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Vladimir Putin

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Vladimir Putin

Vladimir Putin
Владимир Путин
2nd and 4th President of Russia
Assumed office
7 May 2012
Prime Minister Viktor Zubkov
Dmitry Medvedev
Preceded by Dmitry Medvedev
In office
7 May 2000 – 7 May 2008
Acting: 31 December 1999 – 7 May 2000
Prime Minister Mikhail Kasyanov
Mikhail Fradkov
Viktor Zubkov
Preceded by Boris Yeltsin
Succeeded by Dmitry Medvedev
Prime Minister of Russia
In office
8 May 2008 – 7 May 2012
President Dmitry Medvedev
Deputy Igor Shuvalov
Preceded by Viktor Zubkov
Succeeded by Dmitry Medvedev
In office
9 August 1999 – 7 May 2000
Acting: 9 August 1999 – 16 August 1999
President Boris Yeltsin
Deputy Viktor Khristenko
Mikhail Kasyanov
Preceded by Sergei Stepashin
Succeeded by Mikhail Kasyanov
Leader of the United Russia Party
In office
1 January 2008 – 30 May 2012
Preceded by Boris Gryzlov
Succeeded by Dmitry Medvedev
Director of the Federal Security Service
In office
25 July 1998 – 29 March 1999
President Boris Yeltsin
Preceded by Nikolay Kovalyov
Succeeded by Nikolai Patrushev
Personal details
Born Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin
(1952-10-07) 7 October 1952
Leningrad, Russian SFSR, Soviet Union
Political party Communist Party of the Soviet Union (1975-1991)
Our Home-Russia (1995–1999)
Unity (1999–2001)
Independent (1991–1995; 2001–2008)
United Russia (2008–present)
Other political
People's Front for Russia (2011–present)
Spouse(s) Lyudmila Putina (m. 1983–2014)[1]
Children Mariya
Alma mater Leningrad State University
Religion Russian Orthodox
Website Official website
Military service
Allegiance  Soviet Union
Service/branch KGB
Years of service 1975–1991
Rank Lieutenant Colonel

Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin (Russian: Влади́мир Влади́мирович Пу́тин; IPA:  ( ), born 7 October 1952 in Leningrad, Russian SFSR) has been the President of Russia since 7 May 2012. Putin previously served as President from 2000 to 2008, and as Prime Minister of Russia from 1999 to 2000 and again from 2008 to 2012. During his last term as Prime Minister, he was also the Chairman of United Russia, the ruling party.

For 16 years Putin was an officer in the KGB, rising to the rank of Lieutenant Colonel before he retired to enter politics in his native Saint Petersburg in 1991. He moved to Moscow in 1996 and joined President Boris Yeltsin's administration where he rose quickly, becoming Acting President on 31 December 1999 when Yeltsin unexpectedly resigned. Putin won the subsequent 2000 presidential election and was reelected in 2004. Because of constitutionally mandated term limits, Putin was ineligible to run for a third consecutive presidential term in 2008. Dmitry Medvedev won the 2008 presidential election and appointed Putin as Prime Minister, beginning a period of so-called "tandemocracy".[2] In September 2011, following a change in the law extending the presidential term from four years to six,[3] Putin announced that he would seek a third, non-consecutive term as President in the 2012 presidential election, an announcement which led to large-scale protests in many Russian cities. He won the election in March 2012 and is serving a six-year term.[4][5]

Many of Putin's actions are regarded by the domestic opposition and foreign observers as undemocratic.[6] The 2011 Democracy Index stated that Russia was in "a long process of regression [that] culminated in a move from a hybrid to an authoritarian regime" in view of Putin's candidacy and flawed parliamentary elections.[7] In 2014, Russia was excluded from the G8 group as a result of its annexation of Crimea.[8]

During Putin's first premiership and presidency (1999–2008), real incomes increased by a factor of 2.5, real wages more than tripled; unemployment and poverty more than halved, and the Russians' self-assessed life satisfaction rose significantly.[9] Putin's first presidency was marked by high economic growth: the Russian economy grew for eight straight years, seeing GDP increase by 72% in PPP (as for nominal GDP, 600%).[9][10][11][12][13] As Russia's president, Putin and the Federal Assembly passed into law a flat income tax of 13%, a reduced profits tax, and new land and legal codes.[14][15] As Prime Minister, Putin oversaw large-scale military and police reform. His energy policy has affirmed Russia's position as an energy superpower. Putin supported high-tech industries such as the nuclear and defence industries. A rise in foreign investment[16] contributed to a boom in such sectors as the automotive industry. However, capital investment recently dropped 2.5% because of the crisis in Ukraine according to forecasts by economists from the IMF.[17] Putin has cultivated an image of a strongman and a popular cultural icon in Russia.


  • Ancestry, early life and education 1
  • KGB career 2
  • Political career 3
    • Saint Petersburg administration (1990–1996) 3.1
    • Early Moscow career (1996–1999) 3.2
    • First Premiership (1999) 3.3
    • Acting Presidency (1999–2000) 3.4
    • First Presidential term (2000–2004) 3.5
    • Second Presidential term (2004–2008) 3.6
    • Second Premiership (2008–2012) 3.7
    • Third Presidential term (2012–present) 3.8
      • Intervention in Ukraine and annexation of Crimea 3.8.1
  • Domestic policies 4
    • Economic, industrial, and energy policies 4.1
    • Environmental policy 4.2
    • Religious policy 4.3
    • Military development 4.4
    • Human rights policy 4.5
  • Foreign policy 5
    • Relations with Europe, NATO and its member nations 5.1
    • Relations with South and East Asia 5.2
    • Relations with Middle Eastern and North African countries 5.3
    • Relations with post-Soviet states 5.4
    • Relations with Australia, Latin America, and others 5.5
  • Speeches 6
    • Addresses to the Federal Assembly 6.1
    • Speeches abroad 6.2
    • Outdoor speeches 6.3
  • Public image 7
    • Ratings, polls and assessments 7.1
    • Outdoorsiness, singing, painting, songs about him, brands, sayings 7.2
  • Personal life 8
    • Family 8.1
    • Personal wealth and residences 8.2
    • Languages 8.3
    • Religion 8.4
    • Martial arts 8.5
    • Other sports 8.6
    • Pets 8.7
    • Weight and height 8.8
  • Recognition 9
  • Bibliography 10
    • Academic works 10.1
    • Journalist works 10.2
  • References 11
  • Further reading 12
  • External links 13

Ancestry, early life and education

Putin's father, Vladimir Spiridonovich Putin

Putin was born on 7 October 1952, in Leningrad (modern day Saint Petersburg), Russian SFSR, Soviet Union,[18] to parents Vladimir Spiridonovich Putin (1911–1999) and Maria Ivanovna Putina (née Shelomova; 1911–1998). His mother was a factory worker, and his father was a conscript in the Soviet Navy, where he served in the submarine fleet in the early 1930s, and later served on the front lines in the demolition battalion of the NKVD during World War II[19][20][21][22] and was severely wounded in 1942.[23] Two elder brothers, Viktor and Albert, were born in the mid-1930s; Albert died within a few months of birth, while Viktor succumbed to diphtheria during the siege of Leningrad in World War II. Vladimir Putin's paternal grandfather, Spiridon Ivanovich Putin (1879–1965), was a chef who at one time or another cooked for Vladimir Lenin, Lenin's wife Nadezhda Krupskaya, and on several occasions for Joseph Stalin.[24] Putin's maternal grandmother was killed by the German occupiers of Tver region in 1941, and his maternal uncles disappeared at the war front.[24]

The ancestry of Vladimir Putin has been described as a mystery with no records surviving of any ancestors of any people with the surname "Putin" beyond his grandfather Spiridon Ivanovich. His autobiography, Ot Pervogo Litsa (English: In the First Person),[19] which is based on Putin's interviews, speaks of humble beginnings, including early years in a communal apartment, shared by several families, in Leningrad. Two Russian journalists speculate on a newspaper article that Putin's ancestry might be linked to Putyanin clan, "one of the oldest clans in the Russian history", based on pretended physical similarities to a 13th-century individual, lack of online sources linked to the family name Putin and the similarity of its spelling with that clan's name.[25]

Putin with his mother, Maria Ivanovna, in July 1958
On 1 September 1960, he started at School No. 193 at
  • Media related to at Wikimedia Commons
  • Quotations related to Vladimir Putin at Wikiquote
  • Official personal website
  • Official site of the President of Russia
  • Vladimir Putin at DMOZ

External links

  • Asmus, Ronald. A Little War that Shook the World : Georgia, Russia, and the Future of the West. NYU (2010). ISBN 978-0-230-61773-5

