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Telangana

Telangana
తెలంగాణ
تلنگانہ
State of India
Montage of Telangana. Sidewise from top left: Charminar, Warangal Fort, Hyderabad city view, Nizamabad railway station, Kuntala Waterfalls, Falaknuma Palace
Montage of Telangana.
Sidewise from top left: Charminar, Warangal Fort, Hyderabad city view, Nizamabad railway station, Kuntala Waterfalls, Falaknuma Palace
Official logo of Telangana
Seal
Anthem: జయ జయ హే తెలంగాణ జననీ జయ కేతనమ్
"Jaya Jaya He Telangana Janani Jayakethanam"
Location of Telangana (marked in red) in India
Location of Telangana (marked in red) in India
Coordinates (Hyderabad):
Country India
Region South India
Established 2 June 2014
Capital Hyderabad
Largest city Hyderabad
Districts 10
Government
 • Governor E. S. L. Narasimhan
 • Chief minister Kalvakuntla Chandrashekar Rao (TRS)
 • Legislature Bicameral (119 + 40 seats)
 • Lok Sabha constituencies 17
 • High Court High Court of Judicature at Hyderabad
Area[1]
 • Total 114,840 km2 (44,340 sq mi)
Area rank 12th
Population (2011)[1]
 • Total 35,193,978
 • Rank 12th
 • Density 310/km2 (790/sq mi)
Demonym(s) Telanganite
Time zone IST (UTC+05:30)
ISO 3166 code IN-TG
Vehicle registration TS[2]
Literacy 66.50%[1]
Official language Telugu, Urdu
Website telangana.gov.in

^† Temporary Joint Capital with Andhra Pradesh

Symbols of Telangana
Emblem Kakatiya Toranam, Charminar
Language Telugu and Urdu
Song Jaya Jaya He Telangana Janani Jayakethanam
Animal Spotted deer
Bird Pala pitta
Flower Tangedi Puvvu
Tree Jammi tree

Telangana (Listen) is a state in South India and one of the 29 states in India. It was formed on 2 June 2014 with the city of Hyderabad as its capital.[3] Telangana is bordered by the states of Maharashtra to the north and North west Chhattisgarh to the north east, Karnataka to the west, and Andhra Pradesh to the east and south.[4] As the twelfth largest state in India, Telangana has an area of 114,840 square kilometres (44,340 sq mi), and a population of 35,286,757 (2011 census).[5] Its major cities include Hyderabad, Warangal, Nizamabad, Karimnagar, Ramagundam and Khammam.

Telangana acquired its identity as the Andhra State to form Andhra Pradesh. Following a popular movement for separation, it was awarded separate Statehood on 2 June 2014. Hyderabad will continue to serve as the joint capital city for Andhra Pradesh and Telangana for a period of not more than ten years.

Hyderabad state in 1909

Contents

  • Telangana Awarded as Most Promising State of the Year 1
  • Etymology 2
  • History 3
    • Early history 3.1
    • Kakatiya Dynasty 3.2
    • Qutb Shahi and Asaf Jahi's 3.3
    • Post-independence 3.4
    • Telangana Rebellion 3.5
  • States Reorganisation Commission 4
    • Telangana movement 4.1
    • Formation of Telangana state in 2014 4.2
  • Geography 5
    • Climate 5.1
    • Ecology 5.2
      • National Parks and Sanctuaries 5.2.1
  • Government and politics 6
  • Demographics 7
  • Economy 8
    • Agriculture 8.1
    • Industries 8.2
    • Tourism 8.3
  • Infrastructure 9
    • Power 9.1
    • Transport 9.2
      • Roads 9.2.1
      • Railways 9.2.2
      • Airports 9.2.3
  • Culture 10
    • Monuments 10.1
    • Religious tourism 10.2
    • Waterfalls 10.3
  • Education 11
  • Sports 12
  • See also 13
  • References 14
  • Further reading 15
  • External links 16

