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Timeline of Indian history

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Timeline of Indian history

This is a timeline of Indian history, comprising important legal and territorial changes and political events in India and its predecessor states. To read about the background to these events, see History of India. See also the list of Governors-General of India, list of Prime Ministers of India and Years in India.

Millennia 500th BCE · 9th BCE · 5th BCE · 4th BCE · 3rd BCE · 2nd BCE · 1st BCE · 1st · 2nd · 3rd
Centuries BC 5000th · 90th · 75th · 70th · 45th · 43rd · 40th · 37th · 35th · 34th · 33rd · 32nd · 31st · 30th · 29th · 28th · 27th · 26th · 25th · 24th · 23rd · 22nd · 21st · 20th · 19th · 18th · 17th · 16th · 15th · 14th · 13th · 12th · 11th · 10th · 9th · 8th · 7th · 6th · 5th · 5th · 4th · 3rd · 2nd · 1st
AD 1st · 2nd · 3rd · 4th · 5th · 6th · 7th · 8th · 9th · 10th · 11th · 12th · 13th · 14th · 15th · 16th · 17th · 18th · 19th · 20th · 21st

Pre 90th century BC

Year Date Event
2,000,000 - 100,000 BC
A skull fragment found in Hathnora in the Narmada Valley in central India indicate that India might have been inhabited in the Middle Pleistocene era around 250,000 years ago. Anek R. Sankhyan describes it as "debated and conveniently interpreted as “evolved” Homo erectus or “archaic”.[1] Tools crafted by proto-humans that have been dated back two million years have been discovered in the northwestern part of the subcontinent.[2][3] The earliest archaeological site in the subcontinent is the palaeolithic hominid site in the Soan River valley.[4] Soanian sites are found in the Sivalik region across what are now India, Pakistan, and Nepal.[5][6][7] Some of the Bhimbetka shelters were inhabited by Homo erectus more than 100,000 years ago.[8][9]

90th century BC

Year Date Event
9000 BC
Early Neolithic culture with first confirmed semi permanent settlements appeared 9,000 years ago in the Bhimbetka rock shelters in modern Madhya Pradesh, India. Some of the Stone Age rock paintings found among the Bhimbetka rock shelters are approximately 30,000 years old.[10] The ancient history of the region includes some of South Asia's oldest settlements[11] and some of its major civilisations.[12][13]

75th century BC

Year Date Event
7500 BC
Early Neolithic culture begins in the Indian Subcontinent in Bhirrana in Haryana.

70th century BC

Year Date Event
7000 BC
Later Neolithic culture begins in Mehrgarh currently in Balochistan, Pakistan.

40th century BC

37th century BC

35th century BC

Year Date Event
3300 BC Ivan Daniel D. Rollan phase of the Indus Valley Civilization begins. The civilization used an early form of the Indus signs, the so-called Indus script.

27th century BC

Year Date Event
2600 BC The cities of Harappa and Mohenjo-daro become large metropolises and the civilization expands to over 2,500 cities and settlements across the whole of Pakistan, much of northern India, and parts of Afghanistan and Iran, covering a region of around one million square miles, which was larger than the land area of its contemporaries Egypt and Mesopotamia combined, and also had superior urban planning and sewage systems. The civilization began using the mature Indus script for its writing system.
2600 BC End of the Early Dynastic II Period and the beginning of the Early Dynastic IIIa Period in Mesopotamia.
2700 BC Mesoamericans begin to plant and domesticate corn.
2900 BC – 2334 BC Mesopotamian wars of the Early Dynastic period.

26th century BC

Year Date Event
2600 BC Mature Harappan phase of the Indus Valley Civilization begins. The cities of Harappa, Lothal, Kalibangan, Dholavira, Rakhigarhi and Mohenjo-daro become large metropolises and the civilization expands to over 2,500 cities and settlements. The civilization began using the mature Indus script

25th century BC

Year Date Event
2500 BC
Dravidian Civilization begins in South India.

24th century BC

23rd century BC

22nd century BC

19th century BC

Year Date Event
1900 BC Late Harappan Phase of the Indus Valley Civilization begins, including Cemetery H culture and other cultures.

18th century BC

Year Date Event
1800 BC Iron Age in India.
1750 BC Nomadic shepherds, the Aryans, enter India from Central Asia and the Russian steppes.

17th century BC

Year Date Event
1700 BC Indus Valley Civilization comes to an end but is continued by the Cemetery H culture.

16th century BC

15th century BC

Year Date Event
1500 BC Early Vedic Period (to 1000 BC)

13th century BC

Year Date Event
1300 BC Cemetery H culture comes to an end

12th century BC

Year Date Event
1200 BC Rigveda (to 1000 BC)

11th century BC

10th century BC

Year Date Event
1000 BC Middle and Late Vedic period (to 500 BC)
Iron Age India
Iron Age kingdoms rule India— Panchala, Kuru, Kosala, Videha.
910 BC Yajnavalkya writes the Shatapatha Brahmana, in which he describes the motions of the sun and the moon.