Further reading

  1. ^ Allen, Cooper (2 April 2014). "Putin divorce finalized, Kremlin says". USA Today. 
  2. ^ Hale, Henry E.; Timothy J. Colton (8 September 2009). "Russians and the Putin-Medvedev "Tandemocracy": A Survey-Based Portrait of the 2007–08 Election Season". The National Council for Eurasian and East European Research (Seattle, WA: University of Washington). Retrieved 15 March 2012. 
  3. ^ Vasilyeva, Natallya. "Putin claims to support term limits as he readies to take helm for 3rd time", China Post (12 April 2012).
  4. ^ "Putin Hails Vote Victory, Opponents Cry Foul". RIA Novosti. Retrieved 22 June 2013. 
  5. ^ "Elections in Russia: World Awaits for Putin to Reclaim the Kremlin". The World Reporter. March 2012. Retrieved March 2012. 
  6. ^ Treisman, D. "Is Russia's Experiment with Democracy Over?". UCLA International Institute. Retrieved 31 December 2007. 
  7. ^ Democracy Index 2011,å%20arbetar%20vi/EIU_Democracy_Index_Dec2011.pdf
  8. ^ U.S., other powers kick Russia out of G8, CNN
  9. ^ a b Guriev, Sergei; Tsyvinski, Aleh (2010). "Challenges Facing the Russian Economy after the Crisis". In Anders Åslund, Sergei Guriev, Andrew C. Kuchins. Russia After the Global Economic Crisis. Peterson Institute for International Economics; Centre for Strategic and International Studies; New Economic School. pp. 12–13.  
  10. ^ a b "Russians weigh Putin's protégé". Moscow. Associated Press. 3 May 2008. Retrieved 29 December 2008. 
  11. ^ of Russia from 1992 to 2007 International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 12 May 2008
  12. ^ a b c d e f "Russia's economy under Vladimir Putin: achievements and failures". RIA Novosti. Retrieved 22 June 2013. 
  13. ^ a b Putin's Economy – Eight Years On. Russia Profile, 15 August 2007. Retrieved 23 April 2008
  14. ^ "The Putin Paradox". 24 June 2004. Retrieved 2 March 2010. 
  15. ^ a b Sharlet, Robert (2005). "In Search of the Rule of Law". In White, Gitelman, Sakwa. Developments in Russian Politics 6. Duke University Press.  
  17. ^ "IMF cuts Russia 2014 growth outlook, cites Ukraine risk". Reuters. 
  18. ^ Biography at the Russia's Prime Minister web site at the Wayback Machine (archived 14 May 2010), in Russian
  19. ^ a b Vladimir Putin, Nataliya Gevorkyan, Natalya Timakova, Andrei Kolesnikov (2000). First Person. trans. Catherine A. Fitzpatrick.  
  20. ^ First Person An Astonishingly Frank Self-Portrait by Russia's President Vladimir Putin The New York Times, 2000
  21. ^ Putin's Obscure Path From KGB to Kremlin Los Angeles Times, 19 March 2000
  22. ^ Portrait of the Young Vladimir Putin Newsweek and the Daily Beast, 20 February 2012
  23. ^ a b c d (Sakwa 2008, p. 3)
  24. ^ a b (Sakwa 2008, p. 2)
  25. ^ The Mysterious Genealogy of Russian President Putin - English
  26. ^ "Prime Minister". Retrieved 24 September 2011. 
  27. ^ theme: Russian: «Принцип наиболее благоприятствуемой нации»Выпускники за 1975 год at the Wayback Machine (archived 2 April 2012). Saint Petersburg State University's website. ("The principle of most favored nation").
  28. ^ Lynch, Allen. Vladimir Putin and Russian Statecraft, p. 15 (Potomac Books 2011).
  29. ^ Владимир Путин. От Первого Лица. Chapter 6
  30. ^ a b c d  
  31. ^ (Sakwa 2008, pp. 8–9)
  32. ^ a b Hoffman, David (30 January 2000). "Putin's Career Rooted in Russia's KGB". The Washington Post. 
  33. ^ "Putin set to visit Dresden, the place of his work as a KGB spy, to tend relations with Germany". International Herald Tribune. 9 October 2006. 
  34. ^ a b Gessen, Masha (2012). The Man Without a Face: The Unlikely Rise of Vladimir Putin (1st ed.). New York City, New York: Riverhead. p. 60.  
  35. ^ a b Sakwa, Richard (2007). Putin : Russia's Choice (2nd ed.). Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge. p. 10.  
  36. ^ R. Sakwa Putin: Russia's Choice, pp. 10–11
  37. ^ R. Sakwa Putin: Russia's Choice, p. 11
  38. ^  
  39. ^ Archived February 21, 2007 at the Wayback Machine
  40. ^ Kovalev, Vladimir (23 July 2004). "Uproar at Honor For Putin". The Saint Petersburg Times. 
  41. ^ Hoffman, David (30 January 2000). "Putin's Career Rooted in Russia's KGB". The Washington Post. 
  42. ^ Putin's Name Surfaces in German Probe at the Wayback Machine (archived September 27, 2007) by Catherine Belton
  43. ^ Walsh, Nick Paton (29 February 2004). "The Man Who Wasn't There". The Observer.
  44. ^ a b c Владимир Путин: от ассистента Собчака до и.о. премьера (in Russian). GAZETA.RU. 
  45. ^ "ПУТИН — КАНДИДАТ НАУК" (in Russian). 24 May 2000. 
  46. ^ Gustafson, Thane. Wheel of Fortune: The Battle for Oil and Power in Russia, p. 246 (Harvard University Press, 2012).
  47. ^ a b "It All Boils Down to Plagiarism". 31 March 2006. Retrieved 2 March 2010. 
  48. ^ a b Maxim Shishkin, Dmitry Butrin; Mikhail Shevchuk. "The President as Candidate". Kommersant. Retrieved 30 March 2010. 
  49. ^ "Researchers peg Putin as plagiarist over thesis".  
  50. ^ The Half-Decay Products (in Russian) by Oleg Odnokolenko. Itogi, #47(545), 2 January 2007.
  51. ^ "Text of Yeltsin's speech in English". BBC News. 9 August 1999. Retrieved 31 May 2007. 
  52. ^ Yeltsin redraws political map BBC, 10 August 1999
  53. ^ "Yeltsin's man wins approval". BBC News. 16 August 1999. Retrieved 22 June 2013. 
  54. ^ Richard Sakwa Putin: Russia's choice, 2008. p. 20.
  55. ^ Political groups and parties: Unity at the Wayback Machine (archived 2 July 2001) Norsk Utenrikspolitisk Institutt
  57. ^ Александр Колесниченко. Развращение" первого лица. Госдума не решилась покуситься на неприкосновенность экс-президента""". Retrieved 22 June 2013. 
  58. ^ Ignatius, Adi. Person of the Year 2007: A Tsar Is Born, Time, page 4 (19 December 2007). Retrieved 19 November 2009.
  59. ^ a b c History of Presidential Elections in Russia: Infographics RIAN
  60. ^ a b Spectre of Kursk haunts Putin, BBC News, 12 August 2001
  61. ^ Putin: Russia's Choice, By Richard Sakwa, (Routledge, 2008) page 143-150
  62. ^ Playing Russian Roulette: Putin in search of good governance, by Andre Mommen, in Good Governance in the Era of Global Neoliberalism: Conflict and Depolitisation in Latin America, Eastern Europe, Asia, and Africa, By Jolle Demmers, Alex E. Fernández Jilberto, Barbara Hogenboom (Routledge, 2004)
  63. ^ Moscow siege leaves dark memories, BBC News, 16 December 2002
  64. ^ "Can Grozny be groovy?".  
  65. ^ "Human Rights Watch Reports, on human rights abuses in Chechnya". Human Rights Watch. Archived from the original on 21 November 2006. Retrieved 22 June 2013. 
  66. ^ Russia Factbook Central Intelligence Agency
  67. ^ "The challenges of the Medvedev era". BOFIT Online (Bank of Finland). 24 June 2008.  
  68. ^ a b c Путин очертил "дорожную карту" третьего срока BBC
  69. ^ How to Steal Legally The Moscow Times, 15 February 2008 (issue 3843, page 8).
  70. ^ Putin’s Gamble. Where Russia is headed by Nikolas Gvosdev,, 5 November 2003.
  71. ^ Putin's Kremlin Asserting More Control of Economy. Yukos Case Reflects Shift on Owning Assets, Notably in Energy by Peter Baker, The Washington Post, 9 July 2004.
  72. ^ "Hague court awards $50 bn compensation to Yukos shareholders". Russia Herald. Retrieved 29 July 2014. 
  73. ^ Andrei Yakovlev State-business relations and improvement of corporate governance in Russia Bank of Finland Institute for Economies in Transition, 29 December 2008
  74. ^ "Putin's Russia failed to protect this brave woman – Joan Smith". The Independent (London). 9 October 2006. Retrieved 22 June 2013. 
  75. ^ Anna Politkovskaya, Prominent Russian Journalist, Putin Critic and Human Rights Activist, Murdered in Moscow, Democracy Now
  76. ^ Answers on questions asked during interview to ARD TV channel (Germany), Dresden, 10 October 2006