Telangana Awarded as Most Promising State of the Year

Telangana state has won CNBC-TV18 Promising State of the Year Award for the year of 2015 The Jury for the India Business Leader Awards (IBLA) has collectively chosen Telangana for the award.[7][8]

Etymology

The name Telangana is derived from the word Trilinga, as in the Trilinga Desa, which translates to "the country of the three lingas". According to a Hindu legend, Shiva descended in the lingam form on three mountains, Kaleshwaram, Srisailam and Draksharama, which marked the boundaries of the Trilingadesa, later called Telinga, Telunga or Telugu.[9][10]

The word "Telinga" changed over time to "Telangana" and the name "Telangana" was designated to distinguish the predominantly Telugu-speaking region of the erstwhile Hyderabad State from its predominantly Marathi-speaking one, Marathwada.[11]

One of the earliest uses of a word similar to Telangana can also be seen in a name of Malik Maqbul (14th century CE), who was called the Tilangani, which implies that he was from Tilangana. He was the commander of the Warangal Fort (Kataka Pāludu).[12]

History

Early history

The Satavahana dynasty (230 BCE to 220 CE) of Andhra Pradesh[13] became the dominant power in this region. It originated from the lands between the Godavari and Krishna rivers and was based at amaravathi and dharanikota of Andhra Pradesh.[13][14] After the decline of the Satavahanas, various dynasties, such as the Vakataka, Vishnukundina, Chalukya, Rashtrakuta and Western Chalukya, ruled the area.[15]

Kakatiya Dynasty

Ramagiri fort ruins at Kalvacherla in Karimnagar district is an ancient fort initially built by the Sathavahanas and modified many times by other dynasties till 16th century
Kota gullu,temple ruins built in the 12th century by Kakatiyas at Ghanpur, Mulug in warangal district
A 14th century fort ruins at Rachakonda in Nalgonda district

The Telangana area experienced its golden age during the reign of the Kakatiya dynasty , which ruled most parts of the present day Andhra Pradesh and Telangana from 1083 to 1323 CE.[15] Rudrama Devi and Prataparudra II were prominent rulers from the Kakatiya dynasty. The dynasty weakened with the attack of Malik Kafur in 1309 and was dissolved after the defeat of Prataparudra by the forces of Muhammad bin Tughluq in 1323.[16][17]

Qutb Shahi and Asaf Jahi's

Charminar in Hyderabad

The area came under the rule of the Delhi Sultanate in the 14th century, followed by the Bahmani Sultanate. Quli Qutb Mulk, a governor of Golkonda, revolted against the Bahmani Sultanate and established the Qutb Shahi dynasty in 1518. On 21 September 1687, the Golkonda Sultanate came under the rule of the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb after a year-long siege of the Golkonda fort.[18]

In 1712, Qamar-ud-din Khan was appointed by emperor Farrukhsiyar as the viceroy of Deccan with the title Nizam-ul-Mulk (meaning "Administrator of the Realm"). He was later recalled to Delhi, with Mubariz Khan appointed as the viceroy. In 1724, Qamar-ud-din Khan defeated Mubariz Khan to reclaim the Deccan suba, establishing it as an autonomous province of the Mughal empire. He took the name Asif Jah, starting what came to be known as the Asif Jahi dynasty.[15] He named the area Hyderabad Deccan. Subsequent rulers retained the title Nizam ul-Mulk and were called Asif Jahi nizams or nizams of Hyderabad. The Medak and Warangal divisions of Telengana were part of their realm.[19]

When Asif Jah I died in 1748, there was political unrest due to contention for the throne among his sons, who were aided by opportunistic neighbouring states and colonial foreign forces. In 1769, Hyderabad city became the formal capital of the nizams. The nizam Nasir-ud-dawlah, Asaf Jah IV signed the Subsidiary Alliance with the British in 1799 and lost its control over the state's defence and foreign affairs. Hyderabad State became a princely state among the presidencies and provinces of British India.[19]

Telangana was the seat of numerous dynasties. Chowmahalla Palace was home to the nizams of Hyderabad.

