glenn Addison 22,888 1.6
Republican Lela Pittenger 18,028 1.3
Republican Ben Gambini 7,193 0.5
Republican Curt Cleaver 6,649 0.5
Republican Joe Argis 4,558 0.3
Total votes 1,399,451 100
2012 Republican primary

Electoral history

Cruz was also named "2013 Man of the Year" by TheBlaze,[151] FrontPage Magazine[152] and The American Spectator,[153] "2013 Conservative of the Year" by Townhall.com,[154] "2013 Statesman of the Year" by the Republican Party of Sarasota County, Florida[155][156] and was a finalist in both "2013 Texan of the Year" by The Dallas Morning News[157] and a "2013 Person of the Year" finalist by Time.[158]

Rick Manning of Americans for Limited Government in The Hill, on December 27, 2013, named Cruz "2013 Person of the Year."[150] Manning stated that "of course, Cruz made his biggest mark when he and fellow freshman Sen. Mike Lee (R-Utah) led a last-ditch national grassroots effort to defund ObamaCare before the law went into effect fully. Imagine how many Senate Democrats wish right now that they had heeded Cruz's entreaties and agreed to delaying or defunding it for one year. Now, they are stuck with the law and all its consequences."[150]

Accolades

Cruz has said, "I'm Cuban, Irish, and Italian, and yet somehow I ended up Southern Baptist."[2]

Cruz married Heidi Nelson in 2001.[147] The couple has two daughters:[148] Caroline (born 2008) and Catherine (born 2011). Cruz met his wife while working on the presidential campaign of 2000. She is currently taking leave from her position as head of the Southwest Region in the Investment Management Division of Goldman, Sachs & Co. and previously worked in the White House for Condoleezza Rice and in New York as an investment banker.[149]

Cruz with his wife Heidi at a rally in Houston, March 2015

Personal life

[146][145]

On March 23, 2015, Cruz announced on his Twitter page: "I'm running for President and I hope to earn your support!"[141] He was the first announced major Republican presidential candidate for the 2016 campaign.[142][143]

On April 12, 2014, Cruz spoke at the Freedom Summit, an event organized by Citizens United.[139] The event was attended by several potential presidential candidates.[140] In his speech, Cruz mentioned that Latinos, young people and single mothers, are the people most affected by the recession, and that the Republican Party should make outreach efforts to these constituents. He also said that the words "growth and opportunity" should be tattooed on the hands of every Republican politician.[139]

Since Cruz was born in Canada, commentators for the Austin American-Statesman[132] and the Los Angeles Times,[133] have speculated about Cruz's legal status as a natural-born citizen. Because he was a U.S. citizen at birth (his mother was a U.S. citizen who lived in the U.S. for more than 10 years as outlined by the Nationality Act of 1940), many commentators believe Cruz is eligible to serve as President of the United States.[19][134][135][34] Despite many legal experts opinions to the contrary, conservative legal activist Larry Klayman, Orly Taitz, one of the leading proponents of the "birther" movement during Obama's presidency, Joseph Farah of World Net Daily, and Donald Trump, have stated that Cruz is not a natural born citizen and thus not eligible to run for president.[136] Two lawyers, Neal Katyal and Paul Clement who both represented presidents from both parties at the Supreme Court recently wrote in the Harvard Law Review that Cruz meets the constitutional standard to run.[137][138]

Cruz did speaking events in the summer of 2013 across Iowa, New Hampshire and South Carolina, early primary states, leading to speculation that he was laying the groundwork for a run for President in 2016.[131] Legal analyst Jeffrey Toobin describes Cruz as the first potential Presidential candidate to emphasize originalism as a major national issue.[56]

Commentators have expressed their opinion that Cruz would run for President in 2016.[123][124][125] On March 14, 2013, Cruz gave the keynote speech at the 2013 Conservative Political Action Conference in Washington DC.[126] He came in tied for 7th place in the 2013 CPAC straw poll on March 16, winning 4% of the votes cast.[127] In October 2013, Cruz won the Values Voter Summit Presidential straw poll with 42% of the vote.[128] Cruz came in first place in the two most recent Presidential straw polls conducted in 2014 with 30.33% of the vote at the Republican Leadership Conference[129] and 43% of the vote at the Republican Party of Texas state convention.[130]

Senator Cruz speaking at the 2014 Conservative Political Action Conference (CPAC) in National Harbor, Maryland.

