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Uvular trill

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Title: Uvular trill  
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Subject: Guttural R, Uvular flap, R, List of consonants, Rhotic consonant
Collection: Trill Consonants, Uvular Consonants
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Uvular trill

Contents

  • Voiced uvular trill 1
    • Features 1.1
    • Occurrence 1.2
  • Voiced uvular raised non-sonorant trill 2
    • Features 2.1
    • Occurrence 2.2
  • See also 3
  • References 4
  • Bibliography 5

Voiced uvular trill

Uvular trill
ʀ
IPA number 123
Encoding
Entity (decimal) ʀ
Unicode (hex) U+0280
X-SAMPA R\
Kirshenbaum r"
Braille ⠔ (braille pattern dots-35) ⠗ (braille pattern dots-1235)
Sound
 ·

The uvular trill is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ʀ, a small capital letter R. This consonant is one of several collectively called guttural R.

Features

Features of the uvular trill:

Occurrence

Distribution of guttural R (e.g. [ʁ ʀ χ]) in Continental Europe at the end of the 20th century.[1]
  not usual
  only in some educated speech
  usual in educated speech
  general

There are two main theories regarding the origination of the uvular trill in European languages. According to one theory, the uvular trill originated in Standard French around the seventeenth century, spreading to standard varieties of German, Danish, Portuguese, as well as in parts of Dutch, Norwegian, and Swedish; it is also present in other areas of Europe, but it is not clear if such pronunciations are due to French influence.[2] In most cases, varieties have shifted this to a voiced uvular fricative [ʁ] or a voiced uvular approximant [ʁ̞].

The other main theory posits that the uvular R originated within Germanic languages through a process where the alveolar R was weakened and then replaced by an imitation of the alveolar R (vocalisation).[3] As counterevidence against the "French origin" theory, it is stipulated that there are many signs that the uvular R existed in certain German dialects long before the 17th century.

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Afrikaans Parts of the former Cape Province[4] rooi [ʀoːi̯] 'red' May be a fricative [ʁ] instead.[4] See Afrikaans phonology
Catalan Some northern dialects[5] rrer [koˈʀe] 'to run' See Catalan phonology
Dutch[6][7][8][9] Belgian Limburg[10][11] rood     'red' More commonly a tap.[12] Uvular pronunciations appear to be gaining ground in the Randstad.[13] Realization of /r/ varies considerably among dialects. See Dutch phonology
Central Netherlands[14]
Randstad[14]
Southern Netherlands[14]
Flemish Brabant[11] More commonly a tap.[12] It is one of the least common realizations of /r/ in these areas.[15] See Dutch phonology
Northern Netherlands[14]
West Flanders[11]
English Cape Flats dialect[16] red [ʀɛd] 'red' Possible realization of /r/; may be [ɹ ~ ɹ̝ ~ ɾ ~ r] instead.[16]
Northumbrian dialect[17] More often a fricative.[17] Dialectal "Northumbrian Burr", mostly found in eastern Northumberland, declining. See English phonology
Sierra Leonean[17] More often a fricative.[17]
French[18] rendez-vous     'appointment' Dialectal. More commonly an approximant or a fricative [ʁ]. See French phonology
German Standard[19] rot     'red' In free variation with a voiced uvular fricative and approximant. See German phonology
Hebrew ירוק [jaˈʀok] 'green' May also be a fricative or approximant. See Modern Hebrew phonology
Italian[20] Northern dialects[21] raro [ˈʀäːʀo] 'rare' Some speakers, especially in Parma. May also be a fricative [ʁ] or a labiodental approximant [ʋ].[21]
Judaeo-Spanish mujer [muˈʒɛʀ] 'woman', 'wife'
Occitan Eastern garric [ɡaʀi] 'oak' Contrasts with alveolar trill ([ɡari] 'cured')
Provençal parts [paʀ] 'parts' See Occitan phonology
Southern Auvergnat garçon [ɡaʀˈsu] 'son'
Southeastern Limousin filh [fʲiʀ]
Portuguese European[22] rarear [ʀəɾiˈaɾ] 'to get scarcer' Alternates with other uvular forms and the older alveolar trill. See Portuguese phonology
Fluminense[23] mercado [me̞ʀˈkaðu] 'market', 'fair' Tendency to be replaced by fricative pronunciations. In coda position, it is generally in free variation with [x], [χ], [ʁ], [ħ] and [h] before non-voicing environments
Sulista[23] repolho [ʀe̞ˈpoʎ̟ʊ] 'cabbage'
Romani Some dialects rom [ʀom] 'man' Allophone of a descendant of the Indic retroflex set, so often transcribed /ɽ/. A coronal flap, approximant or trill in other dialects; in some it merges with /r/
Selkup Northern dialects [ˈqaʀlɪ̈] 'sledge' Allophone of /q/ before liquids
Sioux Lakota[24][25] ǧí [ʀí] 'it's brown' Allophone of /ʁ/ before /i/
Sotho Most speakers moriri [moʀiʀi] 'hair' See Sesotho phonology
Swedish Southern[26] räv [ʀɛːv] 'fox' See Swedish phonology
Yiddish Standard[27] בריק [bʀɪk] 'bridge' More commonly a flap [ʀ̆]; can be alveolar [ɾ ~ r] instead.[27] See Yiddish phonology