  77. ^ "The accused of murder of Anna Politkovskaya name possible clients" (in Русский). Information Telegraph Agency of Russia. 29 February 2012. Retrieved 7 May 2012. 
  78. ^ Lee, Steven (10 March 2007). "Kasparov, Building Opposition to Putin". The New York Times (Russia). Retrieved 2 March 2010. 
  79. ^ "Garry Kasparov jailed over rally". BBC News. 24 November 2007. Retrieved 9 April 2010. 
  80. ^ VCIOM: Dissenters' Marches Do Not Interest Russians,, 3 July 2007
  81. ^ "Putin Dissolves Government, Nominates Viktor Zubkov as New Prime Minister". Fox News Channel. 12 September 2007. Retrieved 2 March 2010. 
  82. ^ Election Preliminary Results for United Russia, 4 December 2007,
  83. ^ Russians Voted In Favour of Putin, 4 December 2007, Izvestia
  84. ^ Assenters' March, 3 December 2007, Izvestia
  85. ^ Будущий премьер Путин намерен лично контролировать губернаторов 30 April 2008.
  86. ^ )The chief of governors. The future premier intends to personally check regional leaders.Губернаторов начальник. Будущий премьер намерен лично контролировать региональных руководителей ( Nezavisimaya gazeta 30 April 2008.
  87. ^ Putin Is Approved as Prime Minister
  88. ^ "Russian Economic Reports". World Bank. 10 November 2009. Retrieved 2 March 2010. 
  89. ^ "Russia's Putin set to return as president in 2012". BBC News. 24 September 2011. Retrieved 24 September 2011. 
  90. ^ Paul Bummer. "7 статей и джек-пот: Путин завершил серию публикаций". Retrieved 7 May 2012. 
  91. ^ Russian election protests – follow live updates, The Guardian. Retrieved 10 December 2011
  92. ^ Как митинг на Поклонной собрал около 140 000 человек (Russian)
  93. ^ a b ‘We Won in Fair and Open Fight' – Putin RIAN
  94. ^ a b c Putin Supporters Fill Moscow Stadium RIAN
  95. ^ "Russia’s presidential election marked by unequal campaign conditions, active citizens’ engagement, international observers say".  
  96. ^ Elder, Miriam (17 August 2012). "Pussy Riot sentenced to two years in prison colony over anti-Putin protest". The Guardian (London). 
  97. ^ Провокация вместо марша
  98. ^ "Russian police battle anti-Putin protesters". Reuters. 6 May 2012. Retrieved 7 May 2012. 
  99. ^ СК пересчитал пострадавших полицейских во время "Марша миллионов"
  100. ^ Parfitt, Tom (7 May 2012). "Vladimir Putin inauguration shows how popularity has crumbled". The Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved 7 May 2012. 
  101. ^ "Vladimir Putin inaugurated as Russian president amid Moscow protests". Guardian. 7 May 2012. Retrieved 20 January 2014. 
  102. ^ Putin Inaugurated; States Intention for Russia to Be "Center of Gravity for the Whole of Eurasia", May 8, 2012""". Retrieved 22 June 2013. 
  103. ^ Putin decrees EU closeness policy", Voice of Russia, May 7, 2012""". 7 May 2012. Retrieved 22 June 2013. 
  104. ^ """Госдума приняла закон о "нетрадиционных отношениях.  
  105. ^ "ГД приняла закон об усилении наказания за пропаганду гомосексуализма среди подростков".  
  106. ^ SPIEGEL ONLINE, Hamburg, Germany (6 April 2012). Discrimination in Russia: Arrests for Violation of St. Petersburg Anti-Gay Law", Spiegel Online, April, 06, 2012""". SPIEGEL ONLINE. 
  107. ^ Russian parliament backs ban on "gay propaganda", Reuters, 25 January 2013""". Reuters. 
  108. ^ "Russia moves to enact laws against 'homosexual propaganda'", Fox news, 21 January 2013
  109. ^ Jivanda, Tomas (19 January 2014). "'"Vladimir Putin: 'I know some people who are gay, we're on friendly terms. The Independent (London). Retrieved 8 February 2014. 
  110. ^ homophobic" Putin hugs openly bisexual iceskater""" (in Nederlands). 2014-02-10. Retrieved 2014-03-24. 
  111. ^ Putin becomes Popular Front for Russia leader, Interfax-Ukraine (13 June 2013)
  112. ^ "Echo of Soviet era in Putin's bid for votes".  
  113. ^ "Putin inaugurates new movement amid fresh protests". BBC. 12 June 2013. Retrieved 12 June 2013. 
  114. ^ Reuters (3 March 2014). "Ousted Ukrainian President Asked For Russian Troops, Envoy Says". NBC News. Retrieved 21 March 2014. 
  115. ^ "Putin to deploy Russian troops in Ukraine". BBC News. 1 March 2014. Retrieved 1 March 2014. 
  116. ^ |title=Russian Parliament approves use of army in Ukraine.
  117. ^ a b Walker, Shaun (4 March 2014). "Russian takeover of Crimea will not descend into war, says Vladimir Putin".  
  118. ^ a b Yoon, Sangwon; Krasnolutska, Daryna; Choursina, Kateryna (4 March 2014). "Russia Stays in Ukraine as Putin Channels Yanukovych Request".  
  119. ^ 16 March 2014, David Herszenhornmarch, The New York Times, "Crimea Votes to Secede From Ukraine as Russian Troops Keep Watch"
  120. ^ US imposes second wave of sanctions on Russia
  121. ^ Third Wave of Sanctions Slams Russian Stocks
  122. ^ Putin admits Russian forces were deployed to Crimea, Reuters (April 17, 2014)
    Obama and Putin in war of words: Moscow denies troops in Crimea are Russian while Washington says 'You're not fooling anyone', Mail Online (4 March 2014)
  123. ^ Jews reject Russia claims of Ukraine anti-Semitism, BBC News (12 November 2014)
  124. ^ Putin condemns Ukraine's new authorities, says opened way for 'neo-Nazis', Reuters (March 18, 2014)
  125. ^ a b Ukraine crisis: Putin signs Russia-Crimea treaty, BBC, 18 March 2014
    "Crimea, Sevastopol officially join Russia as Putin signs final decree". RT. 22 March 2014. Retrieved 9 April 2014. 
    Transcript: Putin says Russia will protect the rights of Russians abroad, (18 March 2014)
  126. ^ Ukraine crisis timeline, BBC News
  127. ^ The Wall Street Journal, 17 April 2014, LAURENCE NORMAN and JAY SOLOMON in Geneva and LUKAS I. ALPERT in Moscow.
  128. ^ HERSZENHORN, DAVID M. (17 April 2014). "Away From Show of Diplomacy in Geneva, Putin Puts On a Show of His Own". (The New York Times Company). Retrieved 17 April 2014. 
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  130. ^ a b CNBC, Putin: Russia looks East, will respect Ukraine poll, by Geoff Cutmore and Catherine Boyle, 23 May 2014.
  131. ^ UPDATE 2-Putin sounds conciliatory note on visit to annexed Ukraine region, Reuters (Aug 14, 2014)
  132. ^ "Eastern Ukraine tensions figure in Putin and Poroshenko talks". Moscow News.Net. 26 August 2014. Retrieved 28 August 2014. 
  133. ^ East Ukraine separatists hold vote to gain legitimacy, promise normalcy, Reuters (30 October 2014)
  134. ^ Russia: Putin lights candles for Novorossiya, RT via Youtube (10 September 2014)
  135. ^ "Ukraine separatists to go ahead with referendum despite Putin call for delay". The Guardian. 8 May 2014
  136. ^ a b c Putin: Russia won't allow a rebel defeat in Ukraine, USA Today (17 November 2014)
    Putin promises not allow separatists’ defeat, speaks about 'single political space' in Donbas (VIDEO), Kyiv Post (18 November 2014)
  137. ^ a b c d e Putin delivers keynote speech on economy, Ukraine, Reuters (4 December 2014)
    Putin: Crimea is as sacred to Russia as Temple Mount for Judaism and Islam, Haaretz (4 December 2014)
    In Kremlin speech, Putin rails at West, tries to bolster economy as recession looms, (4 December 2014)
    Putin talks about Ukraine's economy, blames West in his annual address, Kyiv Post (4 December 2014)
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  143. ^ Putin tightens grip on security, BBC News, 13 September 2004.
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  147. ^ "State Duma Approves Liberal Political Reforms". RIA Novosti. 28 February 2012. Retrieved 7 May 2012. 
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  411. ^ Wong, Edward (15 November 2011). "In China, Confucius Prize Awarded to Putin". The New York Times. Retrieved 15 November 2011. 
  412. ^ "B92 News: Belgrade University to award Putin honorary doctorate". Retrieved 11 June 2012. 


