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Virginia Apgar

Virginia Apgar
Virginia Apgar (July 6, 1959)
Born (1909-06-07)June 7, 1909
Westfield, New Jersey
Died August 7, 1974(1974-08-07) (aged 65)
New York City

Virginia Apgar (7 June 1909–7 August 1974) was an American obstetrical anesthesiologist. She was a leader in the fields of anesthesiology and teratology, and introduced obstetrical considerations to the established field of neonatology. To the public, however, she is best known as the inventor of the Apgar score, a way to quickly assess the health of newborn children immediately after birth.


  • Early life and education 1
  • Work and research 2
  • Honors and awards 3
  • Selected works 4
  • References 5
  • Further reading 6
  • External links 7

Early life and education

The youngest of three children, Apgar was born and raised in

  • Virginia Apgar papers at Mount Holyoke College
  • Columbia biography
  • MIT biography
  • PBS
  • National Women's Hall of Fame
  • Full biography on

External links

  • Pearce JM (2005). "Virginia Apgar (1909-1974): neurological evaluation of the newborn infant". European Neurology 54 (3): 132–4.  
  • Goodwin JW (March 2002). "A personal recollection of Virginia Apgar". Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada 24 (3): 248–9.  
  • Goldman R, Blickstein I (February 2001). "Dr. Virginia Apgar--1909-1974" [Dr. Virginia Apgar--1909-1974]. Harefuah (in Hebrew) 140 (2): 177–8.  
  • Mazana Casanova JS (11 November 2000). "Virginia Apgar y su test posnatal medio siglo después" [Virginia Apgar and her postnatal test half a century later]. Anales Españoles De Pediatría (in Spanish) 53 (5): 469.  
  • Baskett TF (November 2000). "Virginia Apgar and the newborn Apgar score". Resuscitation 47 (3): 215–7.  
  • Jay V (1999). "On a historical note: Dr. Virginia apgar". Pediatric and Developmental Pathology 2 (3): 292–4.  
  • Morishima HO (November 1996). "Virginia Apgar (1909-1974)". The Journal of Pediatrics 129 (5): 768–70.  
  • Shampo MA, Kyle RA (July 1995). "Virginia Apgar--the Apgar score". Mayo Clinic Proceedings 70 (7): 680.  
  • Butterfield LJ (September 1994). "Virginia Apgar, MD, MPhH". Neonatal Network 13 (6): 81–3.  
  • Butterfield LJ (1994). "Virginia Apgar, MD, MPhH (1909-1974)". Journal of Perinatology 14 (4): 310.  
  • Ignatius J (1993). "Virginia Apgar 1909-1974" [Virginia Apgar 1909-1974]. Duodecim (in Finnish) 109 (1): 54–5.  
  • Appelgren L (April 1991). "The woman behind the Apgar score. Virginia Apgar. The woman behind the scoring system for quality control of the newborn" [The woman behind the Apgar score. Virginia Apgar. The woman behind the scoring system for quality control of the newborn].  
  • Wilhelmson-Lindell B (October 1990). "Virginia Apgar Award to Petter Karlberg. After 45 years of pioneering commission as a pediatrician, the research on body-soul-environment is tempting" [Virginia Apgar Award to Petter Karlberg. After 45 years of pioneering commission as a pediatrician, the research on body-soul-environment is tempting].  
  • Kovács J (September 1989). "In commemoration of Virginia Apgar" [In commemoration of Virginia Apgar]. Orvosi Hetilap (in Hungarian) 130 (38): 2049–50.  
  • Calmes SH (1984). "Virginia Apgar: a woman physician's career in a developing specialty". Journal of the American Medical Women's Association 39 (6): 184–8.  
  • Schoenberg DG, Schoenberg BS (January 1977). "Eponym: yes, Virginia, there is an Apgar score". Southern Medical Journal 70 (1): 101.  
  • Frey R, Bendixen H (January 1977). "In memoriam Virginia Apgar 1909-1974" [In memoriam Virginia Apgar 1909-1974]. Der Anaesthesist (in German) 26 (1): 45.  
  • James LS (1976). "Dedication to Virginia Apgar, MD". Birth Defects Original Article Series 12 (5): xx–xxi.  
  • James LS (January 1975). "Fond memories of Virginia Apgar". Pediatrics 55 (1): 1–4.  
  • James LW (December 1974). "Memories of Virginia Apgar". Teratology 10 (3): 213–5.  

Further reading

  1. ^ a b "The Virginia Apgar Papers: biographical information". Profiles in Science. National Library of Medicine. Retrieved May 17, 2014. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Amschler, Denise (1999). "Apgar, Virginia (1909-1974)". In Commire, Anne.  
  3. ^ a b c
  4. ^ "Dr. Virginia Apgar". Changing the Face of Medicine. National Library of Medicine. Retrieved May 23, 2014. 
  5. ^ Women in Medicine Exhibit Resources
  6. ^ Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
  7. ^ "ACOG Committee Opinion: The Apgar Score".  
  8. ^ a b c d e Todd P. Dezen, Elizabeth Lynch (2011). "March of Dimes Honors 100th Anniversary Of Virginia Apgar". White Plains, New York: March of Dimes Foundation. Retrieved 2014-14-14. 
  9. ^  
  10. ^ "Honorees: 2010 National Women’s History Month". Women's History Month.  