Voiced uvular raised non-sonorant trill

Voiced uvular raised non-sonorant trill
ʀ̝
IPA number 123 429
Encoding
X-SAMPA R\_r

Features

Features of the voiced uvular raised non-sonorant trill:

Occurrence

It is phonemic in the Maastrichtian and Weert dialects of Limburgish, though in neither of these does it contrast with a plain uvular trill.[28][29]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Danish[30] rød [ʀ̝ɶð̞] 'red' Word-initial allophone of /ʁ/, used only sometimes when emphasising a word.[30] Otherwise a continuant, described variously as uvular [ʁ] and pharyngeal [ʕ]. See Danish phonology
Dutch Belgian[31] sturen [ˈstÿːʀ̝ə(n)] 'to send' Only when following a vowel, otherwise it is voiceless.[32] Realization of /r/ varies considerably among dialects. See Dutch phonology
Limburgish Maastrichtian[28] drei [dʀ̝ɛi̯] 'three' Either uvular [ʀ̝] or pre-uvular [ʀ̝˖].[28][29]
Weert dialect[29] drej [dʀ̝æj]
Portuguese Lisbon[30] ritmo [ˈʀ̝it̪mu] 'rhythm' Common realization of word-initial /ʀ/.[30] See Portuguese phonology
West Flemish Bruges dialect[33] onder [ˈuŋəʀ̝] 'under' A trill with little friction. An alveolar [r] is used in the neighbouring rural area.[33]

See also

References

  1. ^ Map based on Trudgill (1974:220) and (for Italy) Canepari (1999:486)
  2. ^ Trudgill (1974:221), citing Moulton (1952), Ewert (1963), and Martinet (1969)
  3. ^ Bisiada (2009).
  4. ^ a b Donaldson (1993), p. 15.
  5. ^ Wheeler (2005), pp. 24.
  6. ^ Booij (1999), p. 8.
  7. ^ Collins & Mees (2003), pp. 42, 54, 77, 165, 199–200.
  8. ^ Goeman & van de Velde (2001), pp. 91–92, 94–97, 99–104.
  9. ^ Verstraten & van de Velde (2001), pp. 45–46, 51, 53–55, 58.
  10. ^ Verhoeven (2005), pp. 243 and 245.
  11. ^ a b c Verstraten & van de Velde (2001), p. 52.
  12. ^ a b Collins & Mees (2003), p. 42.
  13. ^ Collins & Mees (2003), p. 209.
  14. ^ a b c d Verstraten & van de Velde (2001), p. 54.
  15. ^ Verstraten & van de Velde (2001), pp. 52 and 54.
  16. ^ a b Finn (2004), p. 976.
  17. ^ a b c d Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996), p. 236.
  18. ^ Grevisse & Goosse (2008), pp. 22–36.
  19. ^ Hall (1993), p. 89.
  20. ^ Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996), p. 225.
  21. ^ a b Canepari (1999), pp. 98–101.
  22. ^ Mateus & d'Andrade (2000), p. 11.
  23. ^ a b Acoustic analysis of vibrants in Brazilian Portuguese (Portuguese)
  24. ^ Rood & Taylor (1996).
  25. ^ Lakota Language Consortium (2004). Lakota letters and sounds.
  26. ^ Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996:225–226)
  27. ^ a b Kleine (2003:263)
  28. ^ a b c Gussenhoven & Aarts (1999), p. 156.
  29. ^ a b c Heijmans & Gussenhoven (1998), p. 108.
  30. ^ a b c d Grønnum (2005), p. 157.
  31. ^ Tops (2009), pp. 25, 30-32, 63, 80-88, 97-100, 105, 118, 124-127, 134-135, 137-138 and 140-141.
  32. ^ Tops (2009), p. 83.
  33. ^ a b Hinskens & Taeldeman (2013), p. 167.

