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The LORD

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The LORD

For other uses, see Lord (disambiguation).
"Lordship" redirects here. For other uses, see Lordship (disambiguation).

Lord is a deferential appellation[1] for a person or deity who has authority, control, or power over others; a master, chief, or ruler.[2][3] In only a few cases is "lord" a substantive title in itself, most commonly that of the Lord of the Manor and certain vestigial titles from the age of feudalism such as Lord of Mann, in other cases it is a generic term applied, for example, to persons who hold a title of the peerage or persons entitled to courtesy titles, or to refer to a group or body of peers.

Etymology

According to the Oxford Dictionary of English, the etymology of the word can be traced back to the Old English word hlāford which originated from hlāfweard meaning 'bread keeper' or 'loaf-ward', reflecting the Germanic tribal custom of a chieftain providing food for his followers.[4] The appellation "lord" is primarily applied to men, while for women the appellation of "lady" is used. However, this is not universal; the Lord of Mann, a title currently held by the Queen, and female Lord Mayors are examples of women who are styled lord. The word lady originates from a similar structure, believed to have originally meant 'loaf-kneader.'

Used as an intensifier

"Lord" may be used in conjunction with a substantive title to denote a superior holder of an otherwise generic title, in such combinations as "Lord Mayor" or "Lord Chief Justice", which mark out the holder as an official worthy of particular respect and of a higher status.

Feudalism

Main articles: Feudalism and English Feudal Baronies

Under the feudal system, lord has a wide, loose and varied meaning. An overlord was the person from whom a landholding or a manor was held by a mesne lord or vassal under various forms of feudal land tenure. The modern term "landlord" is a vestigial survival of this function. A liege lord was a person to whom a vassal owed sworn allegiance. Neither of these terms were titular dignities, rather factual appellations, which described the relationships of two persons within the highly stratified feudal social system. For example, a man might be lord of the manor to his own tenants but a vassal to his own overlord, who in turn was a vassal to the king. Where a knight was a lord of the manor, as was generally the case, he is referred to in contemporary documents as "John (Surname), knight, lord of (manor name)". A feudal baron was a true titular dignity, with the right originally to attend Parliament, yet even a feudal baron, lord of the manor of many manors, was a vassal to the king.

Peerage

Lord is used as a generic term to denote members of the peerage. Five ranks of peer exist in the United Kingdom, in descending order these are duke, marquess, earl, viscount, and baron. The appellation 'Lord' is used most often by barons who are rarely addressed by their formal and legal title of "Baron", a notable exception being during a baron's introduction into the House of Lords when he begins his oath by stating "I, Baron X...of Y...". The correct style is 'Lord (X)', for example, Alfred Tennyson, 1st Baron Tennyson, is commonly known as 'Lord Tennyson'. The ranks of marquess, earl and viscounts are commonly also addressed as lord. Dukes use the style 'Duke of (X)', and are not correctly referred to as 'Lord (X)'. Dukes are formally addressed as 'Your Grace', rather than 'My Lord'. In the Peerage of Scotland, the members of the lowest level of the peerage have the substantive title 'Lord of Parliament' rather than baron.

For senior members of the peerage, the appellation of lord is used as a courtesy title for some or all of their children; for example the younger sons of dukes and marquesses are entitled to use the style 'Lord (first name) (surname)'. The titles are courtesy titles, in that the holder is not deemed thereby to hold a peerage, and is a commoner, according to Law of the United Kingdom.

House of Lords

In the UK, the upper house of Parliament is officially termed the House of Peers, but is commonly called the House of Lords (or just 'The Lords'). The rank of baron is the most ancient degree of English nobility and a commoner who is raised directly to a high degree in the peerage, for example a former prime minister who becomes an Earl, is always created a baron at the same time, from historic precedent. Indeed the peerage was anciently termed the baronage before the higher degrees were created. Three different classifications exist:

  • Most peers who hold peerages created before the Life Peerages Act 1958 (and a few who hold peerages created thereafter) are hereditary peers, who until 1999 constituted the most numerous category of peers sitting in the House. There are in excess of 700 peers whose titles are heritable; however, since the House of Lords Act 1999, they are no longer guaranteed a seat in the Lords and instead must take part in an election for a total of ninety-two seats. All male members of the Peerage of England, Peerage of Great Britain and the Peerage of the United Kingdom were before 1999 entitled to sit in the House of Lords by virtue of their title. Peeresses were granted the right to sit by the Peerage Act 1963. Peers of Scotland and Ireland, however, historically had limitations on their right to sit in the British parliament. Between 1707 and 1963, Scottish peers participated in elections to determine which of them would take the sixteen seats allocated to them as a whole. Elections were abolished by the Peerage Act 1963, and from then until 1999 all Scottish peers and peeresses were entitled to sit. Irish peers participated in similar elections from 1801 until 1922, when the Irish Free State was established. Elections of Irish peers ceased in 1922; however, already-elected Irish representative peers remained entitled to sit until their deaths. The last Irish representative peer to die was Francis Needham, 4th Earl of Kilmorey, who died in 1961. Many Irish peers also hold peerages of Great Britain and the United Kingdom, which formerly entitled them to sit in the House (without the necessity of being elected a representative peer) until 1999.
  • The importance and legal significance of hereditary peers has declined steadily following the increase in the appointment of life peers. These latter peers are entitled to sit in the House of Lords for the duration of their lives, but their titles are not hereditable by their heirs. Life peerages can only be created in the rank of baron, although it is possible for a life peer concurrently to hold a hereditary peerage of higher rank. The first life peers were appointed to assist in exercising the judicial functions of the House of Lords under the Appellate Jurisdiction Act 1876. Widespread appointment of life peers was enabled by the Life Peerages Act 1958. Since that Act, about 1,086 life peers have been created. The only hereditary privilege associated with life peerages is that children of life peers are entitled to style themselves 'The Honourable (firstname) (surname)'.
  • These first two groups (hereditary and life peers) are termed collectively and officially Lords Temporal as opposed to the third type of deemed baron sitting in the House known as Lords Spiritual. This latter group consists of twenty-six Church of England bishops who are appointed in order of superiority. Unlike Lords Temporal, who can be appointed from any of the four constituent nations of the UK, only bishops with English Sees are eligible to sit in the Upper Chamber. Bishops of the Church of Scotland traditionally sat in the Parliament of Scotland but were excluded in 1638 following the Scottish Reformation. Bishops in the Church of Scotland no longer exist in the traditional sense of that word, and that Church has never sent members to sit in the House of Lords. The Church of Ireland ceased to send bishops to sit after Disestablishment of the Church of Ireland in 1871. The Church in Wales ceased to be a part of the Church of England in 1920 following Disestablishment of the Church in Wales. Accordingly, bishops of the Church in Wales were no longer eligible to be appointed to the House of Lords as bishops of the Church of England.

