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United Launch Alliance

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Title: United Launch Alliance  
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Subject: Comparison of orbital launch systems, Propellant depot, Commercial Crew Development, Launch Services Program, Boeing Defense, Space & Security
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United Launch Alliance

United Launch Alliance
Type Private
Industry Aerospace
Founded December 1, 2006
Headquarters Centennial, Colorado
Key people
Products Atlas V, Delta II, Delta IV
Employees 3,600[1]
Website United Launch Alliance

United Launch Alliance (ULA) is a joint venture of Lockheed Martin and Boeing. ULA was formed in December 2006 by combining the teams at these companies which provide spacecraft launch services to the government of the United States. U.S. government launch customers include both the Department of Defense and NASA, as well as other organizations.

ULA provides launch services using three expendable launch systemsDelta II, Delta IV and Atlas V. The Atlas and Delta launch system families have been used for more than 50 years to carry a variety of payloads including weather, telecommunications and national security satellites, as well as deep space and interplanetary exploration missions in support of scientific research. ULA has also provided launch services for non-government satellites. (Lockheed Martin retains the rights to market Atlas commercially.[2] Boeing retains similar rights for Delta.)

Beginning in October 2014, ULA announced that they intended to undertake a substantial restructuring of the company, its products and processes, in the coming years in order to decrease launch costs. ULA is planning on building a new rocket that will be a successor to the Atlas V, using a new rocket engine on the first stage, with plans to release key design aspects before the end of 2014.


ULA's headquarters building in Centennial, Colorado

Boeing and Lockheed Martin announced their intent to form the United Launch Alliance joint venture on May 2, 2005.[3] ULA merges the production of the government space launch services of the two companies into one central plant in Decatur, Alabama, and merged all engineering into another central plant in Littleton, Colorado. Boeing Integrated Defense Systems Delta IV and Lockheed Martin Space Systems Atlas V are both launchers developed for the Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle program intended to provide the United States government with competitively priced, assured access to space.

SpaceX challenged the antitrust legality of the launch services monopoly on October 23, 2005. SpaceX is interested in competing for government launch contracts with the Falcon 9 rocket. On January 7, 2006 the Department of Defense gave preliminary approval to the United Launch Alliance.

In September 2006, the Pentagon renewed their support for ULA, and announced their support to the Federal Trade Commission (FTC). The FTC gave their anti-trust clearance on October 3, 2006.[4] The joint venture began operations on December 1, 2006.

Two years following company formation from units of Lockheed Martin and Boeing, ULA announced it would lay off 350 workers in early 2009, reducing from a company-wide employment of 4200 employees in 2008.[5] In the event, ULA had approximately 3900 employees by August 2009[6]

In late 2009, ULA announced that it intended to build a new headquarters campus for its operations south of Denver, in Centennial, Colorado, in order to move away from facility space it had shared with Lockheed Martin since 2006 when ULA was founded.[6]

In November 2010, United Launch Alliance was selected by NASA for consideration for potential contract awards for heavy lift launch vehicle system concepts, and propulsion technologies.[7]

It was announced in August 2014 that Michael Gass, ULA CEO since ULA was founded in 2006, would step down immediately and that he would be replaced by Tory Bruno, effective immediately.[8]

In September 2014, it was announced that the firm had won a contract from the United States Air Force for US$938 million for additional work on military rocket launch services related to its existing contracts with the US Air Force.[9]


ULA program management, engineering, test and mission support functions are headquartered in Centennial, Colorado. Manufacturing, assembly and integration operations are located in two buildings, one at Decatur, Alabama, and the other in Harlingen, Texas.[5][1]

ULA launches from both coasts of the United States, depending on the customer's desired orbit. East coast Atlas V launches take place from Launch Complex 41 while east coast Delta IV launches take place from Launch Complex 37. Both are located in Cape Canaveral, Florida. West coast launches take place from Vandenberg Air Force Base in southern California.[5]


The first launch conducted by ULA was of a Delta II, from Vandenberg Air Force Base on December 14, 2006.[10] The rocket carried the USA 193 satellite for the National Reconnaissance Office. This satellite failed shortly after launch and was intentionally destroyed on February 21, 2008 by an SM-3 missile fired from the Ticonderoga class cruiser USS Lake Erie.[11]

On June 15, 2007, the engine in the Centaur upper stage of a ULA-launched Atlas V shut down early, leaving its payload – a pair of NRO L-30 ocean surveillance satellites – in a lower than intended orbit.[12] The anomaly caused delays to forthcoming Atlas V and Delta IV launches, due to the common RL-10 upper stage engines. The fault was traced to a new type of valve being used in place of an older component which had gone out of production. To resolve the problem, the older design was put back into production, and in the meantime, surplus valves from the original production run were used.