9th century BC

Year Date Event
877 BC Birth of Parsvanatha, 23rd Jain Tirthankara (traditional date)

8th century BC

Year Date Event
777 BC Nirvana of Parsvanatha 23rd Jain Tirthankara

7th century BC

Year Date Event
700 BC The Upanishads, a sacred text of Hinduism, are written.

6th century BC

Year Date Event
600 BC Sixteen Maha Janapadas ("Great Realms" or "Great Kingdoms") emerge.
Vedic End of vedic period.
539 BC Mahavira, 24th Tirthankar of Jainism is born (traditional date).
563 BC Siddhārtha Gautama, Buddha-to-be, is born in Lumbini into a leading royal family in the republic of the Shakyas, which is now part of Nepal.
538 BC Cyrus the Great, founder of the Persian Achaemenid Empire conquers northwestern parts of the Indian subcontinent.
527 BC Nirvana of Mahavira

5th century BC

Year Date Event
483 BC Proposed Mahaparinirvana date of Gautama Buddha.

4th century BC

Year Date Event
400 BC Siddharta Gautama 'Buddha' of the Shakya polity in S. Nepal, founds Buddhism (older date: 563–483 BC)
350 BC Panini, a resident of Gandhara, describes the grammar and morphology of Sanskrit in the text Ashtadhyayi. Panini's standardized Sanskrit is known as Classical Sanskrit.
333 BC Persian rule in the northwest ends after Darius III is defeated by Alexander the Great, who establishes the Macedonian Empire after inheriting the Persian Achaemenid Empire.
326 BC Ambhi king of Takshasheela surrenders to Alexander.
Porus who ruled parts of the Punjab, fought Alexander at the Battle of the Hydaspes River.
321 BC Mauryan Empire is founded by Chandragupta Maurya in Magadha after he defeats the Nanda dynasty and Macedonian Seleucid Empire. Mauryan capital city is Pataliputra (Modern Patna in Bihar)
305 BC Chandragupta Maurya defeats Seleucus Nicator of the Seleucid Empire.
304 BC Seleucus gives up his territories in the subcontinent (Afghanistan/Baluchistan) to Chandragupta in exchange for 500 elephants. Seleucus offers his daughter in marriage to Chandragupta to seal their friendship.

3rd century BC

Year Date Event
273 BC Ashoka the Great regarded as the greatest ancient Indian emperor, grandson of Chandragupta Maurya, ascends as emperor of the Mauryan Empire.
266 BC Ashoka conquers and unifies most of South Asia, along with Afghanistan and eastern Iran.
265 BC Kalinga War takes place between Ashoka and the kingdom of Kalinga.
After conquering Kalinga, Ashoka reportedly regrets what he had done, leading him to adopt Buddhism, which then became the quasi-official state religion of the Mauryan Empire.
261 BC Conquest of Kalinga
260 BC Ashoka begins displaying religious tolerance, grants animal rights, builds hospitals for people and animals, treats his subjects as equals regardless of caste or creed, and promotes non-violence and republicanism.
Ashoka inscribes the Edicts of Ashoka, written down using Brahmi script.
232 BC Ashoka dies and is succeeded by Kunala.
230 BC Simuka declares independence from Mauryan rule and establishes the Satavahana Empire.

2nd century BC

Year Date Event
200 BC Kuninda Kingdom is established.
Tholkappiyam describes the grammar and morphology of Tamil; it is the oldest existing Tamil grammar (dates vary between 200 BCE and 100 CE). (to 100 BC)
184 BC The Mauryan Empire, which shrunk considerably, collapses after its emperor Brihadrata is assassinated by his general Pushyamitra Sunga. Pushyamitra Sunga then establishes the Sunga dynasty.
180 BC Establishment of the Indo-Greek kingdom.

1st century BC

Year Date Event
80 BC Establishment of the Indo-Scythian kingdom.
65 BC The Pandyan king sends ambassadors to the Greek and Roman lands.
57 BC Beginning of Vikram Era

1st century

Year Date Event
10 Establishment of the Indo-Parthian kingdom.
35 Western Satraps formed.
52 Saint Thomas the Apostle reached Muziris and baptized people known as Saint Thomas Christians.
68 Establishment of the Kushan empire by Kujula Kadphises.
78 Gautamiputra Satkarni becomes Satavahana emperor and starts Shalivahana era calendar after defeating Scythian king Maues.
90 Sung jae has established kingdom.

3rd century

Year Date Event
240 Sri-Gupta starts the Gupta Empire in Magadha, with its capital in Pataliputra

4th century

Year Date Event
320 Chandragupta I ascends the Gupta throne.
335 Samudragupta ascends the Gupta throne and expands the empire.
380 Chandragupta II, Samudragupta's son becomes the Gupta Emperor.

5th century

Year Date Event
450 Invasions by the Huna.

6th century

Year Date Event
554 Collapse of Gupta Empire after the death of skandagupta.