  • Apgar, Virginia (1973). Is my baby all right? A guide to birth defects. New York: Pocket Books.  
  • Apgar, Virginia (1953). "A proposal for a new method of evaluation of the newborn infant". Current Researches in Anesthesia & Analgesia 32 (4): 260–267.  

Selected works

Apgar has continued to earn posthumous recognition for her contributions and achievements. In 1994, she was honored by the United States Postal Service with a 20¢ Great Americans series postage stamp. In November 1995 she was inducted into the National Women's Hall of Fame in Seneca Falls, New York. In 1999 she was designated a Women's History Month Honoree by the National Women's History Project.[10]

Apgar was also a fellow of the New York Academy of Medicine, the American Public Health Association, and the New York Academy of Sciences.[2]

Honors and awards

While Apgar was frequently the first or only woman in a department to serve in a position or win an accolade, she avoided the organized women's movement, proclaiming that "women are liberated from the time they leave the womb".[1] Apgar was equally at home speaking to teens as she was to the movers and shakers of society. She spoke at March of Dimes Youth Conferences about teen pregnancy and congenital disorders at a time when these topics were considered taboo.[8] Apgar never married, and died on August 7, 1974 at Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center. She is buried at Fairview Cemetery in Westfield.

Throughout her career, Apgar maintained, with her characteristic optimism, that "women are liberated from the time they leave the womb," and that being female had not imposed significant limitations on her medical career. She avoided women's organizations and causes, for the most part. Though she sometimes privately expressed her frustration with gender inequalities (especially in the matter of salaries), she worked around these by consistently pushing into new fields where there was room to exercise her considerable energy and abilities.[3]

Apgar published over sixty scientific articles and numerous shorter essays for newspapers and magazines during her career, along with her book, Is My Baby All Right? She received many awards, including honorary doctorates from the Woman's Medical College of Pennsylvania (1964) and Mount Holyoke College (1965), the Elizabeth Blackwell Award from the American Medical Women's Association (1966), the Distinguished Service Award from the American Society of Anesthesiologists (1966), the Alumni Gold Medal for Distinguished Achievement from Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons (1973), and the Ralph M. Waters Award from the American Society of Anesthesiologists (1973). In 1973 she was also elected Woman of the Year in Science by the Ladies Home Journal.

Apgar brought her legendary energy and "people skills" to the new job. She traveled thousands of miles each year to speak to widely varied audiences about the importance of early detection of birth defects and the need for more research in this area. She proved an excellent ambassador for the NF, and the annual income of that organization more than doubled during her tenure there. She also served the National Foundation as Director of Basic Medical Research (1967-1968) and Vice-President for Medical Affairs (1971-1974). Her concerns for the welfare of children and families were combined with her talent for teaching in the 1972 book, "Is My Baby All Right?", written with Joan Beck. Apgar was also a lecturer (1965-1971) and then clinical professor (1971-1974) of pediatrics at Cornell University School of Medicine, where she taught teratology (the study of birth defects). She was the first to hold a faculty position in this new area of pediatrics. In 1973, she was appointed lecturer in medical genetics at the Johns Hopkins School of Public Health.[3]

During the rubella pandemic of 1964-65, Apgar became an outspoken advocate for universal vaccination to prevent mother-to-child transmission of rubella.[8] Rubella can cause serious congenital disorders if a woman becomes infected while pregnant. Between 1964-65, the United States had an estimated 12.5 million rubella cases, which led to 11,000 miscarriages or therapeutic abortions and 20,000 cases of congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). Of these, 2,100 died in infancy, 12,000 were deaf, 3,580 suffered blindness due to cataracts and/or microphthalmia, and 1,800 were mentally retarded. In New York City alone, CRS affected 1% of all births at that time.[9] Apgar also promoted effective use of Rh testing, which can identify women who are at risk for transmission of maternal antibodies across the placenta where they may subsequently bind with and destroy fetal red blood cells, resulting in fetal hydrops or even miscarriage.[8]

In 1959, Apgar left Columbia and earned a Master of Public Health degree from the Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health.[2] Also starting in 1959 until her death in 1974, Apgar worked for the March of Dimes Foundation, serving as vice president for Medical Affairs and directing its research program to prevent and treat birth defects.[8] Because gestational age is directly related to an infant’s Apgar score, Apgar was one of the first at the March of Dimes to bring attention to the problem of premature birth, now one of the March of Dimes top priorities.[8] During this time, she wrote and lectured extensively, authoring articles in popular magazines as well as research work.[2] In 1967, Apgar became vice president and director of basic research at The National Foundation-March of Dimes.[2]

In 1949, Apgar became the first woman to become a full professor at CUCPS,[5] where she remained until 1959.[2] During this time, she also did clinical and research work at the affiliated Sloane Hospital for Women.[6] In 1953, she introduced the first test, called the Apgar score, to assess the health of newborn babies. The Apgar score is calculated based on an infant's condition at one minute and five minutes after birth. If the five-minute Apgar score is low, additional scores may be assigned every five minutes.[7]

Virginia Apgar examining a newborn baby in 1966

Work and research

However, she was discouraged from practicing surgery by Allen Whipple, the chairman of surgery at CUCPS. She further trained in anesthesia, receiving certification as an anesthesiologist in 1937,[2] and returned to CUCPS in 1938 as director of the newly formed division of anesthesia.[4]


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