Judiciary

Until the creation of the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom (early 21st century), certain judges sat in the House of Lords by virtue of holding life peerages, and were addressed by the according peerage style. They were known collectively as the Law Lords. Those Law Lords who first held the office of Justice of the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom lost the right to sit and vote in the House of Lords, despite retaining their life peerages, upon creation of the Supreme Court. The appellation of 'Lord' is also used to refer to some judges who are not peers in some Commonwealth legal systems. Some such judges, for instance judges of the Court of Appeal of England and Wales, are called 'Lord Justices'. Other Commonwealth judges, for example judges of Canadian provincial supreme courts, are known only as 'Justices' but are addressed with deference in court as 'My Lord' or 'My Lady' or 'Your Lordship' or 'Your Ladyship'.

Examples of judges who use the appellation "lord" include:

  • Justices of the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom not holding peerages, who are addressed as if they were life peers by Royal Warrant.[5] Wives of male justices who are not peers are addressed as if they were wives of peers. These forms of address are applicable both in court and in social contexts.
  • Judges of the Court of Appeal of England and Wales, known as 'Lord Justices of Appeal'.
  • Judges of the Scottish Court of Session, known as 'Lords of Council and Session'.
  • Justices of the Canadian provincial Supreme Courts, addressed in Court as "My Lord" or "My Lady" and referred to in legal literature as "Lordships" or "Ladyships".
  • Judges of the Supreme Court of India and the High Courts of India, who are addressed as "My Lord" in court. The Bar Council of India however calls upon lawyers to give up this practice of addressing judges as 'lords'.

Lord of the Manor

The substantive title of "Lord of the Manor" came into use in the English medieval system of feudalism (or manorialism) following the Norman Conquest of 1066. The title "Lord of the Manor" is a titular feudal dignity which derived its force from the existence and operation of a manorial court or court baron at which he himself or his steward presided. To the tenants of a manor their lord was a man who commanded on occasion the power of exercising capital punishment over them. The term invariably used in contemporary mediaeval documents is simply "lord of X", X being the name of the manor. The term "Lord of the Manor" is a recent usage of historians to distinguish such lords from feudal barons and other powerful persons referred to in ancient documents variously as "Sire" (mediaeval French), "Dominus" (Latin), "Lord" etc. The title of "Lord of the Manor" is recognised by the British Government, in the form of the Her Majesty's Land Registry, as one of three elements of a manor that can affect Land Registry.[6] Modern legal cases have been won by persons claiming rights as lords of the manor over village greens. The heads of many ancient English land-owning families have continued to be lords of the manor of lands they have inherited. The UK Identity and Passport Service will include such titles on a British passport as an "observation" e.g. 'The Holder is the Lord of the Manor of X' provided the holder can provide documentary evidence of ownership.[7] as will Passport Canada. The United States [8] and Australia,[9] however, forbid the use of all titles on passports.

Laird

The Scottish title Laird is a shortened form of 'laverd' which is an old Scottish word deriving from an Anglo-Saxon term meaning 'Lord' and is also derived from the middle English word 'Lard' also meaning 'Lord'. 'Laird' is a hereditary title for the owner of a landed estate in the United Kingdom and is a title of gentry. The title of Laird may carry certain local or feudal rights, although unlike a Scottish Lordship of Parliament, a Lairdship has not always carried voting rights, either in the historic Parliament of Scotland or, after unification with the Kingdom of England, in the British House of Lords.

Other

Various other high offices of state in the United Kingdom, Commonwealth and Republic of Ireland are prefixed with the deferential appellation of "lord" such as Lord Chancellor, Lord Privy Seal, Lord President of the Council and Lord Mayor. Holders of these offices are not ex officio peers, although the holders of some of the offices were in the past always peers.

Non-English equivalents

In most cultures in Europe an equivalent appellation denoting deference exists. The French term Mon Seigneur ("My Lord"), shortened to the modern French Monsieur derives directly from the Latin seniorem, meaning "elder, senior".[10] From this Latin source derived directly also the Italian Signore, the Spanish Señor, the Portuguese Senhor. Non-romance languages have their own equivalents: Dutch Meneer/Mijnheer/De Heer (as in: aan de heer Joren Jansen), German Herr, Danish Herre, Hungarian Úr, Greek Kyrie or to the Polish Pan.

Religion

"Lord" is used as a title of deference for various gods or deities. The earliest recorded use of Lord in the English language in a religious context was by English Bible translators such as Bede. It was widely used in the King James Bible translated in the 17th century, see also Jesus is Lord.

See also

References

fr:Seigneurie#Le seigneur
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