7th century

Year Date Event
606 Harshavardhana crowned Monarch.
637 Badami Chalukya power at its peak. Pulakeshin II pushes north up to the Narmada and defeats the invading Harshavardhana of Kanauj

8th century

Year Date Event
700 According to the Qissa-i Sanjan, the immigrants Parsi are granted permission to stay by the local ruler Jadi Rana
712 First Muslim, Muhammad Bin Qasim defeats Raja Dahir
736 Delhi is re-established by Bilan Deo Tomar also known as Anangpal Tomar
753 Establishment of Rashtrakuta Kingdom of Manyakhet by Danti Durga by defeating Chalukyas of Badami
788 Birth of Adi Shankaracharya

9th century

Year Date Event
814 Nripatunga Amoghavarsha I becomes Rashtrakuta emperor. Kannada literature flourishes.
836 Gurjara-Pratihara (to 910)
985 Rajaraja Chola ascends to the throne of Chola empire. He expands the empire to Srilanka and to the north to include Kalinga kingdom

10th century

Year Date Event
1000 Invasion of Mahmud of Ghazni

11th century

Year Date Event
1014 Rajendra Chola I became the king of Chola empire after his father Rajaraja Chola. During his reign, he extended the influences of the already vast Chola empire up to the banks of the river Ganges in the north and across the ocean. Rajendra’s territories extended coastal Burma, the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Lakshadweep, Maldives, conquered the kings of Srivijaya (Sumatra, Java and Malay Peninsula in South East Asia) and Pegu islands with his fleet of ships. He defeated Mahipala, the Pala king of Bengal and Bihar, and to commemorate his victory he built a new capital called Gangaikonda Cholapuram. The Cholas became one of the most powerful dynasties in Asia during his reign. The Tamil Chola armies exacted tribute from Thailand and the Khmer kingdom of Cambodia. Rajendra Chola I was the first Indian king to take his armies overseas and make conquests of these territories, even though there is epigraphical evidence of Pallava presence in these very areas.
1021 Mahmud Ghazni defeats Tarnochalpal and annexes Punjab
1025 Last invasion of Mahmud Ghazni, sacked and destroyed temple of Somnath
1030 Alberuni arrives in India; death of Mahmud of Ghazni
1058 Sumra Dynasty ends the Arab domination and establishes its own rule over Sindh.

12th century

Year Date Event
1120 Kalyani Chalukyas power at its peak. Vikramaditya VI ushers in Vikrama Chalukya era.
1134 Life of Basaveshwara, philosopher and social reformer. (to 1196)
1157 The Kalachuris under Bijjala II capture Kalyani
1190 Mohammed Ghauri invades India.
1191 "Victory of Prithviraj Chauhan". First battle of Tarain between Mohammed Ghori and Prithviraj III. Ghauri is defeated by Prithivi Raj Chauhan III.
1192 "Victory of Mohammed Ghauri". Second battle of Tarain fought between Ghauri and Prithivi Raj Chauhan III. Prithvi Raj Chauhan III is defeated by Mhammed Ghori.
1194 Battle of Chandawar fought between Ghauri and Jaichand of Kannauj. Ghauri defeated Jayachandra and killed him.

13th century

Year Date Event
1206 15 March Gakhars kills Muhammad Ghori during a raid on his camp on the Jhelum River
1206 12 June Qutb-ud-din Aibak establishes Ghulam Dynasty later to be known as Delhi Sultanate
1210 Qutb-ud-din Aibak died while playing polo.
1221 Genghis Khan invades Punjab
1237 Sri Madhwaharya born in Pajaka near Udupi, Karnataka
1240 14 October Murder of Razia Sultan by Turkish nobles.
1267 The Mahanubhava philosophy established by Chakradhar Swami.
1275 Birth of Saint Dyaneshwara.
1290 Murder of Muiz ud din Qaiqabad.

14th century

Year Date Event
1310 Ala-ud-din Khalji's army under Malik Kafur occupies Devagiri ending the Seuna Yadava Kingdom
1323 Ulugh Khan defeats Prataparudra ending the Kakatiya dynasty
1336 Vijayanagara Empire established by Harihara I and his brother Bukka Raya I
1343 Veera Ballala III was killed at the Battle of Madurai.
1347 Governor Hasan Gangu revolts against Muhammad bin Tughluq founding the Bahmani Sultanate
1351 Samma Dynasty assumes rule over Sindh
1370 Bukka, the Vijayanagara ruler and his son Kumara Kamapna capture the entire Tamil speaking parts.
1398 Timur plunders Lahore

15th century

Year Date Event
1401 Dilawar Khan establishes the Malwa Sultanate in present-day northern India
1407 Zafar Khan: governor of Gujarat, declares himself as Sultan Muzaffar Shah founding the Gujarat Sultanate/Muzaffarid dynasty
1414 Khizr Khan, deputized by Timur to be the governor of Multan takes over Delhi founding the Sayyid dynasty
1424 Deva Raya II succeeded his father Veera Vijaya Bukka Raya as monarch of the Vijayanagara Empire
1443 Abdur Razzaq visits India
1446 Mallikarjuna Raya succeeds his father Deva Raya II
1451 19 April Bahlul Khan Lodhi ascends the throne of the Delhi sultanate starting the Lodhi dynasty
1469 15 April Guru Nanak, the founder of Sikhism is born
1483 14 February Birth of Babur in Andijan, Fergana Valley in Central Asia
1485 Saluva Narasimha Deva Raya drives out Praudha Raya ending the Sangama Dynasty
1486 Advent of Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, founder of Gaudiya Vaishnavism and leader of the world's first civil disobedience movement, in Navadwip, West Bengal
1490 Ahmadnagar declares independence, followed by Bijapur and Berar in the same year thus breaking up the Bahmani Sultanate.
1498 20 May Vasco de Gama's first voyage from Europe to India and back (to 1499)

