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Typhoon Haiyan

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Typhoon Haiyan

Typhoon Haiyan (Yolanda)
Typhoon (JMA scale)
Category 5 (Saffir–Simpson scale)
Typhoon Haiyan at peak intensity on November 7
Formed November 3, 2013
Dissipated November 11, 2013
Highest winds 10-minute sustained: 230 km/h (145 mph)
1-minute sustained: 315 km/h (195 mph)
Lowest pressure 895 hPa (mbar); 26.43 inHg
(Estimated)
Fatalities 6,340 confirmed, 1,061 missing
Damage $2.86 billion (2013 USD)
Areas affected
Part of the 2013 Pacific typhoon season

Typhoon Haiyan, known in the Philippines as Typhoon Yolanda, was one of the strongest tropical cyclones ever recorded, devastatdiv class="hatnote">This article is about the 2013 typhoon. For other uses, see Haiyan (disambiguation).

Typhoon Haiyan (Yolanda)
Typhoon (JMA scale)
Category 5 (Saffir–Simpson scale)
Typhoon Haiyan at peak intensity on November 7
Formed November 3, 2013
Dissipated November 11, 2013
Highest winds 10-minute sustained: 230 km/h (145 mph)
1-minute sustained: 315 km/h (195 mph)
Lowest pressure 895 hPa (mbar); 26.43 inHg
(Estimated)
Fatalities 6,340 confirmed, 1,061 missing
Damage $2.86 billion (2013 USD)
Areas affected
Part of the 2013 Pacific typhoon season
Typhoon Haiyan, known in the Philippines as Typhoon Yolanda, was one of the strongest tropical cyclones ever recorded, devastating portions of Southeast Asia, particularly the Philippines, in early-November 2013.[85] It is the deadliest Philippine typhoon recorded in modern history,[1] killing at least 6,300 people in that country alone.[4] Haiyan is also the strongest storm recorded at landfall, and the second-strongest typhoon ever recorded in terms of one-minute sustained wind speed.[6][88] As of January 2014, bodies were still being found.[89] The thirtieth named storm of the 2013 Pacific typhoon season, Haiyan originated from an area of low pressure several hundred kilometers east-southeast of Pohnpei in the Federated States of Micronesia on November 2, 2013. Tracking generally westward, environmental conditions favored tropical cyclogenesis and the system developed into a tropical depression the following day. After becoming a tropical storm and being given the name Haiyan at 0000 UTC on November 4, the system began a period of rapid intensification that brought it to typhoon intensity by 1800 UTC on November 5. By November 6, the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) assessed the system as a Category 5-equivalent super typhoon on the Saffir-Simpson hurricane wind scale; the storm passed over the island of Kayangel in Palau shortly after attaining this strength. After that, it continued to intensify; at 1200 UTC on November 7, the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) upgraded the storm's maximum ten-minute sustained winds to 230 km/h (145 mph), the highest in relation to the cyclone. The Hong Kong Observatory put the storm's maximum ten-minute sustained winds at 285 km/h (180 mph),[90] prior to landfall in the central Philippines, while the China Meteorological Administration estimated the maximum two-minute sustained winds at the time to be around 280 km/h (174 mph; 151 kn). At 1800 UTC, the JTWC estimated the system's one-minute sustained winds to 315 km/h (196 mph; 170 kn), making Haiyan the second-strongest tropical cyclone ever recorded based on one-minute sustained wind speed (subsequently surpassed by Hurricane Patricia of 2015); several others have recorded lower central pressure readings.[6] Several hours later, the eye of the cyclone made its first landfall in the Philippines at Guiuan, Eastern Samar. Gradually weakening, the storm made five additional landfalls in the country before emerging over the South China Sea. Turning northwestward, the typhoon eventually struck northern Vietnam as a severe tropical storm on November 10. Haiyan was last noted as a tropical depression by the JMA the following day. The cyclone caused catastrophic destruction in the Visayas, particularly on Samar and Leyte, Cebu, Capiz, Negros, and Northern Iloilo. According to UN officials, about 11 million people have been affected – many have been left homeless.[92]