Post-independence

When India became independent from the British Empire in 1947, the nizam of Hyderabad did not want to merge with the Indian Union and wanted to remain independent. The Government of India annexed Hyderabad State on 17 September 1948 after a military operation called Operation Polo.[15] It appointed a civil servant, M. K. Vellodi, as first chief minister of Hyderabad State on 26 January 1950.[20] He administered the state with the help of English-educated bureaucrats from the Madras and Bombay states, who were familiar with British systems of administration unlike the bureaucrats of Hyderabad state who used a completely different administrative system. The official language of the state was switched from Urdu to English.

In 1952, Dr. Burgula Ramakrishna Rao was elected chief minister of the Hyderabad State in its first democratic election. During this time, there were violent agitations by some Telanganites to send the Madras state bureaucrats back and implement a rule by the natives (mulkis) of Hyderabad.[21]

Telangana Rebellion

The Telangana Rebellion was a peasant revolt supported by the communists. It originated in the Telangana regions of the Hyderabad state between 1946 and 1951, led by the Communist Party of India (CPI).[22]

The revolt began in the Nalgonda district against the feudal lords of Reddy and Velama castes. It quickly spread to the Warangal and Bidar districts. Peasant farmers and labourers revolted against the local feudal landlords (jagirdars and deshmukhs) and later against the nizam Osman Ali Khan. The violent phase of the movement ended after the Government of India's Operation polo.[23] Starting in 1951, the CPI shifted to a more moderate strategy of seeking to bring communism to India within the framework of Indian democracy.[24]

States Reorganisation Commission

In December 1953, the Andhra State to form Andhra Pradesh.

Following this Gentlemen's agreement, the central government established the unified state of Andhra Pradesh on 1 November 1956.[27][28][29] G.O 553 of 1959 from the united Andra Pradesh state moved two revenue divisions of Bhadrachalam and Aswaraopeta from East Godavari to Khammam for administrative convenience.

Telangana movement

There have been several movements to revoke the merger of Telangana and Andhra, major ones occurring in 1969, 1972, and 2009. The movement for a new state of Telangana gained momentum over the decades.[30] On 9 December 2009 the Government of India announced the process of formation of the Telangana state. Violent protests led by people in the Coastal Andhra and Rayalseema regions occurred immediately after the announcement, and the decision was put on hold on 23 December 2009.

In 2009, the book "My Telugu Roots" was published by local author Nalamotu Chakravarthy, arguing strongly against the formation of a separate Telangana State, calling it "historically illegitimate, morally reprehensible, culturally ruinous, economically disastrous, and strategically suicidal".[31]

The movement continued in Hyderabad and other districts of Telangana.[32] There have been hundreds of claimed suicides,[33] strikes, protests and disturbances to public life demanding separate statehood.

Formation of Telangana state in 2014

On 30 July 2013, the Congress Working Committee unanimously passed a resolution to recommend the formation of a separate Telangana state. After various stages the bill was placed in the Parliament of India for the formation of Telangana state comprising ten districts from north-western Andhra Pradesh.[35] The bill received the assent of the President and published in the Gazette on 1 March 2014.[36]

The state of Telangana was officially formed on 2 June 2014. Kalvakuntla Chandrashekar Rao was elected as the first chief minister of Telangana, following elections in which the Telangana Rashtra Samiti party secured majority.[37] Hyderabad will remain as the joint capital of both Telangana and Andhra Pradesh for a period of 10 years.[38]

Geography

Andhra Pradesh and Telangana Topo Map

Telangana is situated on the Deccan Plateau, in the central stretch of the eastern seaboard of the Indian Peninsula. It covers 114,840 square kilometres (44,340 sq mi). The region is drained by two major rivers, with about 79% of the Godavari River catchment area and about 69% of the Krishna River catchment area, but most of the land is arid.[4] Telangana is also drained by several minor rivers such as the Bhima, the Manjira and the Musi.