16th century

Year Date Event
1503 Kingdom of Kochi is taken over by the Portuguese creating the first European settlement in India.
1508 The Christian-Islamic power struggle in Europe and the Middle East. Spills over into the Indian Ocean as Battle of Chaul during the Portuguese-Mamluk War
1509 3 February Battle of Diu marks the beginning of the dominance of the Europeans in the Asian naval theater.
1510 Portuguese India (to 1961)
1522 Portuguese land on the Coromandel Coast
1526 21 April Sultan Ibrahim Lodi, of the Delhi Sultanate, angers local nobles, who respond by inviting Babur, the Mughal ruler of Kabul, to invade Delhi and Agra. The local population, plus the possession of artillery, assists Babur in killing the Sultan (whose soldiers desert him) at the Battle of Panipat.
1527 17 March Babur bribes Mewar general Silhadi promising Silhadi a kingdom, if Silhadi betrays Mewar King Rana Sanga in Battle of Khanwa, thus leading to the annexation of Mewar.
1530 Babur completes his Baburnama, reflecting on society, politics, economics, history, geography, nature, flora and fauna, which to this day is a standard textbook in 25 countries. Babur dies, and is succeeded by his son Humayun.
1539 Battle of Chausa fought between Humayun and Sher Shah Suri in which Humayun defeated.
Guru Angad Dev becomes second guru of Sikhs.
1540 Battle of Kannauj fought between Humayun and Sher Shah Suri and Humayun was completely defeated. Humayun lost the Mughal empire to Afghans (Suri Dynasty), and passed 12 years in exile.
Birth of Maharana Pratap Singh of Mewar ( son of Maharana Udai Singh II )
1545 22 May Death of Sher Shah Suri and succeeded by Islam Shah Suri.
1552 26 March Guru Amar Das becomes third Guru of Sikhs.
1554 22 November Death of Islam Shah Suri.
1555 Humayun regained the throne of Delhi from the hands of weak successors of Sher Shah.
1556 Humayun converts from Sunni Islam to Shia Islam, to gain the alliance of the Shah of Persia. Humayun dies, and is succeeded by his son Akbar.
Hindu king Hemu establishes 'Hindu Raj' in North India and bestowed with title of "Samrat Hem Chandra Vikramaditya"; Second Battle of Panipat fought between Hemu and Akbar's forces in which Hemu is killed.
1565 26 January Battle of Talikota results in the rout of Vijayanagara empire.
1572 Akbar the Great annexes Gujarat, also shifts the Mughal capital to Fatehpur Sikri where a new township and citadel containing buildings of a unique all-India character—inspired by the architecture of Bengal, Gujarat, Malwa, Kashmir as well as the Timurid world—is born.
1574 1 September Guru Ram Das becomes fourth Guru of Sikhs.
Akbar annexes Bengal.
1581 1 September Guru Arjan Dev becomes fifth Guru of Sikhs.
1586 Akbar annexes Kashmir.
1600 31 December East India company is formed in England. Gets exclusive trading rights with India.

17th century

Year Date Event
1605 27 October Akbar dies, and is succeeded by his son Jahangir.
1606 25 May Guru Hargobind becomes sixth guru of Sikhs.
1612 30 November British India (to 1947)
East India Company (to 1757)
1628 Jehangir announces "Chain of Justice" outside his palace that anyone can ring the bell and get a personal hearing with the emperor. Jehangir dies, and is succeeded by his son Shah Jahan.
1630 February Birth of Chatrapati Shivaji Maharaj.
1644 8 March Guru Har Rai becomes seventh guru of Sikhs
Shivaji takes oath of Independence at Raireshwar.
1658 Shah Jahan completes Taj Mahal, Jama Masjid, and Red Fort. Imperial treasuries drained by architectural and military overexpenditures. Shah Jahan dies, and is succeeded by his son Aurangzeb.
1659 Shivaji's ill-equipped and small Maratha army defeat mighty Adilshahi troops at the Battle of Pratapgarh in a major upset in Indian history. Shivaji personally kills Adilshahi commander Afzal Khan (general).
1661 6 October Guru Har Krishan becomes eight guru of Sikhs.
1665 20 March Guru Tegh Bahadur becomes ninth Guru of Sikhs.
1674 Forces led by Shivaji defeat Aurangzeb's troops, and establishes Maratha Empire.
1675 Guru Tegh Bahadur, the ninth Guru of Sikhs is executed in Delhi by the order of Aurangzeb for his support for the Kashmiri Hindus to practice their religion.Guru Gobind Singh becomes tenth Guru of Sikhs.
1680 3 April Shivaji dies of fever at Raigad.
20 July Sambhaji becomes 2nd Chhatrapati of the Maratha Empire
1681 Aurangzeb invades the Deccan
1689 11 March Chatrapati Sambhaji Maharaj dies.
1696 20 November Danish India (to 1869)
1699 Guru Gobind Singh, the 10th Guru of Sikhs creates Khalsa, the saint-soldier at Anandpur Sahib, Punjab.
1700 3 March Rajaram Chhatrapati dies