  • Gessen, Masha, The Man Without a Face : the unlikely rise of Vladimir Putin, New York : RIVERHEAD BOOKS, 2012. ISBN 9781594488429

Journalist works

  • Burrett, Tina. Television and Presidential Power in Putin's Russia (Routledge; 2010) 300 pages
  • Kanet Roger E., ed. Russian Foreign Policy in the 21st Century (Palgrave Macmillan; 2011) 295 pages; essays by experts
  • Sakwa, Richard (2008). Russian politics and society (4th ed.). Abingdon, Oxfordshire and  

Academic works



As of 2011, Putin weighted 77 kg (170 pounds).[401] His height is 170 cm (5'7") according to The Guardian,[402] or 169 cm (5'7") according to the Moscow Times.[403] Therefore, his body mass index is 26.6 to 27.0.

Weight and height

In 2010 Bulgarian Prime Minister Boyko Borisov gave Putin a Karakachan dog who was then named Buffy according to a suggestion by a five-year old boy from Moscow, Dima Sokolov.[400]

Putin owns a female black Labrador Retriever named Koni, given as a gift in 2000 by General of the Army and Russia's Minister of Emergency Situations Sergey Shoigu. Koni is often seen at Putin's side and has been known to accompany him into staff meetings and greet world leaders. In fact, when Putin first met Angela Merkel, he brought Koni along knowing that Merkel had a fear of dogs, having been bitten by one as a child.[396] In 2003 Koni gave birth to eight pups which were later given as presents to Russian citizens, politicians and foreign ambassadors.[397] Koni gained additional fame in 2004 when the largest Russian publisher of children's books published a book entitled Connie's Stories.[398] In 2008 Koni became the first recipient of a GLONASS-enabled pet collar to highlight the progress of the Russian global navigation satellite system.[399]

Putin's Labrador Koni wearing GLONASS-enabled collar in October 2008.


Putin also enjoys watching football and supports FC Zenit Saint Petersburg, the main team of his native city.[395]

[394].2011 World Junior Ice Hockey Championships who had won the Russia men's national junior ice hockey team after he promised to do so on a meeting with the ice hockey and playing ice skating Putin also started to learn [393] playing badminton, cycling and fishing.[392],Krasnaya Polyana in alpine skiing, promoting sports and healthy way of life among Russians: they were seen Dmitry MedvedevPutin often is seen on outdoor activities with
Putin and Medvedev on skis at Krasnaya Polyana ski resort, March 2012

Other sports

In 2013, Putin re-introduced the GTO physical fitness program to Russia[389] with the support of Steven Seagal.[390][391]

Putin also holds an 8th dan black belt in Kyokushin kaikan karate gotten in November, 2014.[387] He was presented the black belt in December 2009 by Japanese champion Kyokushin Karate-Do master Hatsuo Royama.[388]

Though he is not the first world leader to practice judo, Putin is the first leader to move forward into the advanced levels. Currently, Putin holds a 6th dan (red/white belt)[386] and is best known for his Harai Goshi (sweeping hip throw). Putin earned Master of Sports (Soviet and Russian sport title) in judo in 1975 and in sambo in 1973. At a state visit to Japan, Putin was invited to the Kodokan Institute, the judo headquarters, where he showed different judo techniques to the students and Japanese officials.

One of Putin's favorite sports is the martial art of judo. Putin began training in sambo (a martial art that originated in the Soviet Union) at the age of 14, before switching to judo, which he continues to practice today.[384] Putin won competitions in his hometown of Leningrad (now Saint Petersburg), including the senior championships of Leningrad in both sambo and judo. He is the President of the Yawara Dojo, the same Saint Petersburg dojo he practiced at when young. Putin co-authored a book on his favorite sport, published in Russian as Judo with Vladimir Putin and in English under the title Judo: History, Theory, Practice (2004).[385]

Vladimir Putin
Putin on a tatami at the Kodokan Institute in Tokyo on 5 September 2000.
Height 1.70 m (5' 7")[383]
Teacher(s) Anatoly Rahlin, Hatsuo Royama
Rank Sambo:
Master of Sports,
     Champion of Leningrad
         6th degree black belt,
     Champion of Leningrad
Kyokushin kaikan:
         6th dan black belt
Years active 1966–present
Occupation President of Russia

Martial arts

According to Putin's own statements, his religious awakening followed the serious car crash of his wife in 1993, and was deepened by a life-threatening fire that burned down their dacha in August 1996.[381] Right before an official visit to Israel his mother gave him his baptismal cross telling him to get it blessed "I did as she said and then put the cross around my neck. I have never taken it off since."[23] When asked whether he believes in God during his interview with Time, he responded saying: "...There are things I believe, which should not in my position, at least, be shared with the public at large for everybody's consumption because that would look like self-advertising or a political striptease."[382]

Putin's father was "a model communist, genuinely believing in its ideals while trying to put them into practice in his own life". With this dedication he became secretary of the Party cell in his workshop and then after taking night classes joined the factory's Party bureau.[23] Though his father was a "militant atheist",[381] Putin's mother "was a devoted Orthodox believer". Though she kept no icons at home, she attended church regularly, despite the government's persecution of the Russian Orthodox Church at that time. She ensured that Putin was secretly christened as a baby and she regularly took him to services. His father knew of this but turned a blind eye.[23]

Putin and wife Lyudmila in New York City at service for victims of September 11 attacks, 16 November 2001.


Apart from Russian, Putin speaks fluent German. His family used to speak German at home as well.[378] After becoming President he was reported to be taking English lessons and could be seen conversing directly with Bush and native speakers of English in informal situations, but he continues to use interpreters for formal talks. Putin spoke English in public for the first time during the state dinner in Buckingham Palace in 2003 saying but a few phrases while delivering his condolences to Queen Elizabeth II on the death of her mother.[379] In an interview in 2013, the Kremlin chief of staff Sergei Ivanov revealed that he and Putin sometimes conversed in Swedish.[380]


Some of the residences include: Gorki-9 near Moscow, Bocharov Ruchey in Sochi, Dolgiye Borody in Novgorod Oblast, Novo-Ogaryovo in Moscow Oblast and Riviera in Sochi (the latter two were left for Putin when he was Prime-Minister in 2008–2012, others were used by Dmitry Medvedev at that period).[376] Furthermore, a massive Italianate-style mansion costing an alleged US$1 billion[366] and dubbed "Putin's Palace" is under construction near the Black Sea village of Praskoveevka. The mansion, built on government land and sporting 3 helipads, a private road paid for from state funds and guarded by officials wearing uniforms of the official Kremlin guard service, is said to have been built for Putin's private use. In 2012 Sergei Kolesnikov, a former business associate of Putin's, told the BBC's Newsnight programme, that he had been ordered by deputy prime minister, Igor Sechin, to oversee the building of it.[377]

Barack Obama meets with Putin at his dacha outside Moscow, July 2009

As President and then Prime-Minister, apart from the Moscow Kremlin and the White House, Putin has used numerous official residences throughout the country. In August 2012 Nemtsov listed 20 villas and palaces, 9 of which were built during Putin's 12 years in power. This compares to the President of the United States' 2 official residences.[375]

Not long after he returned from his KGB service in Dresden, East Germany Putin built a dacha in Solovyovka on the eastern shore of Lake Komsomolskoye on the Karelian Isthmus in Priozersky District of Leningrad Oblast, near St. Petersburg. The dacha had burned down in 1996. Putin built a new one identical to the original and was joined by a group of seven friends who built dachas beside his. In the fall of 1996, the group formally registered their fraternity as a co-operative society, calling it Ozero (Lake) and turning it into a gated community.[374]

Putin arrived at the 14th International Biker Rally in Sevastopol, Crimea, July 24, 2010

Unconfirmed claims by some Russian opposition politicians and journalists allege that Putin secretly possesses a large fortune (as much as $70 billion[369]) via successive ownership of stakes in a number of Russian companies.[370][371] Nina L. Khrushcheva of the The New School estimates his net worth to be between $40–70 billion.[372] Asked at a press conference on 14 February 2008 whether he was the richest person in Europe, as some newspapers claimed; and if so, to state the source of his wealth, Putin said "This is plain chatter, not worthy discussion, plain bosh. They have picked this in their noses and have smeared this across their pieces of paper. This is how I view this."[373]

Putin's purported 2006 income totalled 2 million rubles (approximately $80,000).[367] According to the data Putin did not make it into the 100 wealthiest Duma candidates of his own United Russia party.[368]

"Putin's Palace" allegedly built for him[366]

Figures released during the legislative election of 2007 put Putin's wealth at approximately 3.7 million rubles ($150,000 USD) in bank accounts, a private 77.4-square-meter (833 sq ft) apartment in Saint Petersburg, 260 shares of Bank Saint Petersburg (with a December 2007 market price $5.36 per share[364]) and two 1960s-era Volga M21 cars that he inherited from his father and does not register for on-road use. In 2012 Putin reported an income of 3.6 million rubles ($113,000). This has led opponents, such as politician Boris Nemtsov, to question how Putin can afford certain possessions, such as his 11 luxury watches worth an estimated $700,000.[365]

Personal wealth and residences

Another relative is Roman Putin, CEO of Putin Consulting,[363] a firm aiming "to facilitate entrance into the Russian market, to minimize the transaction and administrative barriers, and to ensure complex business security".