Commercial and international launches aboard Atlas V and Delta rockets are managed by Lockheed Martin Commercial Launch Services and Boeing Launch Services, respectively.

Cost controversy

With the introduction of competition from lower-cost launch providers and the increasing costs of ULA launches year-over-year, increased attention has been paid to the amounts ULA has received for US government launch contracts, and for its annual government funding of $1 billion for launch capability and readiness. In particular, an uncontested US Air Force block-buy of 36 rocket cores for up to 28 launches, valued at $11 billion, drew protest from competitor SpaceX. SpaceX has claimed the cost of ULA's launches are approximately $460 million each, and has proposed a price of $90 million to provide similar launches.[13] In response, former ULA CEO Michael Gass claimed an average launch price of $225 million, with future launches as low as $100 million.[14]

However, based on the block-buy valuation of $11 billion, the cost will be $305 million per core, or $393 million per launch. ULA is scheduled to complete 15 NROL launches in 2014.[15] When the annual capability and readiness funds are included in the launch cost calculations, the cost per launch exceeds $459 million. This figure contradicts the cost information released by ULA.

The contract was negotiated in part by Roger Correll in 2013 who joined a major ULA supplier, Aerojet/Rocketdyne, as a Vice President in May 2014, a few months after concluding the deal.[16]

Company restructuring after 2014

In October 2014, ULA announced a major restructuring of processes and workforce in order to decrease launch costs by half. One of the reasons given for the restructuring and new cost reduction goals was competition from [18]

See also


  1. ^ a b "Quick Facts". Retrieved 21 November 2014. 
  2. ^ Justin Ray (November 23, 2009). "Atlas 5 launches Intelsat communications satellite". Spaceflight Now. 
  3. ^ "About ULA". ULA. 
  4. ^ (press release) (October 3, 2006). "FTC gives clearance to United Launch Alliance". Spaceflight Now. 
  5. ^ a b c "United Launch Alliance plans layoffs". Denver Business Journal. 2008-11-14. Retrieved 2014-11-16. 
  6. ^ a b Avery, Greg (2009-08-05). "ULA seeks land for a combined HQ". Denver Business Journal. Retrieved 2014-11-16. 
  7. ^ "NASA Selects Companies for Heavy-Lift Vehicle Studies". NASA. Retrieved 8 November 2010. 
  8. ^ "United Launch Alliance Taps a Lockheed Executive To Replace CEO Gass". Space News. 2014-08-12. Retrieved 2014-08-13. 
  9. ^ Boeing-Lockheed venture wins $938 million in U.S. rocket launch deal. Reuters, 17 September 2014
  10. ^ "United Launch Alliance set for takeoff". Metro Denver EDC. 
  11. ^ "DoD Succeeds In Intercepting Non-Functioning Satellite" (Press release) (No. 0139-08). U.S. Department of Defense. February 20, 2008. Retrieved 2009-10-09. 
  12. ^ "NRO Shortfall May Delay Upcoming ULA Missions". Aviation Week. 
  13. ^ "SpaceX launches protest of Air Force rocket contract". Defense Systems. 
  14. ^ "Responding to Critics, ULA Discloses Pricing Information". Space News. 
  15. ^ "Atlas V to Launch NROL-33". United Launch Alliance. 
  16. ^ "Space Launch Deal Puts Spotlight on Revolving Door". NLPC. 
  17. ^ Avery, Greg (2014-10-16). "ULA plans new rocket, restructuring to cut launch costs in half". Denver Business Journal. Retrieved 2014-11-14. 
  18. ^ Delgado, Laura M. (2014-11-14). "ULA's Tory Bruno Vows To Transform Company". Retrieved 2014-11-14. 

External links

  • United Launch Alliance site
  • Boeing, Lockheed Martin to Form Launch Services Joint Venture
  • FTC gives prelimanary clearance to United Launch Alliance
  • United Launch Alliance begins Operations
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