At 965 m Doli Gutta is possibly the highest mountain peak in the state of Telangana since Chintoor and Vararamachandrapuram mandals of Khammam district[39]

The annual rainfall is between 900 to 1500 mm in northern Telangana and 700 to 900 mm in southern Telangana, from the southwest monsoons. Various soil types abound, including chalkas, red sandy soils, dubbas, deep red loamy soils, and very deep black cotton   soils that facilitate planting mangoes, oranges and flowers.[40]

Climate

Telangana is a semi-arid area and has a predominantly hot and dry climate. Summers start in March, and peak in May with average high temperatures in the 42 °C (108 °F) range. The monsoon arrives in June and lasts until September with about 755 mm (29.7 inches) of precipitation. A dry, mild winter starts in late November and lasts until early February with little humidity and average temperatures in the 22–23 °C (72–73 °F) range.

Telangana at the time of formation on June 02 2014

Ecology

The Central Deccan Plateau dry deciduous forests ecoregion covers much of the state, including Hyderabad. The characteristic vegetation is woodlands of Hardwickia binata and Albizia amara. Over 80% of the original forest cover has been cleared for agriculture, timber harvesting, or cattle grazing, but large blocks of forest can be found in Nagarjunsagar-Srisailam Tiger Reserve and elsewhere.[41] The more humid Eastern Highlands moist deciduous forests cover the Eastern Ghats in the eastern part of the state.

National Parks and Sanctuaries

Telangana has three National Parks: Kasu Brahmananda Reddy National Park in Hyderabad district, and Mahavir Harina Vanasthali National Park and Mrugavani National Park in Ranga Reddy district.

Wildlife Sanctuaries in Telangana include Eturunagaram Wildlife Sanctuary and Pakhal Wildlife Sanctuary in Warangal District, Kawal Tiger Reserve and Pranahita Wildlife Sanctuary in Adilabad district, Kinnerasani Wildlife Sanctuary in Khammam district, Manjira Wildlife Sanctuary in Medak district, Nagarjunsagar-Srisailam Tiger Reserve in Nalgonda and Mahbubnagar districts, Pocharam Wildlife Sanctuary in Medak and Nizamabad districts, Shivaram Wildlife Sanctuary in Karimnagar district.

Indian peafowl (Pavo cristatus) near Hyderabad
View of Bolders at Keesaragutta

Sacred groves are small areas of forest preserved by local people. Sacred groves provide sanctuary to the local flora and fauna. Some are included within other protected areas, like Kadalivanam in Nagarjunsagar-Srisailam Tiger Reserve, but most stand alone. There are 65 sacred groves Telangana – two in Adilabad district, thirteen in Hyderabad district, four in Karimnagar district, four in Khammam district, nine in Mahbubnagar district, four in Medak district, nine in Nalgonda district, ten in Ranga Reddy district, and three in Warangal district.[42]

Government and politics

Telangana is governed through a parliamentary system of representative democracy, a feature the state shares with other Indian states. Universal suffrage is granted to residents. There are three branches of government.

  1. Executive authority is vested in the Council of Ministers headed by the Chief Minister, although the titular head of government is the Governor. The Governor is the head of state appointed by the President of India. The leader of the party or coalition with a majority in the Legislative Assembly is appointed as the Chief Minister by the Governor, and the Council of Ministers are appointed by the Governor on the advice of the Chief Minister. The Council of Ministers reports to the Legislative Assembly.
  2. The legislature, the Telangana Legislative Assembly and the Telangana Legislative Council, consists of elected members and special office bearers such as the Speaker and Deputy Speaker, that are elected by the members. Assembly meetings are presided over by the Speaker or the Deputy Speaker in the Speaker's absence. The Assembly is bicameral with 119 Members of the Legislative Assembly and 40 Member of the Legislative Council. Terms of office run for 5 years, unless the Assembly is dissolved prior to the completion of the term. The Legislative Council is a permanent body with one-third members retiring every two years.
  3. The judiciary is composed of the High Court of Judicature at Hyderabad and a system of lower courts.

Auxiliary authorities known as panchayats, for which local body elections are regularly held, govern local affairs. The state contributes seats to Lok Sabha.