18th century

Year Date Event
1705 Mughal army arrested for the act.
1707 3 March Death of Aurangzeb the mughal emperor.
1708 7 October Guru Granth Sahib becomes Guru of Sikhs.
1721 March - October Attingal Outbreak takes place
13–14 November Madras cyclone occurs
1749 The Maratha Peshwa (prime minister) usurps the Maratha kingdom, starting a new dynastic rule based in Pune.
1757 Battle of Plassey
Company rule in India (to 1858)
1759 French India (to 1954)
1760 Marathas comprehensively defeat the Nizam, Maratha Empire reaches its zenith.
1761 The Marathas are routed in the Third Battle of Panipat on 14 January 1761, by the Afghans led by Ahmad Shah Durrani, an ethnic Pashtun, also known as Ahmad Shah Abdali. The battle is considered one of the largest battles fought in the 18th century.
1764 22 October Battle of Buxar (British victory against allied Mughal, Bengal and Oudh forces)
1765 12 August Princely states (to 15 August 1947)
1767 First Anglo-Mysore War begins, in which Haidar Ali of Mysore defeats the combined armies of the East India Company, the Marathas and the Nizam of Hyderabad.
1771 Marathas re-captures Delhi and parts of North India.
1772 14 August Ram Mohan Roy Born (to 1833)
1773 Narayanrao Peshwa is murdered by his uncle Raghunathrao's wife in front of Raghunathrao.
Regulating Act of 1773
Warren Hastings appointed as first Governor-General of India
1774 Chief Justice of the Maratha Empire, Ram Shastri passes death sentence against the ruling Peshwa Raghunathrao for murdering his nephew.
1775 First Anglo-Maratha War
1779 Maratha sardar Mahadji Shinde routs the East India Company army at the Battle of Wadgaon War ends with the restoration of status quo as per Treaty of Salbai.
1780 Second Anglo-Mysore War begins.
1784 Second Anglo-Mysore War ends with the Treaty of Mangalore.
1786 District collectors in Bengal were made responsible for settling the revenue and collecting it.
1789 Third Anglo-Mysore War begins.
1790 The Marathas under Holkar and General de Boigne defeat the Rajputs of Jaipur and Mughals at the Battle of Patan, where 3000+ Rajput cavalry is killed and the entire Mughal unit vanquished. The defeat crushes Rajput hope of independence from external influence
1792 Third Anglo-Mysore War ends.
1795 13 August Death of Ahilyabai Holkar
1796 Ching-Thang Khomba moves Manipur's capital to Kangla
1798 Fourth Anglo-Mysore War begins.
1799 Fourth Anglo-Mysore War ends with the death of Tipu Sultan, the victory of the East India Company, and the restoration of their ally, the Wodeyar dynasty of Mysore.
Polygar War
1800 13 March Death of Nana Fadnavis

19th century

Year Date Event
1801 Maharaja Ranjit Singh establishes Khalsa rule of Punjab from Lahore. Khalsa army liberates Kashmiri Pundits and invades Afghanistan through Khyber Pass.
1803 Second Anglo-Maratha War begins
1805 Second Anglo-Maratha War ends
1806 Vellore Mutiny
1809 East India Company signs the first Treaty of Amritsar with Ranjit Singh
1811 28 October Death of Yashwantrao Holkar
1814 "Atmiya Sabha" Established Later on known as "Prarthana Samaj" By Raja Ram Mohan Roy
1817 Third Anglo-Maratha War begins Establishment of Hindu College (Presidency College, now Presidency University, Kolkata)
1818 Third Anglo-Maratha War ends with the defeat of Bajirao II and the end of the Maratha Empire leaving the East India Company with control of almost the whole of India
1820 September Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar is born (to 1891)
1823 Anglo–Burmese Wars (to 1826)
1824 12 February Dayananda Saraswati is born (to 1883)
1826 British rule in Burma (to 1947)
1836 Sri Ramakrishna Paramhansa is born (to 1886)
1839 First Anglo-Afghan War
1845 First Anglo-Sikh Wars (to 1849)
4 November Vasudev Balwant Phadke is born (to 1883)
1853 Started Post Service
1853 16 April First Railway estalblished between Bombay and Thane
1855 30 June Santhal rebellion
1856 25 July Hindu Widows' Remarriage Act, 1856
23 July Bal Gangadhar Tilak is born (to 1920)
20 August Narayana Guru is born (to 1928)
1857 10 May Indian Rebellion of 1857
Established first three University of Mumbai, University of Madras and University of Calcutta in India
1858 1 November British Raj (to 1947)
7 November Bipin Chandra Pal is born (to 1932)
1859 18 April Death of Tatya Tope
1861 7 May Rabindranath Tagore is born.
1863 12 January Swami Vivekanand is born (to 1902)
1865 28 January Lala Lajpat Rai is born (to 1928)
1867 "Prarthana Samaj" Established Earlier known as "Atmiya Sabha"
1869 2 October Mahatma Gandhi is born (to 30 January 1948) Thakkar Bapa is Born (to 1951)
1875 "Arya Samaj" Established
Aligarh Muslim University
Deccan Riots
1877 1 January Delhi Durbar First time
1885 28 December Indian National Congress Established[14]
1889 3 December Khudiram Bose is born (to 1908)
1891 14 April B. R. Ambedkar is born (to 1956)
1897 23 January Subhas Chandra Bose is born (to 1945)1st finger print bureau of India est in kolkata.

