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Timeline of space travel by nationality

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Title: Timeline of space travel by nationality  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: List of space travelers by nationality, Astronaut, 1991 in spaceflight, 1987 in spaceflight, 1992 in spaceflight
Collection: Astronauts by Nationality, Lists of Astronauts, Lists of Astronauts by Nationality, Lists of Firsts, Spaceflight Timelines
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
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Timeline of space travel by nationality

Map of countries (and successor states) whose citizens have flown in space as of September 2015

Since the first human spaceflight by the Soviet Union, citizens of 40 countries have flown in space. For each nationality, the launch date of the first mission is listed. The list is based on the nationality of the person at the time of the launch. Only 3 of the 40 "first flyers" have been women (Helen Sharman for the United Kingdom in 1991, Anousheh Ansari for Iran in 2006, and Yi So-yeon for South Korea in 2008). Only three nations (Soviet Union/Russia, U.S., China) have launched their own manned spacecraft, with the Soviets/Russians and the American programs providing rides to other nations' astronauts. Twenty-six "first flights" occurred on Soviet or Russian flights while the United States carried thirteen.

Contents

  • Timeline 1
  • Notes 2
  • Other claims 3
  • Gallery 4
  • References 5
  • External links 6

Timeline

Note: All dates given are UTC. Countries indicated in bold have achieved independent human spaceflight capability.

Notes

  1. The first cosmonaut, Yuri Gagarin, held Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan. At the time of the dissolution, Sergei Krikalev and Alexander Volkov were orbiting Earth on Mir, having been launched into orbit as Soviet citizens, and having returned to the Earth as Russian citizens. Kaleri and Viktorenko were the first Russians to be launched into orbit as Russian citizens only, their launch having occurred subsequent to the dissolution of the Soviet Union.
  2. Under )  
  3. Shepard's spaceflight was suborbital. The first American to be launched into Earth orbit was John Glenn, on 20 February 1962.
  4. In 1993, Czechoslovakia dissolved and was replaced by the Czech Republic and Slovakia.
  5. In 1978, both Jähn himself and the German Democratic Republic pronounced him the "first German in space", rather than the first "citizen of the German Democratic Republic in space". In 1990, the states of the former East Germany acceded to the Federal Republic of Germany. On 22 January 1992, Ulf Merbold again traveled into space, now representing the reunited Germany within the Federal Republic of Germany. Jähn is, nevertheless, still considered the first German in space, even in the states of the Federal Republic of Germany that comprised the former West Germany.
  6. This person flew as a commercial, non-governmental space traveller. Apart from Akiyama and Sharman, these space travellers are known as space tourists.
  7. Ilan Ramon was the first Israeli to go into space, but Ramon died during reentry during the Space Shuttle Columbia disaster. Again, this was not deemed a complete spaceflight under FAI rules.
  8. Although recognized as an Iranian citizen by Iranian law, Ansari is also an American citizen and was prohibited from wearing Iranian state symbols by both the United States and Russian governments.

Other claims

The above list uses the nationality at the time of launch. Lists with differing criteria might include the following people:

Gallery

References

  1. ^ a b "Expensive ticket to ride (http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/329522.stm)". BBC News 1999-4-27. Retrieved 28 October 2009.
  2. ^ "Space tourist lifts off (http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/1945950.stm)". BBC News 2002-4-25. Retrieved 28 October 2009.
  3. ^ "Lift-off for woman space tourist (http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/5355022.stm)". BBC News 2006-9-18. Retrieved 28 October 2009.
  4. ^ MAN IN THE NEWS: FRANKLIN R. CHANG-DIAZ; A DREAMER IN SPACE, Malcolm W. Browne, New York Times, January 13, 1986
  5. ^ http://kazcosmos.gov.kz/ru/ob-agenstve/rukovodstvo/musabaev-talgat-amangeldievich.html
  6. ^ http://articles.latimes.com/2004/jun/20/news/adfg-space20

External links

  • Current Space Demographics, compiled by William Harwood, CBS News Space Consultant, and Rob Navias, NASA.
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