One of Vladimir Putin's relatives is Viktor Medvedchuk – the Ukrainian business oligarch influential until the 2004 Orange Revolution. Putin became the godfather of Medvedchuk's daughter Darina in 2004.[359][360] The two maintain regular relations since,[360][361] with their meetings sometimes covered by the Russian state-controlled TV channels.[362]

Putin´s own comment in a televised interview is that "both his daughters live in Moscow, where they're combining their studies with part-time work. “I’m proud of them”, said Putin.[358]

According to an article in the newspaper De Pers, Mariya is married to a native of the Netherlands, Jorrit Faassen.[354][355] The couple live in Voorschoten, Netherlands.[356][357]

According to the Daily Mail, their photographs have never been published by the Russian media, and no family portrait has ever been issued.[348] The Sunday Times has published one picture of Mariya with her parents.[353]

Putin and his ex-wife have two daughters, Mariya Putina (born 28 April 1985 in Leningrad, Soviet Union) and Yekaterina Putina (born 31 August 1986 in Dresden, East Germany). The daughters grew up in East Germany[351] and attended the German School in Moscow until his appointment as Prime Minister. After that they studied international economics at the Finance Academy in Moscow, although it was not officially reported due to security reasons. Official sources such as Pravda claim they started their studies at St Petersburg State University, with Mariya at the biology and geology department and Yekaterina at "the oriental studies section of the University's philological department. It is the most prestigious section of the department that graduates future diplomats."[352]

Putin with family in Primorsky Krai, Russian Far East, 2002

Putin has been linked by newspapers with other women, including gymnast Alina Kabayeva[346][347] and ex-spy Anna Chapman.[348][349] These rumours have been denied.[350] Putin and Lyudmila announced on 6 June 2013 that their marriage was over. The Kremlin confirmed on 2 April 2014 the divorce had been finalised.

Mrs. Putin was rarely seen with her husband.[346][347] There were rumours, according to the Daily Mail and other newspapers, that the couple had separated.[346][347][348]

On 28 July 1983 Putin married Kaliningrad-born Lyudmila Shkrebneva, at that time an undergraduate student of the Spanish branch of the philology department of the Leningrad State University and a former Aeroflot flight attendant. They lived together in Germany from 1985 to 1990. During this time, according to BND archives, a German spy befriended Putina, who said that Putin beat her and had love affairs.[345] When the couple left Germany in 1990 it was rumoured that Putin left behind an illegitimate child.[345]

First ladies Lyudmila Putina and Laura Bush in Moscow, 2003


Personal life

  • To bump off in a toilet. Made in 1999, when he promised to destroy terrorists wherever they were found, including in toilets.[342][343]
  • She sank. Curt and self-evident answer to a question from Larry King in 2000 asking what happened to the Russian submarine K-141 Kursk.[342]
  • Ploughed like a slave on a galley. This is how Putin described his work as President of Russia from 2000 to 2008 during a Q&A conference in 2008.[341]
  • Ears of a dead ass. According to Putin, that was what Latvia would receive instead of the land claimed by Latvia in a territorial dispute.[341]
  • At the very least, a state leader should have a head. Putin's response to Hillary Clinton's claim that Putin has no soul. He recommended that international relations be built without emotion and instead on the basis of the fundamental interests of the states involved.[342]
  • Shearing a pig- In 2013, Putin responded to complaints that he was harboring whistleblower Edward Snowden, saying that he does not wish to get involved in this issue because "it's like shearing a pig – lots of screams but little wool". (визгу много, шерсти мало).[344]

Putin has produced a large number of popular aphorisms and catch-phrases, known as putinisms.[341] Many of them were first made during his annual Q&A conferences, where Putin answered questions from journalists and other people in the studio, as well as from Russians throughout the country, who either phoned in or spoke from studios and outdoor sites across Russia. Putin is known for his often tough and sharp language.[341] The examples of most popular putinisms include:[342]

During annual Q&A conference
Asserting that the Russian non-systemic opposition work for foreign interests: Come to me, Bandar-logs![340]

A Russian movie called A Kiss not for Press was premiered in 2008 on DVD. The movie is said to be based on biography of Vladimir Putin and his wife Lyudmila.[339]

Vladimir Putin was portrayed by internet personality Nice Peter in his YouTube series Epic Rap Battles of History, in Season 2's finale episode, "Rasputin vs. Stalin" (aired on 22 April 2013).[338]

Putin features in the colouring book for children Vova and Dima (presented on his 59th birthday),[336] where he and Dmitry Medvedev are drawn as good-behaving little boys, and in the Superputin online comics series, where Putin and Medvedev are portrayed first as superheroes,[311] and then as a troll and an orc in the World of Warcraft.[337]

Putin also is a subject of The Day of Elections.[335] There is a meta-joke that, since the coming of Putin to power, all the classic jokes about a smart yet rude boy called Вовочка (Vovochka, diminutive from Vladimir) have suddenly become political jokes.

Putin on a fishing trip in Siberia, August 2007

Putin's name and image are widely used in advertisement and product branding.[311] Among the Putin-branded products are Putinka vodka, the PuTin brand of canned food, the Gorbusha Putina caviar and a collection of T-shirts with his image.[334]

  • [I Want] A Man Like Putin by Singing Together[330]
  • Horoscope (Putin, Don't Piss!) by Uma2rman[331]
  • VVP by a Tajik singer Tolibjon Kurbankhanov (Толибджон Курбанханов)[332][333]
  • Our Madhouse is Voting for Putin by Working Faculty.

There are a large number of songs about Putin.[329] Some of the more popular include:

Putin's painting "Узор на заиндевевшем окне" (A Pattern on a Hoarfrost-Encrusted Window), which he had painted during the Christmas Fair on 26 December 2008, became the top lot at the charity auction in Saint Petersburg and sold for 37 million rubles.[328] The creation of the painting coincided with the 2009 Russia–Ukraine gas dispute, which left a number of European states without Russian gas and amid January frosts.[242]

On 11 December 2010, at a concert organized for a children's charity in Saint Petersburg, Putin sang Blueberry Hill to a piano accompaniment. The concert was attended by various Hollywood and European stars such as Kevin Costner, Sharon Stone, Alain Delon, and Gérard Depardieu.[326][327] At the same event (and others) Putin played a patriotic song from his favourite spy movie "Щит и меч", The Shield and the Sword.[327]

Notable examples of Putin's macho adventures include:[314] flying military jets,[314] demonstrating his martial art skills,[314] riding horses, rafting, fishing and swimming in a cold Siberian river (doing all that mostly bare-chested),[310][315] descending in a deepwater submersible,[316] tranquilizing tigers with a tranquiliser gun,[310][317] tranquilizing polar bears,[318] riding a motorbike,[314][319] co-piloting a firefighting plane to dump water on a raging fire,[311][314] shooting darts at whales from a crossbow for eco-tracking,[314][320] driving a race car,[314][321] scuba diving at an archaeological site,[312][322] attempting to lead endangered cranes in a motorized hang glider,[323] and catching big fish.[324][325]

Photo ops during his various adventures are part of a public relations approach that, according to Wired, "deliberately cultivates the macho, take-charge superhero image".[311] Some of the activities have been criticised for being staged.[312][313]

Putin has an outdoor, sporty, tough guy image in the media, demonstrating his physical capabilities and taking part in unusual or dangerous acts, such as extreme sports and interaction with wild animals.[309] For example, in 2007, the tabloid Komsomolskaya Pravda published a huge photograph of a bare-chested Putin vacationing in the Siberian mountains under the headline: "Be Like Putin."[310]

A scene from the Superputin comics
Singing Blueberry Hill for charity
Driving a race car, 2010 (see video).