Presidential campaign

Political positions

When Boehner announced in September 2015 that he would step down and resign from the House, Cruz "gloated" at the news and expressed his concern that before resigning Boehner may have "cut a deal with Nancy Pelosi to fund the Obama administration for the rest of its tenure".[122]

Among the most vocal Cruz critics among Republicans is Representative Peter King of New York, who in 2013 said that Cruz has "tapped into a dark strain in the American political psyche" and was engaged in "governmental terrorism" by threatening to shut down the government unless the ACA was repealed.[112][116] In March 2015, King called Cruz a "carnival barker" who was "a guy with a big mouth and no results."[116] Cruz has also clashed with House Speaker John Boehner, who called Cruz a "jackass" at a Colorado fundraiser, prompting a response from Cruz.[117][118] Among Cruz's few close allies in the Senate is Mike Lee of Utah.[119][120] Cruz has expressed pride in his reputation for having few allies, saying in June 2015 that he has been vilified for fighting "the Washington cartel."[121]

In a heated Senate floor speech in July 2015, Cruz accused Senate Republican Leader [113][114] Cruz also assailed the "Republican majority in both houses of Congresses" for what Cruz termed an insufficiently conservative record.[114] Cruz's controversial speech was condemned by various senior Republican senators, with Senator Orrin Hatch delivering"a lengthy floor speech reprimanding Cruz" and McCain saying that the speech was "outside the realm of Senate behavior" and "a very wrong thing to do."[115]

Cruz has frequently used harsh rhetoric against fellow Republicans politicians, and his relationships with various Republican members of Congress have been strained.[111][112] In 2013, Cruz referred to Republicans who he thought were believed to be insufficiently resistant to the proposals of President Obama as a "surrender caucus."[111] Cruz also mocked fellow Republicans as "squishes" on gun-control issues during a tea party rally.[111] Cruz's leading role in causing the 2013 government shutdown in particular attracted criticism from a number of Republican colleagues.[112] Republican Senator John McCain is reported to particularly dislike Cruz; in a Senate floor speech in 2013, McCain "resoundingly" denounced Cruz's reference to Nazis when discussing the Affordable Care Act.[112] In March 2013, McCain also called Cruz and others "wacko birds on right" whose beliefs are not "are reflective of the views of the majority of Republicans."[112]

Relationships with fellow Republicans

Cruz has repeatedly claimed that the 2015 international nuclear agreement with Iran "will make the Obama administration the world's leading financier of radical Islamic terrorism."[108] In response, Obama called Cruz's statements an example of "outrageous attacks" from Republican critics that crossed the line of responsible discourse: "We've had a sitting senator, who also happens to be running for president, suggest that I'm the leading state sponsor of terrorism. Maybe this is just an effort to push Mr. Trump out of the headlines, but it's not the kind of leadership that is needed for America right now."[108] Former Republican presidential nominee Mitt Romney also criticized Cruz for his remarks, writing that although he, too, was opposed to the Iran agreement, Cruz's statement connecting Obama to terrorism was "way over the line" and "hurts the cause."[109][110]

In a November 2014 Senate speech, Cruz accused the president of being "openly desirous to destroy the Constitution and this Republic."[107] In the same speech, Cruz invoked the speeches of the ancient Roman senator Cicero against Catiline to denounce Obama's planned executive actions on immigration reform.[107] Classics professor Jesse Weiner, writing in The Atlantic, said that Cruz's analogy was "deeply disquieting" because "in casting Obama in the role of Catiline, Cruz unsubtly suggests that the sitting president was not lawfully elected and is the perpetrator of a violent insurrection to overthrow the government...In effect, he accuses the president of high treason. Regardless of one’s views on immigration reform and the Obama administration at large, this is dangerous rhetoric."[107]

Cruz is a frequent critic of President Barack Obama, calling him "an unmitigated socialist" and his ideas "profoundly dangerous" at the "First in the Nation" summit in Nashua, New Hampshire.[105] Cruz also made comments blaming Obama for the 2015 shooting death of a sheriff's deputy in Harris County, Texas.[106]

Comments on President Obama

According to transcripts as reported by Politico, in his first two years in the Senate, Cruz attended 17 of 50 public Armed Services Committee hearings, 3 of 25 Commerce Committee hearings, 4 of the 12 Judiciary Committee hearings, and missed 21 of 135 roll call votes during the first three months of 2015.[104]

Committee assignments

Under the headline "A bipartisan message to Iran", Cruz thanked President Barack Obama for signing S 2195 into law. The letter, published in the magazine Politico on April 18, 2014, starts with "Thanks to President Obama for joining a unanimous Congress and signing S 2195 into law". Cruz also thanked senators from both political parties for "swiftly passing this legislation and sending it to the White House."[101][102][103]

On April 1, 2014, Cruz introduced Senate bill 2195, a bill that would allow the President of the United States to deny visas to any ambassador to the United Nations who has been found to have been engaged in espionage activities or a terrorist activity against the United States or its allies and may pose a threat to U.S. national security interests.[97] The bill was written in response to Iran's choice of Hamid Aboutalebi as their ambassador.[98] Aboutalebi was involved in the Iran hostage crisis, in which of a number of American diplomats from the US embassy in Tehran were held captive in 1979.[98][99][100]