Meteorological history

Map showing the path of the storm as represented by colored dots connected by a white line; the position of the dots indicates the storm's position at six-hour intervals, while color denotes the storm's intensity at that point.
On November 2, the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) began monitoring a broad low-pressure area about 425 kilometers (265 miles) east-southeast of Pohnpei, one of the states in the Federated States of Micronesia.[nb 4] Moving through a region favoring tropical cyclogenesis,[96] the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) classified the developing system as a tropical depression early on November 3.[30][nb 5] Subsequent intensification resulted in the JMA upgrading the system to a tropical storm and assigning it the name Haiyan (1330, Chinese: 海燕; literally: "petrel") at 0000 UTC on November 4.[30] Tracking generally westward along the southern periphery of a subtropical ridge,[98] rapid intensification ensued by November 5 as a central dense overcast with an embedded eye began developing; the JMA classified Haiyan as a typhoon later that day.[30] By November 6, the Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA) assigned the storm the local name Yolanda as it approached their area of responsibility.[99] Intensification slowed somewhat during the day, though the JTWC estimated the storm to have attained Category 5-equivalent super typhoon status on the Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale around 1200 UTC.[nb 3][101] Later, the eye of the typhoon passed over the island of Kayangel in Palau.[36] Around 1200 UTC on November 7, Haiyan attained ten-minute sustained winds of 230 km/h (143 mph; 124 kn) and a maximum intensity (lowest barometric pressure) of 895 mbar (hPa; 26.43 inHg).[30] Six hours later, the JTWC estimated Haiyan to have attained one-minute sustained winds of 315 km/h (196 mph; 170 kn) and gusts up to 378 kilometres per hour (235 mph; 204 kn).[37]
PAGASA Cebu City weather radar reflectivity loop from November 8, 2013
Weather radar reflectivity loop of Haiyan's landfall on Leyte Island. Tacloban City was struck by the northern eyewall, the most powerful part of the storm.[103]

The storm displayed some characteristics of an annular tropical cyclone, though a strong convective band remained present along the western side of the system.[37] At 2040 UTC on November 7, Typhoon Haiyan made landfall in Guiuan, Eastern Samar at peak intensity with ten-minute sustained winds of 230 km/h (145 mph) as measured by PAGASA.[39] The JTWC's estimate of one-minute sustained winds of 315 km/h (195 mph) made Haiyan the most powerful storm ever recorded to strike land in terms of one-minute sustained winds.[6][40] Interaction with land caused slight degradation of the storm's structure, though it remained an exceptionally powerful storm when it struck Tolosa, Leyte around 2300 UTC.[105] The typhoon made four additional landfalls as it traversed the Visayas:[107] Daanbantayan, Bantayan Island, Concepcion, and Busuanga Island. A weakened Haiyan, with its core disrupted by interaction with the Philippines, emerged over the South China Sea late on November 8.[108] Environmental conditions ahead of the storm soon became less favorable, as cool stable air began wrapping into the western side of the circulation.[109] Continuing across the South China Sea, Haiyan turned more northwesterly late on November 9 and through November 10 as it moved around the southwestern edge of the subtropical ridge previously steering it westward.[110] Rapid weakening ensued as Haiyan approached its final landfall in Vietnam,[111] ultimately striking the country near Haiphong around 2100 UTC as a severe tropical storm.[30] Once onshore, the storm quickly diminished and was last noted as it dissipated over Guangxi Province, China during November 11.[30]

Preparations

Micronesia and Palau

Upon JTWC's declaration of Tropical Depression 31W on November 3, a tropical storm warning was issued for Chuuk Lagoon, Losap, and Poluwat in the Federated States of Micronesia. Further west, Faraulep, Satawal, and Woleai, were placed under a typhoon watch while Fananu and Ulul were placed under a tropical storm watch.[112] The following day, the tropical storm warning expanded to include Satawal while a typhoon warning was issued for Woleai.[113] Much of Yap State and the islands of Koror and Kayangel in Palau were placed under a typhoon watch.[62] The government issued a mandatory evacuation for Kayangel, and although most residents ignored the warning, they all survived the storm.[36] As Haiyan progressed westward, the easternmost advisories were gradually discontinued.[62] As Haiyan intensified into a typhoon on November 5, warnings were raised across Palau and Yap State.[115][116] Government offices in Melekeok were used as an evacuation building for Palau.[82] Despite mandatory evacuation orders, most residents on Kayangel remained on the island and rode out the typhoon.[83]

Philippines

PAGASA raised rainfall warning advisory in the Central and Eastern Visayas during the passage Haiyan (Yolanda).
PSWS Map in the Philippines during the passage of Typhoon Haiyan (Yolanda).
Shortly before Typhoon Haiyan entered the Philippine area of responsibility on November 6, PAGASA raised [134]

Southern China

The State Flood Control and Drought Relief Headquarters hoisted a level three emergency response in the provinces of Hainan, Guangdong and Guangxi. All fishing vessels were urged to return to ports by noon on 9 November.[135] The Hong Kong Observatory issued the Strong Monsoon Signal at 19:10 HKT on 9 November,[136] and it was still in place for nearly whole day on 12 November.

Vietnam

On November 8, Prime Minister Nguyen Tan Dung activated the highest state of preparedness in the country.[137] Approximately 600,000 people across southern and central provinces were evacuated while a further

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