20th century

Year Date Event
1902 Anushilan Samiti, organized revolutionary association formed.
1903 British Expedition to Tibet
Delhi Durbar Second Time.
1905 16 October Partition of Bengal
1906 Jugantar formed.
30 December Muslim League formed in Dacca.
1908 Alipore bomb case
1909 Morley-Minto Reforms
1911 Cancellation of Partition of Bengal
Delhi Durbar Third Time
1911 12 December British government change capital city from Calcutta to Delhi.[15]
1912 Delhi conspiracy case
1913 Gadar Party formed.
Rabindranath Tagore won Nobel Prize in Literature
1914 Hindu–German Conspiracy
1915 Ghadar conspiracy
Provisional Government of India formed in Kabul.
Mahatma Gandhi returns to India.
1916 Lucknow Pact
1917 Champaran and Kheda Satyagraha
1919 Jallianwala Bagh massacre
Montagu–Chelmsford Reforms
Rowlatt Act is passed
1920 Non-cooperation movement Khilafat Movement
1922 5 February Chauri Chaura incident
1924 Hindustan Socialist Republican Association is formed
1925 9 August Kakori conspiracy
1927 November Simon Commission
1928 Bardoli Satyagraha
1929 Central Assembly Bombed by Bhagat Singh and Batukeshwar Dutt.
Purna Swaraj resolution.
1930 Salt Satyagraha, the civil disobedience movement, begins with the Dandi march
Round Table Conferences (India) First
1931 March Gandhi–Irwin Pact
23 March Bhagat Singh, Rajguru and Sukhdev Martyred
September–December Round Table Conferences (India) Second
1932 24 September Poona Pact
4 August Communal Award
November–December Round Table Conferences (India) Third
1935 August Government of India Act 1935
1937 Indian provincial elections, 1937
1939 All India Forward Bloc Established by Subhas Chandra Bose
1940 23 March Lahore Resolution
8 August August offer 1940
1942 Quit India Movement
Late March Cripps' mission
August Indian National Army Established by Subhas Chandra Bose
1943 Arzi Hukumat-e-Azad Hind, the Provisional Government of Free India formed by Netaji.
1944 Subhas Chandra Bose calls Mahatma Gandhi as the Father of the Nation.
1945 Wavell Plan Simla Conference.
1946 February Royal Indian Navy Mutiny
March Cabinet Mission
16 August Direct Action Day/Great Calcutta Killings
1947 July Indian Independence Act 1947 by British Raj.
Partition of India and Pakistan becomes an independent state on 14 August 1947.[14]
Freedom from British Raj.
Hundreds of thousands die in widespread communal bloodshed after partition. (to 1948)
1948 30 January Mahatma Gandhi assassinated by a right wing Hindu nationalist Nathuram Godse.
War with Pakistan over disputed territory of Kashmir.
Telangana and other princely states integrated in Indian union
1950 26 January India became Republic.
1951 Congress Party wins first general elections under leadership of Jawaharlal Nehru. (to 1952)
1962 war over disputed territory of Kashmir [14] with China.
India won Diu, Daman and Goa from Portuguese India.
1964 27 May Death of Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru.
1965 6–23 September Second war with Pakistan over Kashmir.
1966 Nehru's daughter Indira Gandhi becomes prime minister.
1971 Third war with Pakistan over creation of Bangladesh, formerly East Pakistan.
Twenty-year treaty of friendship signed with Soviet Union.
1974 India explodes first nuclear device in underground test.
1975 Indira Gandhi declares state of emergency after being found guilty of electoral malpractice.
Nearly 1,000 political opponents imprisoned and programme of compulsory birth control introduced. (to 1977)
1977 Indira Gandhi's Congress Party loses general elections. Janata Party comes to power.Communist party of India comes into power in West Bengal.
1979 Janata Party Splits. Chaudhary Charan Singh becomes Prime Minister.
1980 Indira Gandhi returns to power heading Congress party splinter group, Congress (Indira).
1983 N. T. Rama Rao NTR's 9 month old Telugu Desam Comes in to Power in AP marks a new Challenger post Loknayak Jayprakash Narayan against Indira
1984 Troops storm Golden Temple - Sikhs' most holy shrine - to flush out Sikh militants pressing for self-rule, called Operation Blue Star. "Anti-Sikh Riots 1984".
Indira Gandhi assassinated by Sikh bodyguards, following which her son, Rajiv, takes over.
Many Sikhs were killed due to the assassination of Indira Gandhi, and the government did not do anything. see 1984 anti-Sikh riots.
1987 India deploys troops for peacekeeping operation in Sri Lanka's ethnic conflict.
1989 Falling public support leads to Congress defeat in general election.
1989 National Front (India) Headed by N. T. Rama Rao and led by Janata party formed and stormed into power with outside support from BJP and CPI.
1990 Muslim separatist groups begin campaign of violence in Kashmir.
1991 Rajiv Gandhi assassinated by suicide bomber sympathetic to Sri Lanka's Tamil Tigers.
Economic reform programme begun by Prime Minister P.V. Narasimha Rao.
1992 Hindu extremists demolish mosque in Ayodhya, triggering widespread Hindu-Muslim violence.
Over 200 people die in Cuttack in Odisha, after drinking illegally brewed liquor in the 1992 Odisha liquor deaths incident.
1995 July West Bengal Chief Minister Jyoti Basu made the first call from Kolkata to inaugurate the cellular services in India
1996 Congress suffers worst ever electoral defeat as Hindu nationalist BJP emerges as largest single party.
1996 August The Amarnath Yatra tragedy in which at least 194 pilgrims are reported to have frozen to death in northern Kashmir after being stranded by violent rain and snow storms.
1998 BJP forms coalition government under Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee.
India carries out nuclear tests, leading to widespread international condemnation.
1999 February Vajpayee makes historic bus trip to Pakistan to meet Premier Nawaz Sharif and to sign bilateral Lahore peace declaration.
May Tension in Kashmir leads to brief war with Pakistan-backed forces in the icy heights around Kargil in Indian-held Kashmir.
October Cyclone devastates eastern state of Odisha, leaving at least 10,000 dead.
2000 March US President Bill Clinton makes a groundbreaking visit to improve ties.
May India marks the birth of its billionth citizen.

