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Age (Ma)
Paleogene Paleocene Danian younger
Cretaceous Upper/
Maastrichtian 66.0–72.1
Campanian 72.1–83.6
Santonian 83.6–86.3
Coniacian 86.3–89.8
Turonian 89.8–93.9
Cenomanian 93.9–100.5
Albian 100.5–~113.0
Aptian ~113.0–~125.0
Barremian ~125.0–~129.4
Hauterivian ~129.4–~132.9
Valanginian ~132.9–~139.8
Berriasian ~139.8–~145.0
Jurassic Upper/
Tithonian older
Subdivision of the Cretaceous system
according to the IUGS, as of July 2012.

In the geologic timescale, the Valanginian is an age or stage of the Early or Lower Cretaceous. It spans between 139.8 ± 3.0 Ma and 132.9 ± 2.0 Ma (million years ago). The Valanginian stage succeeds the Berriasian stage of the Lower Cretaceous and precedes the Hauterivian stage of the Lower Cretaceous.[1]


  • Stratigraphic definitions 1
    • Subdivision 1.1
  • Palaeontology 2
    • †Ankylosaurs 2.1
    • Birds (avian theropods) 2.2
    • Crocodylomorphs 2.3
    • †Ornithopods 2.4
    • †Pterosaurs 2.5
    • †Sauropods 2.6
    • †Stegosaurs 2.7
    • †Theropods (non-avian) 2.8
  • References 3
    • Notes 3.1
    • Literature 3.2
  • External links 4

Stratigraphic definitions

The Valanginian was first described and named by Édouard Desor in 1853. It is named after Valangin, a small town north of Neuchâtel in the Jura Mountains of Switzerland.

The base of the Valanginian is at the first appearance of calpionellid species Calpionellites darderi in the stratigraphic column. A global reference section (a GSSP) had in 2009 not yet been appointed.

The top of the Valanginian (the base of the Hauterivian) is at the first appearance of the ammonite genus Acanthodiscus.


The Valanginian is often subdivided in Lower and Upper substages. The Upper substage begins at the first appearance of ammonite species Saynoceras verrucosum and the major marine transgression Va3.

In the Tethys domain, the Valanginian stage contains five ammonite biozones:



Ankylosauria of the Valanginian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images

Birds (avian theropods)

Birds of the Valanginian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images


Crocodylomorphs of the Valanginian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images


Ornithopoda of the Valanginian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images
Australia May be a chimera based on multiple species of ornithopods.
Europe First dinosaur ever found
Cape Province, South Africa Generally considered nomen dubium, it classified as a genus similar to Dryosaurus, i.e. an iguanodont.
Lanzhou, Gansu, China Notable for its "astonishingly huge teeth", among the largest for any herbivorous creature ever, which indicate it is an iguanodont. The mandible, longer than one meter, suggests very large size for the animal.
Isle of Wight, England; Niger, Africa A dryosaurid


Pterosaurs of the Valanginian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images
Lonchodectes (left)
Lagarcito Formation, San Luis Province, Argentina; Chile


Sauropods of the Valanginian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images


Stegosaurs of the Valanginian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images

†Theropods (non-avian)

Non-Avian Theropods of the Valanginian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images



  1. ^ See Gradstein et al. (2004) for a detailed geologic timescale
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h Dating uncertain.
  3. ^ a b Only known from this stage.


External links

  • GeoWhen Database - Valanginian
  • Mid-Cretaceous timescale and ü Jurassic-Cretaceous timescale], at the website of the subcommission for stratigraphic information of the ICS
  • Stratigraphic chart of the Lower Cretaceous, at the website of Norges Network of offshore records of geology and stratigraphy
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