The main players in the regional politics are the Telangana Rashtra Samithi, Telugu Desam Party and Indian National Congress. Following the Telangana Legislative Assembly Election in 2014, the Telangana Rashtra Samithi under Kalvakuntla Chandrashekar Rao was elected to power.

Demographics

Religion in Telangana[43]
Religion Percent
Hinduism
  
85.09%
Islam
  
12.68%
Christianity
  
1.3%
Others
  
0.9%

According to the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme 2009–10, There are 9 backward districts (all except Hyderabad) from Telangana and the rest are from other regions.[44]

The religious makeup of Telangana is 86% Hindu, 12.4% Muslim, and 1.4% Christian, and 0.4% others.[45][46]

About 77% of the population of Telangana speak Telugu, 12% speak Urdu, and 13% speak other languages.[47][48] Before 1948, Urdu was the official language of Hyderabad State, and due to a lack of Telugu-language educational institutions, Urdu was the language of the educated elite of Telangana. After 1948, once Hyderabad State joined the new Republic of India, Telugu became the language of government, and as Telugu was introduced as the medium of instruction in schools and colleges, the use of Urdu among non-Muslims decreased.[49]

According to the 2011 census, Telangana's literacy rate is 67.22%.[50] Male literacy and female literacy are 75.6% and 58.77% respectively. Hyderabad district leading with 80.96% and Mahabubnagar district at the bottom with 56.06%.[51]

Economy

Coal Handling Ropeway near Aswapuram, Khammam district

The Economy of Telangana is mainly driven by agriculture. Two important rivers of India, the Godavari and Krishna, flow through the state, providing irrigation. Farmers in Telangana mainly depend on rain-fed water sources for irrigation. Rice is the major food crop. other important crops are cotton, sugar cane, mango and tobacco are the local crops. Recently, crops used for vegetable oil production such as sunflower and peanuts have gained favour. There are many multi-state irrigation projects in development, including Godavari River Basin Irrigation Projects and Nagarjuna Sagar Dam, the world's highest masonry dam.[52][53]

The state has also started to focus on the fields of information technology and biotechnology. Telangana is one of top IT exporting states of India. There are 68 Special Economic Zones in the state.[54]

Telangana is a mineral-rich state, with coal reserves at Singareni Colleries.[55]

Agriculture

Rice is the major food crop and staple food of the state. Other important crops are maize, tobacco, mango, cotton and sugar cane.[56] Agriculture has been the chief source of income for the state's economy. Important rivers of India, the Godavari, Krishna flow through the state, providing irrigation. Apart from major rivers, there are small rivers as Tunga Bhadra, Bima, Dindi, Kinnerasani, Manjeera, Manair, Penganga, Pranahitha, peddavagu and Taliperu.There are many multi-state irrigation projects in development, including Godavari River Basin Irrigation Projects and Nagarjuna Sagar Dam, the world's highest masonry dam.[57]

Agri Export Zones for the following produce are proposed at the places mentioned against them:

Industries

The HITEC City is a major IT hub of Hyderabad

Several major manufacturing and services industries are in operation mainly around Hyderabad. Automobiles and auto components industry, spices, mines and minerals, textiles and apparels, pharmaceutical, horticulture, poultry farming are the main industries in Telangana.[58] In terms of services, Hyderabad is usually nicknamed as Cyberabad due to its information technology foray and location of major software industries in the city.[59][60] Prior to secession, it contributed 15% to India's and 98% to Andhra Pradesh's exports in IT and ITES sectors last 2013[61] With Hyderabad as in the front line of Telangana's aims to promote information technology in India, the city boasts the HITEC City as its premier hub.

The state government is in the process of developing Industrial Parks at different places, for specific groups of industries. The existing parks are Software Park at Hyderabad, HITEC City for software units, Apparel Park at Gundlapochampalli, Export Promotion Park at Pashamylaram, Bio-technology park at Turkapally.