21st century

Year Date Event
2001 A high-powered rocket is launched, adding India to the club of countries able to fire big satellites deep into space.
January Massive earthquakes hit the western state of Gujarat, leaving at least 30,000 dead.
July Vajpayee meets Pakistani President Pervez Musharraf in the first summit between the two neighbours in more than two years. The meeting ends without a breakthrough or even a joint statement because of differences over Kashmir.
July Vajpayee's BJP party declines his offer to resign over a number of political scandals and the apparent failure of his talks with Pakistani President Musharraf.
September US lifts sanctions which it imposed against India and Pakistan after they staged nuclear tests in 1998. The move is seen as a reward for their support for the US-led anti-terror campaign.
October India and Pakistan fire at each other's military posts in the heaviest firing along the dividing line of control in Kashmir for almost a year. [16]
October Pakistani forces shelled the village of Arnia about three km (two miles) from the border in the early hours of Monday June 6th, killing five and wounding at least two dozen civilians. [17]
December Suicide squad attacks parliament in New Delhi, killing several police. The five gunmen die in the assault.
December India imposes sanctions against Pakistan, to force it to take action against two Kashmir militant groups blamed for the suicide attack on parliament. Pakistan retaliates with similar sanctions, and bans the groups in January.
December India, Pakistan mass troops on common border amid mounting fears of a looming war.
2002 War of words between Indian and Pakistani leaders intensifies. Actual war seems imminent.
January India successfully test-fires a nuclear-capable ballistic missile - the Agni - off its eastern coast.
February Inter-religious bloodshed breaks out after 59 Hindu pilgrims returning from Ayodhya are killed in a train fire in Godhra, Gujarat. More than 1,000 people, mainly Muslims, die in subsequent riots. (Police and officials blamed the fire on a Muslim mob; a 2005 government investigation said it was an accident.)
May Pakistan test-fires three medium-range surface-to-surface Ghauri missiles, which are capable of carrying nuclear warheads.
June UK, US urge their citizens to leave India and Pakistan, while maintaining diplomatic offensive to avert war.
July Retired scientist and architect of India's missile programme A.P.J. Abdul Kalam is elected president.
2003 August At least 50 people are killed in two simultaneous bomb blasts in Bombay.
November India matches Pakistan's declaration of a Kashmir ceasefire.
December India, Pakistan agree to resume direct air links and to allow overflights.
2004 January Groundbreaking meeting is held between government and moderate Kashmir separatists.
May Surprise victory for Congress Party in general elections. Manmohan Singh is sworn in as prime minister.
September India, along with Brazil, Germany and Japan, launches an application for a permanent seat on the UN Security Council.
November India begins to withdraw some of its troops from Kashmir.
December Thousands are killed when tsunami tidal waves, caused by the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake off the Indonesian coast, devastate coastal communities in the south and in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
2005 July More than 1,000 people are killed in floods and landslides caused by monsoon rains in Mumbai (Bombay) and Maharashtra region.
8 October An earthquake, with its epicentre in Pakistani-administered Kashmir, kills more than 1,000 people in Indian-administered Kashmir.
2006 February India's largest-ever rural jobs scheme is launched, aimed at lifting around 60 million families out of poverty.
March US and India sign a nuclear agreement during a visit by US President George W Bush. The US gives India access to civilian nuclear technology while India agrees to greater scrutiny for its nuclear programme.
2007 February India and Pakistan sign an agreement aimed at reducing the risk of accidental nuclear war.
18 February 68 passengers, most of them Pakistanis, are killed by bomb blasts and a blaze on a train travelling from New Delhi to the Pakistani city of Lahore.
March Maoist rebels in Chhattisgarh state kill more than 50 policemen in a dawn attack.
April India's first commercial space rocket is launched, carrying an Italian satellite.
May Government announces its strongest economic growth figures for 20 years - 9.4% in the year to March.
May At least nine people are killed in a bomb explosion at the main mosque in Hyderabad. Several others are killed in subsequent rioting.
July India says the number of its people with HIV or AIDS is about half of earlier official tallies. Health ministry figures put the total at between 2 million and 3.1 million cases, compared with previous estimates of more than 5 million.
July Pratibha Patil becomes first woman to be elected president of India.
2008 July Series of explosions kills 49 in Ahmedabad, in Gujarat state. The little-known group Indian Mujahideen claims responsibility.
October Following approval by the US Congress, President George W Bush signs into law a nuclear deal with India, which ends a three-decade ban on US nuclear trade with Delhi.
October India successfully launches its first mission to the moon, the unmanned lunar probe Chandrayaan-1.
November Nearly 200 people are killed and hundreds injured in a series of coordinated attacks by gunmen on the main tourist and business area of India's financial capital Mumbai. India blames militants from Pakistan for the attacks and demands that Islamabad take strong action against those responsible.
December India announces "pause" in peace process with Pakistan. Indian cricket team cancels planned tour of Pakistan.
2009 February India and Russia sign deals worth $700 million, according to which Moscow will supply uranium to Delhi.
April Trial of sole surviving suspect in Mumbai attacks begins.
May Resounding general election victory gives governing Congress-led alliance of PM Manmohan Singh an enhanced position in parliament, only 11 seats short of an absolute majority.
July Delhi court decriminalizes gay sex
2010 February 16 people are killed in a bomb explosion at German Bakery in the city of Pune, Maharashtra.
May Surviving gunman of 2008 Mumbai attacks is convicted of murder, possession of explosives and waging war
2011 May After 34 years of Left Front Government, Trinamool Congress and Congress alliance come to power in West Bengal
2012 July Pranab Mukherjee, the former Finance Minister is elected as the 13th president of India.
November Ajmal Kasab the lone surviving gunman of 2008 Mumbai attacks is hanged on 21 November 2012 at 7:30 in at Yerwada Jail.
2013 12 February Indian helicopter bribery scandal comes to light.
21 February Terror attacks on Hyderabad in Dilsukhnagar area.
5 November [18][19][20]
2014 16 May Narendra Modi elected as prime minister of India