Outdoorsiness, singing, painting, songs about him, brands, sayings

After yet another round of EU and U.S. sanctions against Russian officials, President Vladimir Putin's approval rating has reached a record high of 87 percent, according to the results of a survey published on 6 August 2014 by the independent Levada Center pollster.[307][308]

In the fall of 2011, the anti-Putin opposition movement in Russia became more visible, with street protests against allegedly falsified parliamentary elections (in favor of Putin's party, United Russia) cropping up across major Russian cities. Following Putin's re-election in March 2012, the movement struggled to redefine its new course of action.[306]

By western commentators and the Russian opposition, Putin has been described as a dictator.[299][300] Putin biographer Masha Gessen has stated that "Putin is a dictator," comparing him to Alexander Lukashenko of Belarus.[301][302] Former UK Foreign Secretary David Miliband once described Putin as a "ruthless dictator" whose "days are numbered."[303] U.S. Presidential candidate Mitt Romney called Putin "a real threat to the stability and peace of the world."[304] Former U.S. Secretary of State Henry Kissinger wrote: "For the West, the demonization of Vladimir Putin is not a policy; it is an alibi for the absence of one."[305]

Protest against Putin's increasingly authoritarian rule, Saint Petersburg, 2012

Criticism of Putin has been widespread especially over the mafia state."[296][297] Putin called it "slanderous".[298]

Former Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev credited Putin with having "pulled Russia out of chaos",[293] but has also criticized Putin for restricting press freedom and for seeking a third term in the presidential elections.

Putin was Time magazine's Person of the Year for 2007.[289] In April 2008, he was put on the Time 100 most influential people in the world list.[290] In 2013 and 2014, he was ranked as the world's most powerful person by Forbes.[291][292]

Putin's approval ratings within Russia itself fluctuate at high levels as he is sharply criticized if not indeed vilified, internationally. According to public opinion surveys in June 2007, Putin's approval rating was 81%, and the highest of any leader in the world,[279][280] other than that of former British Prime Minister Tony Blair, who received a 93% public approval rating in September 1997.[281][282][283] In January 2013, Putin's approval rating fell to 62%, the lowest point since 2000 and a ten-point drop over two years.[284] In May 2014 his approval rating rose to 85.9%, a six-year high.[285] Observers see Putin's high approval ratings as a consequence of the significant improvements in living standards and Russia's reassertion of itself on the world scene that occurred during his tenure as President.[286][287] One analysis attributed Putin's popularity, in part, to state-owned or state-controlled television.[288] A 2005 survey showed that three times as many Russians felt the country was "more democratic" under Putin than it was during the Yeltsin or Gorbachev years, and the same proportion thought human rights were better under Putin than Yeltsin.[288]

Putin's approval (blue) and disapproval (red) ratings 1999-2014
Putin's (red) and Medvedev's (blue) Endorsement Index.

Ratings, polls and assessments

Public image

On the post-election celebration rally, while making an acceptance speech, Putin was for the first time ever seen with tears in his eyes (later he explained that "it was windy"). He said to a 110,000-strong audience: "I told you we would win and we won!"[93][278]

During his 2012 presidential campaign Putin made a single outdoor public speech at the 100,000-strong rally of his supporters in the Luzhniki Stadium on 23 February, Russia's Defender of the Fatherland Day.[94] In the speech he called not to betray the Motherland, but to love her, to unite around Russia and to work together for the good, to overcome the existing problems.[277] He said that the foreign interference into Russian affairs should not be allowed, that Russia has its own free will. He compared the political situation at the moment (when fears were spread in the Russian society that 2011–2012 Russian protests could instigate a color revolution directed from abroad) with the First Fatherland War of 1812, reminding that its 200th anniversary and the anniversary of the Battle of Borodino would be celebrated in 2012.Putin cited Lermontov's poem Borodino and ended the speech with Vyacheslav Molotov's famous Great Patriotic War slogan "The Victory Shall Be Ours!" ("Победа будет за нами!").[94][277]

Notable Putin's outdoor speeches include his addresses during the Victory Day one every 9 May in the years between 2000 and 2007. Under Putin's presidency and premiership, the old Soviet tradition of 9 May Parades, which had been in decline in 1990s, was gradually restored in full grandeur. Since the 2008 Moscow Victory Day Parade the armoured fighting vehicles resumed regular taking part in the Red Square parades. Putin often used the Victory Day occasion to discuss Russia's military development and Russia's security and foreign affairs. For example, he said on 9 May 2007 that "threats are not becoming fewer but are only transforming and changing their appearance. These new threats, just as under the Third Reich, show the same contempt for human life and the same aspiration to establish an exclusive dictate over the world."[276]

With Dmitry Medvedev on the day of the Russian presidential election, 2008. The soundtrack is Lubeh, Putin's favourite band.[275]

Outdoor speeches

In the Munich speech Putin called for upholding the principle "security for everyone is security for all", criticized the policies of the United States and NATO, condemned the unipolar model of international relations as flawed and lacking moral basis, condemned the "hypocrisy" of countries trying to teach democracy to Russia, condemned the domination of hard power and enforcement by the U.S. norms and laws to other countries bypassing international law and substitution of the United Nations by NATO or the EU.[274] Putin also called for a stop to the militarization of space and questioned the plans to deploy American missile defense in Europe as threatening strategic nuclear balance and spurring a new arms race. He also claimed that the countries dubbed as rogue states by the West were not going to be capable of threatening Europe or the U.S. with ballistic missiles in the foreseeable future.[274] His speech was criticized by some attendant delegates at the conference, including former NATO secretary Jaap de Hoop Scheffer who called it "disappointing and not helpful."[204]

One of the most important and widely publicized speeches of Putin made abroad was made on 10 February 2007 on the Munich Conference on Security Policy, and hence became known as the Munich speech. It was dubbed by the press to be "the turning point of the Russian foreign policy", and western observers called it the most tough speech from a leader of Russia since the time of the Cold War.[274] The speech was also seen as been made by Putin to openly assert a reprised role of Russia in international politics that would be close to that of the Soviet Union; a return to this role is seen as one of the achievements of Putin's presidency.[274]

Putin making his Munich speech in 2007.

Speeches abroad

During his terms in office Putin has made eight annual addresses to the Federal Assembly of Russia,[267] speaking on the situation in Russia and on guidelines of the internal and foreign policy of the State (as prescribed in Article 84 of the Constitution[268]). On 18 March 2014 Putin made a well-publicized speech about the situation in Crimea.[269] On 24 October 2014 he also spoke Valdai speech.[270][271][272][273]

Addresses to the Federal Assembly


The Dutch Safety Board that is investigating the incident released a preliminary report in September 2014, but stated that the final report will be published within one year of the crash.[266]

Look, I'm going to shirt-front Mr Putin. You bet you are - you bet I am. I am going to be saying to Mr Putin, "Australians were murdered. They were murdered by Russian-backed rebels using Russian-supplied equipment. We are very unhappy about this."[265]

Prior to Putin's attendance at the 2014 G20 summit, scheduled for mid-November in Brisbane, Australia, Australia's prime minister at the time, Tony Abbott, explained in an interview with the Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC)'s 7:30 program that he will be seeking a meeting with the Russian president to discuss the Malaysian Airlines Flight 17 incident:

In September 2007, Putin visited Indonesia and in doing so became the first Russian leader to visit the country in more than 50 years.[263] In the same month, Putin also attended the APEC meeting held in Sydney where he met with John Howard, who was the Australian Prime Minister at the time, and signed a uranium trade deal for Australia to sell uranium to Russia. This was the first visit by a Russian president to Australia.[264]

BRICS leaders at the G-20 summit in Brisbane, Australia, 15 November 2014

Putin and his successor Medvedev enjoyed warm relations with the late Hugo Chávez of Venezuela. Much of this has been through the sale of military equipment; since 2005, Venezuela has purchased more than $4 billion worth of arms from Russia.[260] In September 2008, Russia sent Tupolev Tu-160 bombers to Venezuela to carry out training flights.[261] In November 2008, both countries held a joint naval exercise in the Caribbean.[262] Earlier in 2000, Putin had re-established stronger ties with Fidel Castro's Cuba.

Relations with Australia, Latin America, and others

Despite existing or past tensions between Russia and most of the post-Soviet states, Putin has followed the policy of Eurasian integration. Putin endorsed the idea of a Eurasian Union in 2011,[254][255][256][257] (the concept was proposed by the President of Kazakhstan in 1994).[258] On 18 November 2011, the presidents of Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia signed an agreement, setting a target of establishing the Eurasian Union by 2015.[259]

In August 2008, [253]

The proposed Eurasian Union with the most likely immediate members: Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.