Hyderabad is also a major site for healthcare related industries including hospitals and pharmaceutical organizations such as Nizam's Institute of Medical Sciences, Apollo Hospitals, and Dr. Reddy's Laboratories. In addition, Hyderabad based healthcare non-profits include the Indian Heart Association, a cardiovascular disease NGO.[62]

Tourism

Telangana State Tourism Development Corporation (TSTDC) is a state government agency which promotes tourism in Telangana.[63] Telangana has a variety of tourist attractions including historical places, monuments, forts, water falls, forests and temples.

Infrastructure

Power

Ramagundam Thermal Power station in Karimnagar district

Hydel and thermal power projects in the state meets the power requirements of the State. Number of new power projects are coming up in the State which is expected to generate additional power capacity in the state.

Transport

The state is well connected with other states by means of road, rail and airways.

Roads

Hyderabad Outer Ring Road (Nehru ORR)

The Telangana State Road Transport Corporation (TSRTC) is the major public transport corporation that connects all the cities and villages.[64] Mahatma Gandhi Bus Station (M.G.B.S) in Hyderabad is one of the largest bus stand in Asia.[65][66] Jubilee Bus Station in Secunderabad serves inter city bus services. Asia's biggest Inter City Bus Terminal (ICBT) is being built in Miyapur (Hyderabad), which would house nearly 200 bus bays and for parking nearly 1,000 buses.[67]

Railways

Secunderabad railway station, a very busy railway junction in India and headquarters of South Central Railway

The history of railways in this region dates back to the time of nizam of Hyderabad in 1874.[68] It operates under the auspices of the South Central Railway founded in 1966. The landmark building Rail Nilayam in Secunderabad is the Zonal Headquarter office of South Central Railway. Secunderabad and Hyderabad are the main divisions of South Central Railway that fall in the state.[69]

Airports

Rajiv Gandhi International Airport at Shamshabad is an international airport serving the city of Hyderabad. It is the largest airport in the state and one of the busiest airports in the country. The government has plans to upgrade Warangal Airport, Nizamabad Airport[70] and Ramagundam Airport It also plans to construct airports in Karimnagar and Kothagudem.[71] Warangal has a domestic airport in Mamunooru which was established in the year 1930 during Nizam period. All the exports and imports of Azam Jahi Mills, Warangal were done through the Warangal Airport.

Culture

Telangana culture combines cultural customs from Persian traditions, embedded during rule of the region by the Moghuls, Qutub Shahis and Nizams, with prominent and predominantly south Indian traditions and customs. The State has a rich tradition in classical music, painting and folk arts such as Burra katha, shadow puppet show, and perini Shiva Tandavam, Gusadi Dance, Kolatam.

Monuments

Charminar, Golconda Fort, Qutb Shahi Tombs, Chowmahalla Palace, Falaknuma Palace, Birla Mandir and Bhongir Fort, Warangal Fort are some of the monuments in and around Hyderabad.

Religious tourism

Yadagirigutta Temple - a famous temple located in Nalgonda District, only 46 km from Hyderabad.

  • Keesaragutta Ramalingeshwara Swamy temple is very famous. Shivratri is very well celebrated every year.
  • Pillalamarri, an 800-year-old banyan tree located in Mahabubnagar.
  • Ramappa Temple with unbelievable architecture is located near Mulugu which is 70 km away from Warangal
  • Vemulawada - Sri Raja Rajeswara Swami temple is a very famous temple also called as Dakhshina (South) Kasi. This temple was built by

Chalukya kings between the 750 AD and 973 AD This town is very busy and visited by devotees from all over the state for the Shivratri festival every year. There are few other very old and historic temples in the town of Vemulawada, Karimnagar District.

Other religious places include, Medak Cathedral at Medak, Buddhist centres at Nelakondapalli, Dhulikatta Phanigiri and Kolanpaka.[72]

Waterfalls

Kuntala Waterfall located in Kuntala, Adilabad district, at 45 metres (148 ft), is the biggest in the state.

Bogatha Waterfall is waterfall located in Koyaveerapuram G, Wazeedu Mandal, Khammam district, Telangana. It is located 120 Km from Bhadrachalam, 140 km away from Warangal and 329Km from Hyderabad.