Bibliography

  • Bisiada, Mario (2009), "[R] in Germanic Dialects — Tradition or Innovation?", Vernacular 1: 84–99 
  • Booij, Geert (1999), The phonology of Dutch, Oxford University Press 
  • Canepari, Luciano (1999) [1992], Il MªPi – Manuale di pronuncia italiana [Handbook of Italian Pronunciation] (in Italian) (2 ed.), Bologna: Zanichelli,  
  • Collins, Beverley; Mees, Inger M. (2003), The Phonetics of English and Dutch, Fifth Revised Edition (PDF),  
  • Donaldson, Bruce C. (1993), "1. Pronunciation", A Grammar of Afrikaans,  
  • Ewert, A. (1963), The French Language, London: Faber 
  • Finn, Peter (2004), "Cape Flats English: phonology", in Schneider, Edgar W.; Burridge, Kate; Kortmann, Bernd; Mesthrie, Rajend; Upton, Clive, A handbook of varieties of English, 1: Phonology, Mouton de Gruyter, pp. 934–984,  
  • Goeman, Ton; van de Velde, Hans (2001), "Co-occurrence constraints on /r/ and /ɣ/ in Dutch dialects", in van de Velde, Hans; van Hout, Roeland, 'r-atics, Brussels: Etudes & Travaux, pp. 91–112,  
  •  
  • Grønnum, Nina (2005), Fonetik og fonologi, Almen og Dansk (3rd ed.), Copenhagen: Akademisk Forlag,  
  • Gussenhoven, Carlos; Aarts, Flor (1999), "The dialect of Maastricht" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association (University of Nijmegen, Centre for Language Studies) 29: 155–166,  
  • Hall, Tracy Alan (1993), "The phonology of German /ʀ/", Phonology 10 (1): 83–105,  
  • Heijmans, Linda; Gussenhoven, Carlos (1998), "The Dutch dialect of Weert" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association 28: 107–112,  
  • Hinskens, Frans; Taeldeman, Johan, eds. (2013), Dutch,  
  • Kleine, Ane (2003), "Standard Yiddish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 33 (2): 261–265,  
  •  
  • Martinet, A. (1969), Le Français sans fard, Paris: Presses Universitaires 
  • Mateus, Maria Helena; d'Andrade, Ernesto (2000), The Phonology of Portuguese, Oxford University Press,  
  • Moulton, W.G. (1952), "Jacob Böhme's uvular r", Journal of English and Germanic philology 51: 83–89 
  • Rood, David S.; Taylor, Allan R. (1996), "Sketch of Lakhota, a Siouan Language, Part I", Handbook of North American Indians 17, Smithsonian Institution, pp. 440–482 
  • Tops, Evie (2009), Variatie en verandering van de /r/ in Vlaanderen, Brussels: VUBPress,  
  •  
  • Verhoeven, Jo (2005), "Belgian Standard Dutch", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 35 (2): 243–247,  
  • Verstraten, Bart; van de Velde, Hans (2001), "Socio-geographical variation of /r/ in standard Dutch", in van de Velde, Hans; van Hout, Roeland, 'r-atics, Brussels: Etudes & Travaux, pp. 45–61,  
  • Wheeler, Max W. (2005), The Phonology Of Catalan, Oxford: Oxford University Press,  
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