Senate bill 2195

  • S.177, a bill to repeal the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and the health-care related provisions of the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010, introduced January 29, 2013
  • S.505, a bill to prohibit the use of drones to kill citizens of the United States within the United States, introduced March 7, 2013
  • S.729 and S. 730, bills to investigate and prosecute felons and fugitives who illegally purchase firearms, and to prevent criminals from obtaining firearms through straw purchases and trafficking, introduced March 15, 2013
  • S.1336, a bill to permit States to require proof of citizenship for registering to vote in federal elections, introduced July 17, 2013
  • S.2170, a bill to increase coal, natural gas, and crude oil exports, to approve the construction of the Keystone XL Pipeline, to expand oil drilling offshore, onshore, in the National Petroleum Reserve–Alaska, and in Indian reservations, to give states the sole power of regulating hydraulic fracturing, to repeal the Renewable Fuel Standard, to prohibit the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) from regulating greenhouse gases, to require the EPA to assess how new regulations will affect employment, and to earmark natural resource revenue to paying off the federal government's debt, introduced March 27, 2014
  • S.2415, a bill to amend the Federal Election Campaign Act of 1971 to eliminate all limits on direct campaign contributions to candidates for public office, introduced June 3, 2014

Cruz has sponsored 25 bills of his own, including:[96]

Cruz giving a speech to the Montgomery County Republican Party meeting held in Conroe, Texas, on August 19, 2013

Legislation

After Time magazine reported on a potential violation of ethics rules by failing to publicly disclose his financial relationship with Caribbean Equity Partners Investment Holdings during the 2012 campaign, Cruz called his failure to disclose these connections an inadvertent omission.[95]

In the November 6 general election, Cruz faced Democrat Paul Sadler, an attorney and a former state representative from Henderson, in east Texas. Cruz won with 4.5 million votes (56.4%) to Sadler's 3.2 million (40.6%). Two minor candidates garnered the remaining 3% of the vote.[15] According to a poll by Cruz's pollster Wilson Perkins Allen Opinion Research, Cruz received 40% of the Hispanic vote, vs. 60% for Sandler, outperforming Republican Presidential candidate Mitt Romney with the Hispanic vote by 6 points.[93][94]

Cruz won the runoff for the Republican nomination with a 14-point margin over Dewhurst.[90] Cruz defeated Dewhurst despite being outspent by Dewhurst who held a statewide elected office.[91] Dewhurst spent $19 million and Cruz only spent $7 million.[91] Dewhurst raised over $30 million and outspent Cruz at a ratio of nearly 3-to-1.[92]

[89].Rick Santorum and former U.S. Senator from Pennsylvania [58] Cruz's victory in the Republican primary was described by the

Cruz speaking to the Values Voters Summit in October 2011

2012 election

U.S. Senate

[28] In 2009 and 2010, he formed and then abandoned a bid for state attorney general when the incumbent Attorney General Greg Abbott, who hired Cruz as Solicitor General, decided to run for re-election.[74] In 2004, Cruz was involved in the high-profile case,

In addition to his success in Heller, Cruz successfully defended the constitutionality of the [11][49][60]

Cruz at the Values Voter Summit in Washington, DC., 2011

In the landmark case of District of Columbia v. Heller, Cruz drafted the amicus brief signed by the attorneys general of 31 states, which said that the D.C. handgun ban should be struck down as infringing upon the Second Amendment right to keep and bear arms.[60][63] Cruz also presented oral argument for the amici states in the companion case to Heller before the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit.[60][64]

In 2003, while Cruz was Texas Solicitor General, the Texas Attorney General's office declined to defend Texas' sodomy law in Lawrence v. Texas, where the U.S. Supreme Court decided that state laws banning homosexual sex as illegal sodomy were unconstitutional.[62]

Cruz has authored 70 [8][49][60] Cruz's record of having argued before the Supreme Court nine times is more than any practicing lawyer in Texas or any current member of Congress.[61] Cruz has commented on his nine cases in front of the U.S. Supreme Court: "We ended up year after year arguing some of the biggest cases in the country. There was a degree of serendipity in that, but there was also a concerted effort to seek out and lead conservative fights."[61]

Appointed to the office of [11][39] The office had been established in 1999 to handle appeals involving the state, but Abbott hired Cruz with the idea that Cruz would take a "leadership role in the United States in articulating a vision of strict construction." As Solicitor General, Cruz argued before the Supreme Court nine times, winning five cases and losing four.[56]

Texas Solicitor General

After President Bush took office, Cruz served as an associate deputy attorney general in the U.S. Justice Department[7][58] and as the director of policy planning at the U.S. Federal Trade Commission.[7][49][58]

Cruz assisted in assembling the Bush legal team, devising strategy, and drafting [11][58] Cruz recruited future Chief Justice John Roberts and noted attorney Mike Carvin to the Bush legal team.[56]

[55]

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