The plans of Ukraine to become members of NATO have caused some tensions between Russia and those states.[243] In 2010, Ukraine did abandon these plans.[244] Putin allegedly declared at a NATO-Russia summit in 2008 that if Ukraine joined NATO Russia could contend to annex the Ukrainian East and Crimea.[245] Following the 2014 Ukrainian revolution, in March 2014, the Russian Federation annexed Crimea.[117][118][246] According to Putin this was done because "Crimea has always been and remains an inseparable part of Russia".[247] After the Russian annexion of Crimea he had speeched that Ukraine includes "regions of Russia's historic south" and "was created on a whim by the Bolsheviks".[248] He went on to declare that the February 2014 ousting of Ukrainian President Viktor Yanukovych had been orchestrated by the West as an attempt to weaken Russia ("our Western partners have crossed a line. They behaved rudely, irresponsibly and unprofessionally") and that the people who had come to power in Ukraine were "nationalists, neo-Nazis, Russophobes and anti-Semites".[248] In a July 2014 speech midst the an armed insurgency in Eastern Ukraine Putin stated he would use Russia's “entire arsenal” and “the right of self defence” to protect Russian speakers outside Russia.[249] Late August 2014 Putin stated "People who have their own views on history and the history of our country may argue with me, but it seems to me that the Russian and Ukrainian peoples are practically one people".[250]

A number of economic disputes erupted between Russia and some neighbours, such as the Russia–Ukraine gas disputes, the economic conflicts affected other European countries, for example when a January 2009 gas dispute with Ukraine led state-controlled Russian company Gazprom to halt its deliveries of natural gas to Ukraine,[242] which left a number of European states, to which Ukraine transits Russian gas, to have serious shortages of natural gas in January 2009.[242]

Meeting with Mikheil Saakashvili, then-president of Georgia, in 2008

A series of the so-called Orange Revolution in Ukraine in 2004 and the Tulip Revolution in Kyrgyzstan in 2005, led to frictions in the relations of those countries with Russia. In December 2004, Putin criticised the Rose and Orange Revolution, according to him: "If you have permanent revolutions you risk plunging the post-Soviet space into endless conflict".[241]

Relations with post-Soviet states

On 11 September 2013, an opinion, written by Putin, was published in the New York Times regarding international events related to the United States, Russia and Syria.[239] Putin subsequently helped to arrange for Syria to disarm itself of chemical weapons.[240]

Putin opposed any foreign intervention. In June 2012, in Paris, he rejected the statement of French President Francois Hollande who called on Bashar Al-Assad to step down. Putin echoed the argument of the Assad regime that anti-regime '’militants'’ were responsible for much of the bloodshed. He also talked about previous NATO interventions and their results, and asked "What is happening in Libya, in Iraq? Did they become safer? Where are they heading? Nobody has an answer."[238]

Regarding Syria, from 2000 to 2010 Russia sold around $1.5 billion worth of arms to that country, making Damascus Moscow's seventh-largest client.[236] During the Syrian civil war, Russia threatened to veto any sanctions against the Syrian government,[237] and continued to supply arms to the regime.

Putin in Jerusalem, Israel, 2005

In April 2008, Putin became the first Russian President who visited Libya.[231] Putin condemned the foreign military intervention of Libya, he called UN resolution as "defective and flawed," and added "It allows everything. It resembles medieval calls for crusades."[232][233] Upon the death of Muammar Gaddafi, Putin called it as "planned murder" by the US, saying: "They showed to the whole world how he (Gaddafi) was killed," and "There was blood all over. Is that what they call a democracy?"[234][235]

Subsequently, under Medvedev's presidency, Iran-Russia relations were uneven: Russia did not fulfill the contract of selling to Iran the S-300, one of the most potent anti-aircraft missile systems currently existing. However, Russian specialists completed the construction of Iran and the Middle East's first civilian nuclear power facility, the Bushehr Nuclear Power Plant, and Russia has continuously opposed the imposition of economic sanctions on Iran by the U.S. and the EU, as well as warning against a military attack on Iran. Putin was quoted as describing Iran as a "partner",[201] though he expressed concerns over the Iranian nuclear programme.[201]

On 16 October 2007 Putin visited Iran to participate in the Second Caspian Summit in Tehran,[225][226] where he met with Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad.[227][228] This was the first visit of a Soviet or Russian leader to Iran since Joseph Stalin's participation in the Tehran Conference in 1943, and thus marked a significant event in Iran-Russia relations.[229] At a press conference after the summit Putin said that "all our (Caspian) states have the right to develop their peaceful nuclear programmes without any restrictions".[230]

Relations with Middle Eastern and North African countries

The announcement made during the SCO summit that Russia resumes on a permanent basis the long-distance patrol flights of its strategic bombers (suspended in 1992)[221][222] in the light of joint Russian-Chinese military exercises, first-ever in history held on Russian territory,[223] made some experts believe that Putin is inclined to set up an anti-[221]

Putin's Russia maintains positive relations with other Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan.

[219] during Putin's 2012 visit to India: "President Putin is a valued friend of India and the original architect of the India-Russia strategic partnership".Prime Minister Manmohan Singh [218][217] newspaper, saying that "The Declaration on Strategic Partnership between India and Russia signed in October 2000 became a truly historic step".the HinduIn 2012, Putin wrote an article in
Vladimir Putin and Hu Jintao at the 2003 APEC Summit in Thailand

Relations with South and East Asia

In 2009 Putin called the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact immoral and in 2014 he asked if there was anything bad about that.[216]

Relations between Russia and the United Kingdom deteriorated when the United Kingdom granted political asylum to Putin's former patron, oligarch Boris Berezovsky in 2003.[212] This deterioration was intensified by allegations that the British were spying and making secret payments to pro-democracy and human rights groups.[213] The end of 2006 brought more strained relations in the wake of the death by polonium poisoning of Alexander Litvinenko in London.[214][215] In 2007, the crisis in relations continued with expulsion of four Russian envoys over Russia's refusal to extradite former KGB bodyguard Andrei Lugovoi to face charges in the alleged murder of Litvinenko.[212] Mirroring the British actions, Russia expelled UK diplomats and took other retaliatory steps.[212]

Putin had friendly relations with former American President Angela Merkel is often attributed to Merkel's upbringing in the former DDR, where Putin was stationed when he was a KGB agent.[211]

Vladimir Putin strongly opposed Kosovo's 2008 declaration of independence, warning supporters of that precedent that it would de facto destroy the whole system of international relations.[208][209][210]

[207] on 11 December 2007.Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe Russia suspended its participation in the [206] Putin publicly opposed plans for the

[205].Cold War were marked by tension and a surge in rhetoric on both sides of the Atlantic. Both Russian and American officials, however, denied the idea of a new [203] The months following Putin's Munich Speech[204] called the speech, "disappointing and not helpful."Jaap de Hoop Scheffer, and former NATO secretary Munich Speech This came to be known as the [203] is like a stone wall that will protect them. Of course such a policy stimulates an arms race."international lawIn February 2007, Putin criticized what he called the United States' monopolistic dominance in global relations, and "almost uncontained hyper use of force in international relations". He said the result of it is that "no one feels safe! Because no one can feel that

Bush and Putin in 2007

Under Putin, Russia's relationships with NATO and the U.S. have passed through several stages. When Putin first became President, the relations were cautious. After the 9/11 attacks when Putin quickly supported the U.S. in the War on Terror, the opportunity for partnership appeared.[200] However, the U.S. responded by further expansion of NATO to Russia's borders and by unilateral withdrawal from the 1972 Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty.[200] Since 2003, when Russia did not support the Iraq War and when Putin became ever more distant from the West in his internal and external policies, the relations continued to deteriorate. According to Russia scholar Stephen F. Cohen, the narrative of the mainstream U.S. media, following that of the White House, became anti-Putin.[200] In an interview with Michael Stürmer, Putin was quoted saying that there were three questions which most concerned Russia and Eastern Europe: namely, the status of Kosovo, the Conventional Forces in Europe treaty and American plans to build missile defence sites in Poland and the Czech Republic, and suggested that all three were linked.[201] In Putin's view, concessions on one of these questions on the Western side might be met with concessions from Russia on another.[201] In a January 2007 interview, Putin said Russia is in favor of a democratic multipolar world and of strengthening the systems of international law.[202]

Putin with Italian Prime Minister Berlusconi, in 2008.

