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Vegetarian food

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Vegetarian food

Vegetarian cuisine refers to food that meets vegetarian standards by not including meat and animal tissue products. For lacto-ovo vegetarianism (the most common type of vegetarianism in the Western world), eggs and dairy products such as milk and cheese are permitted. For lacto vegetarianism, the earliest known type of vegetarianism (recorded in India), dairy products such as milk and cheese are permitted.[1] The strictest forms of vegetarianism are veganism and fruitarianism, which exclude all animal products, including dairy products as well as honey, and even some refined sugars if filtered and whitened with bone char.

Vegetarian foods can be classified into several different types:

Foods used in vegetarian cuisine

Food regarded as suitable for vegetarians typically includes:

Food suitable for several types of the vegetarian cuisine:

  • Dairy products (milk, butter, cheese (except for cheese containing rennet of animal origin), yogurt (excluding yogurt made with gelatin), etc.) – not eaten by vegans and pure ovo-vegetarians
  • Eggs – not eaten by pure vegetarians and pure lacto-vegetarians
  • Honey – not eaten by vegans

Cuisine that is traditionally vegetarian

These are some of the most common dishes that vegetarians eat without substitution of ingredients. Such dishes include, from breakfasts to dinnertime desserts:


National cuisines

  • Many Greek and Balkan dishes, such as dolmas and spanakopita
  • Russian cuisine developed a significant vegetarian tradition in czarist time, based on the example of Leo Tolstoy.[3] The orthodox tradition of separating meat and vegetables and as well between specific meals for Fasting and other holidays contributed to a rich variety of vegetarian dishes[3] in Russia and Slavic countries, such as soups (vegetable borscht, shchi, okroshka), pirogi, blini, vareniki, kasha, buckwheat, fermented and pickled vegetables, etc.
  • Many Ethiopian dishes
  • Mideastern food such as falafel, hummus (mashed chick peas), tahini (ground sesame seeds), minted-yogurts, and couscous.
    • Egyptian cuisine in particular is rich in vegetarian foods. For reasons ranging from economics to the religious practices of the Coptic Orthodox Church, most Egyptian dishes rely on beans and vegetables: the national dishes, kushari and ful medames, are entirely vegetarian, as are usually the assorted vegetable casseroles that characterize the typical Egyptian meal.
  • Chinese (and other far-Eastern) dishes based on the main ingredients being mushroom, noodles, eggplant, string beans, broccoli, rice, tofu and/or mixed vegetables
  • Japanese foods such as tempura, edamame, name kojiru, and vegetable sushi. Miso soup is made from fermented white or red soy bean paste, garnished with scallions and/or seaweed. Although most traditional versions are made from fish stock (dashi), it can be made with vegetable stock as well.
  • Korean cuisine has many dishes that are entirely composed of vegetarian ingredients. It includes bibimbap, rich in vegetables and low-fat, jeon, which can be easily understood as Korean version of pizza, made with kimchi, or with seafood and leek, and many others.
  • Many dishes in Thai cuisine can be made vegetarian if the main protein element is substituted by a vegetarian alternative such as tofu. This includes dishes such as phat khi mao and, if a vegetarian shrimp paste and fish sauce substitute is used, many Thai curries. Venues serving vegetarian Buddhist cuisine (ahan che; Thai: อาหารเจ) can be found all over Thailand.
  • Creole and Southern foods such as hush puppies, okra patties, rice and beans, or sauteed kale or collards, if not cooked with the traditional pork fat or meat stock.
  • Some Welsh recipes, including Glamorgan sausages, laverbread and Welsh rarebit.
  • Indonesian, including tempeh orek, tempeh bacem, tofu bacem


Desserts and sweets

Most desserts, including pies, cobblers, cakes, brownies, cookies, truffles, Rice Krispie treats (from gelatin-free marshmallows, or marshmallow fluff), peanut butter treats, pudding, rice pudding, ice cream, crème brulée, etc., are free of meat and fish and thus are suitable for ovo-lacto vegetarians. Oriental confectionery and desserts, such as halva, Turkish Delight, are mostly vegan, while others such as baklava (which often contains butter) are lacto vegetarian. Indian desserts and sweets are mostly vegetarian like peda, barfi, gulab jamun, shrikhand, basundi, kaju katri, rasgulla, cham cham, rajbhog etc. Indian sweets are mostly made from milk products and are thus lacto vegetarian; dry fruit-based sweets are vegan.

Cuisine that uses meat analogues

These are vegetarian versions of popular dishes that non-vegetarians enjoy and are frequently consumed as fast food, comfort food, transition food for new vegetarians, or a way to show non-vegetarians that they can be vegetarians while still enjoying their favorite foods. Many vegetarians just enjoy these dishes as part of a varied diet.

Some popular mock-meat dishes include:

  • Veggie burgers (burgers usually made from grains, TVP, seitan (wheat gluten), tempeh, and/or mushrooms)
  • Veggie dogs (usually made from TVP)
  • Imitation sausage (soysage, various types of 'salami', 'bologna', 'pepperoni', et al., made of some form of soy)
  • Mockmeat or 'meatyballs' (usually made from TVP)
  • Vegetarian or meatless 'chicken' (usually made from seitan, tofu or TVP)
  • Jambalaya (with mock sausage and mock chicken, usually made from TVP, seitan, or tempeh)
  • Tomato omelette where tomatoes and a paste of flour are used to produce a vegetable omelette without the use of eggs.
  • Scrambled eggs where tofu is mashed and fried with spices (often including turmeric, for its strong yellow color) to produce a dish that strongly resembles eggs.
  • When baking, eggs are easily replaced by ground flax seeds, applesauce, mashed bananas, or commercial egg replacer

Mycoprotein is another common base for mock-meats, and vegetarian flavorings are added to these bases, such as sea vegetables for a seafood taste.

Commercial products

Commercial products, marketed especially towards vegetarians and labeled as such, are available in most countries world wide, in varying amounts and quality. As example, in Australia, various vegetarian products are available in most of supermarket chains and a vegetarian shopping guide is provided by Vegetarian/Vegan Society of Queensland.[4] However, the biggest market for commercially vegetarian-labeled foods is India, with official governmental laws regulating the "vegetarian" and "non vegetarian" labels.

See also


Notes

References

Template:Vegetarianism

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