Savatula Gundam Waterfalls are one of the many waterfalls located in Adilabad district, Telangana, India. They are located 30 kilometres (19 mi) from Asifabad and 350 kilometres (220 mi) from Hyderabad, the state capital.

Education

Telangana has multiple institutes of higher education universities along with numerous primary and secondary schools.The state is home to a number of institutes, which impart higher education. The Department of Higher Education deals with matters relating to education at various levels in the State of telangana

NIT Warangal main gate

The Government has established Rajiv Gandhi University of Knowledge Technologies (RGUKT) in 2008 to cater to the educational needs of the gifted rural youth of Telangana.[73] The higher education includes many colleges, universities and research institutes providing professional education in the fields of arts, humanities, science, engineering, law, medicine, business, and veterinary sciences, with undergraduate and post graduation.

Sports

The Hyderabad cricket team is represented in the Ranji Trophy and had won twice. The Rajiv Gandhi International Cricket Stadium is the home ground of Hyderabad cricket team. It hosts international as well as domestic matches. The Sunrisers Hyderabad, an Indian Premier League franchise, is based in Hyderabad.

Notable sportspersons from the state are Mohammad Azharuddin, V. V. S. Laxman, Mithali Raj, Saina Nehwal, P.V. Sindhu, Jwala Gutta and Gagan Narang, as well as Sania Mirza who has been appointed as the "brand ambassador" of Telangana.

Other stadiums include Gachibowli Athletic Stadium and G. M. C. Balayogi Athletic Stadium.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c
  2. ^ Telangana State Portal
  3. ^
  4. ^ a b
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  8. ^
  9. ^ History of Kannada language: readership lectures, by R. Narasimhacharya
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  11. ^ "India Today • An encyclopedia of life in the Republic" • Vol. 1. Arnold P. Kaminsky and Roger D. Long, editors. ABC ‑ CLIO.
  12. ^ Sri Marana Markandeya Puranamu, ed.  G. V. Subrahmanyam, 1984, Andhra Pradesh Sahitya Academy, Hyderabad.
  13. ^ a b
  14. ^
  15. ^ a b c d
  16. ^ A Social History of the Deccan: 1300–1761, R. M. Eaton, 2005, Cambridge University Press, pp. 15–26, ISBN 0-521-25484-1
  17. ^ Telugu Vignana Sarvaswamu, volume 2, History, Telugu University, Hyderabad
  18. ^
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  21. ^
  22. ^
  23. ^
  24. ^
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  26. ^
  27. ^
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  31. ^ Chakravarthy, N. (2009), Anupama Printers, Hyderabad, ISBN 0-9842386-0-3
  32. ^
  33. ^
  34. ^
  35. ^
  36. ^
  37. ^
  38. ^ Amid chaos and slogans, Rajya Sabha clears Telangana bill – NDTV, 20 Feb 2014
  39. ^
  40. ^
  41. ^ Wikramanayake, Eric; Eric Dinerstein; Colby J. Loucks; et al. (2002). Terrestrial Ecoregions of the Indo-Pacific: a Conservation Assessment. Island Press; Washington, DC. pp. 324-326
  42. ^ Kailash C. Malhotra, Yogesh Gokhale, Sudipto Chatterjee, and Sanjeev Srivastava (2001). Cultural and Ecological Dimensions of Sacred Groves in India. Indian National Science Academy, New Delhi, and Indira Gandhi Rashtriya Manav Sangrahalaya, Bhopal. [1]
  43. ^
  44. ^
  45. ^
  46. ^
  47. ^
  48. ^
  49. ^  – People not interested in dividing Andra Pradesh. 
  50. ^
  51. ^
  52. ^
  53. ^
  54. ^
  55. ^
  56. ^
  57. ^
  58. ^
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  65. ^
  66. ^
  67. ^
  68. ^
  69. ^
  70. ^
  71. ^
  72. ^
  73. ^

Further reading

External links

  • Official Telangana Web site
  • Telangana Magazine
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