See also


  1. ^ Sankhyan, Anek R. (2013). "The Emergence of Homo sapiens in South Asia: The Central Narmada Valley as Witness". Human Biology Review 2 (2): 136–152. 
  2. ^ "Palaeolithic and Pleistocene of Pakistan". Department of Archaeology, University of Sheffield. Retrieved 2007-12-01. 
  3. ^  
  4. ^ Rendell, H. R.; Dennell, R. W.; Halim, M. (1989). Pleistocene and Palaeolithic Investigations in the Soan Valley, Northern Pakistan. British Archaeological Reports International Series.  
  5. ^ Parth R. Chauhan. Distribution of Acheulian sites in the Siwalik region. An Overview of the Siwalik Acheulian & Reconsidering Its Chronological Relationship with the Soanian – A Theoretical Perspective.
  6. ^ Is the Soanian techno-complex a Mode 1 or Mode 3 phenomenon? A morphometric assessment
  7. ^ Distribution of Acheulian sites in the Siwalik region
  8. ^ Javid, Ali and Javeed, Tabassum. World Heritage Monuments and Related Edifices in India. 2008, page 19
  9. ^
  10. ^  
  11. ^ Coppa, A.; Bondioli, L; Cucina, A; Frayer, D. W.; Jarrige, C.; Jarrige, J. F.; Quivron, G; Rossi, M.; Vidale, M; Macchiarelli, R. (6 April 2006). "Palaeontology: Early Neolithic tradition of dentistry" (PDF). Nature 440 (7085): 755–756.  
  12. ^  
  13. ^ Kenoyer, Jonathan Mark; Heuston, Kimberley (May 2005). The Ancient South Asian World.  
  14. ^ a b c "BBC News - India profile - Timeline". Retrieved 27 November 2013. 
  15. ^ "India’s capital is moved from Calcutta to New Delhi on 12 December 1911". 12 December 2012. Retrieved 25 February 2014. 
  16. ^
  17. ^
  18. ^ Walton, Zach (15 August 2012). "India Announces Mars Mission One Week After Curiosity Landing". Web Pro News. Retrieved 8 September 2013. 
  19. ^ Staff (15 August 2012). "Manmohan Singh formally announces India's Mars mission".  
  20. ^ Bal, Hartosh Singh (30 August 2012). "BRICS in Space".  

External links

  • BBC India Timeline
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