Relations with Europe, NATO and its member nations

On the lighter side, Putin has won international support for 2014 Winter Olympics and the 2014 Winter Paralympics,[196] the first Winter Olympic Games to ever be hosted by Russia. Likewise, in 2008, the city of Kazan won the bid for the 2013 Summer Universiade, and on 2 December 2010 Russia won the right to host the 2017 FIFA Confederations Cup and 2018 FIFA World Cup, also for the first time in Russian history. In 2013, Putin stated that gay athletes would not face any discrimination at the 2014 Sochi Winter Olympics.[197] President Barack Obama did not attend the 2014 Winter Olympics,[198] joining other western leaders in the apparent symbolic boycott.[199]

In Asia, India has moved from a close ally of the Soviet Union to a partner of the United States with strong nuclear and commercial ties. Japan and Russia remain at odds over the ownership of the Kurile islands; this dispute has hindered cooperation for decades.[194] China has moved from a client state of Russia in the 1950s, to a bitter antagonist in the 1960s and 1970s, to a situation where its economic powerhouse sees Russia as a source of raw materials, as well as an ally in the United Nations.[194]

Europe needs Russian oil, but worries about interference in the affairs of Eastern Europe. Russia remains angry over the expansion of NATO into Eastern Europe. Central Asia sees Moscow as a former overlord, which is too powerful to ignore, even as countries assist American involvement in Afghanistan.[194]

Washington regarded Russia as obstructionist regarding Syria and Iran. In turn, those nations have looked to Russia (and China) for protection against the United States.[195]

[194], who had stolen NSA secrets.Edward Snowden The United States canceled a summit (for the first time since 1960), after Putin gave asylum to [194]As of late 2013, Russian-American relations were at a low point.
Addressing Olympic Committee in Guatemala, 2007 (using fluent English)

Foreign policy

[193][192] According to

Protecting civil rights and freedoms is a highly relevant issue for Russia. You know that next year will see the tenth anniversary of our constitution. It declares the basic human rights and freedoms to be the highest value and it enshrines them as self implementing standards. I must say that this is of course a great achievement.
A year later, Putin met with a similar group on International Human Rights Day and proclaimed that his heart was with them:

In November 2001, Putin attended a Civic Forum sponsored by his administration with the purpose of bridging the chasm between state officials and grassroots activists including former Soviet dissident and Helsinki Watch, Ludmila Alekseeva.

Russian opposition on the March of Peace against annexation of Crimea, Moscow, March 2014

Human rights policy

Putin has also sought to increase Russian military presence in the Arctic. In August 2007, a Russian expedition planted a flag on the seabed below the North Pole.[189][189] Russian submarines and troops have been increasing in the Arctic.[190][191]

In spite of Putin's call for major investments in strategic nuclear weapons, these will fall well below the New START limits due to the retirement of aging systems.[188]

The number of Russia's military districts was reduced to just 4. The term of draft service was reduced from two years to one, which put an end to the old harassment traditions in the army, since all conscripts became very close by draft age. The gradual transition to the majority professional army by the late 2010s was announced, and a large programme of supplying the Armed Forces with new military equipment and ships was started. The Russian Space Forces were replaced on 1 December 2011 with the Russian Aerospace Defence Forces.

[187] Key elements of the reform included reducing the armed forces to a strength of one million; reducing the number of officers; centralising officer training from 65 military schools into 10 'systemic' military training centres; creating a professional

While from the early 2000s (decade) Russia started pumping more money into its military and defence industry, it was only in 2008 that the full-scale Russian military reform began, aimed to modernize Russian Armed Forces and made them significantly more effective. The reform was largely carried by Defense Minister Anatoly Serdyukov during Medvedev's Presidency, under supervision of both Putin, as the Head of Government, and Medvedev, as the Commander-in-Chief of the Russian Armed Forces.

[186] The sortie was to be backed up by 47 aircraft, including strategic bombers.[185], would take part in the first major navy sortie into the Mediterranean since Soviet times.Kuznetsov during his meeting with Putin on 5 December 2007, that 11 ships, including the aircraft carrier Anatoliy Serdyukov was followed by the announcement by Russian Defense Minister strategic bombersThe resumption of long-distance flights of Russia's
Aboard battlecruiser Pyotr Velikiy during Northern Fleet exercise in 2005
Putin in the cockpit of a Tupolev Tu-160 strategic bomber before the flight, August 2005.

Military development

Under Putin, the Hasidic FJCR became increasingly influential within the Jewish community, partly due to the influence of Federation-supporting businessmen mediated through their alliances with Putin, notably Lev Leviev and Roman Abramovich.[182][182][183] According to the JTA, Putin is popular amongst the Russian Jewish community, who see him as a force for stability. Russia's chief rabbi, Berel Lazar, said Putin "paid great attention to the needs of our community and related to us with a deep respect."[184]

Putin and United Russia enjoy high electoral support in the national republics of Russia, in particular in the Muslim-majority republics of Povolzhye and the North Caucasus.

Putin regularly attends the most important services of the Russian Orthodox Church on the main Orthodox Christian holidays. He established a good relationship with Patriarchs of the Russian Church, the late Alexy II of Moscow and the current Kirill of Moscow. As President, he took an active personal part in promoting the Act of Canonical Communion with the Moscow Patriarchate, signed 17 May 2007 that restored relations between the Moscow-based Russian Orthodox Church and the Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia after the 80-year schism.[181]

Putin visiting the Tuva Republic, Siberia, 2007
[180] and a street was named after him.Bethlehem In 2012, Putin was honored in [179] enjoyed limited state support in the Putin era. The vast construction and restoration of churches, started in 1990s, continued under Putin, and the state allowed the teaching of religion in schools (parents are provided with a choice for their children to learn the basics of one of the traditional religions or secular ethics). His approach to religious policy has been characterised as one of support for religious freedoms, but also the attempt to unify different religions under the authority of the state.[178], defined by law as Russia's traditional religions and a part of Russia's "historical heritage"Judaism and Buddhism, Islam, Orthodox Christianity
With religious leaders of Russia, 2001

Religious policy

Putin personally supervises and/or promotes a number of protection programmes for rare and endangered animals in Russia:

In 2004, President Putin signed the Kyoto Protocol treaty designed to reduce greenhouse gases.[172] However Russia did not face mandatory cuts, because the Kyoto Protocol limits emissions to a percentage increase or decrease from 1990 levels and Russia's greenhouse-gas emissions fell well below the 1990 baseline due to a drop in economic output after the breakup of the Soviet Union.[173]

Putin uses a tranquilizer gun to sedate an Amur Tiger in the Ussuri Nature Reserve in Primorsky Krai, 2008.

Environmental policy

The construction of a pipeline at a cost of $77bn, to be jointly funded by Russia and China, was signed off on by President Putin in Shanghai on May 21, 2014. It would be the biggest construction project in the world for the following 4 years, Putin said at the time. On completion in 4 to 6 years, the pipeline would deliver natural gas from the state-majority-owned Gazprom to China's state-owned China National Petroleum Corporation for the next 30 years, in a deal worth $400bn.[171]

A construction program of floating nuclear power plants will provide power to Russian Arctic coastal cities and gas rigs, starting in 2012.[167][168] The Arctic policy of Russia also includes an offshore oilfield in the Pechora Sea is expected to start producing in early 2012, with the world's first ice-resistant oil platform and first offshore Arctic platform.[169] In August 2011 Rosneft, a Russian government-operated oil company, signed a deal with ExxonMobil for Arctic oil production.[170] "The scale of the investment is very large. It's scary to utter such huge figures" said Putin on signing the deal.[170]

On the other hand Russia diversified its export markets by building the Trans-Siberian oil pipeline to the markets of China, Japan and Korea, as well as the Sakhalin–Khabarovsk–Vladivostok gas pipeline in the Russian Far East. Russia has also recently built several major oil and gas refineries, plants and ports. Additionally, Putin has presided over construction of major hydropower plants, such as the Bureya Dam and the Boguchany Dam, as well as the restoration of the nuclear industry of Russia, with some 1 trillion rubles ($42.7 billion) allocated from the federal budget to nuclear power and industry development before 2015.[166] A large number of nuclear power stations and units are currently being constructed by the state corporation Rosatom in Russia and abroad.

Putin sought to increase Russia's share of the European energy market by building submerged gas pipelines bypassing Ukraine and other countries which were often seen as non-reliable transit partners by Russia, especially following Russia-Ukraine gas disputes of the late 2000s (decade). Russia also undermined the rival pipeline project Nabucco by buying the Turkmen gas and redirecting it into Russian pipelines.

In the decade following 2000, energy in Russia helped transform the country, especially oil and gas energy. This transformation promoted Russia's well-being and international influence, and the country was frequently described in the media as an energy superpower.[165] Putin oversaw growing taxation of oil and gas exports which helped finance the budget, while the oil industry of Russia, production, and exports all significantly grew.

In a similar fashion, Putin created the United Shipbuilding Corporation in 2007, which led to the recovery of shipbuilding in Russia. Since 2006, much efforts were put into consolidation and development of the Rosatom Nuclear Energy State Corporation, which led to the renewed construction of nuclear power plants in Russia. In 2007, the Russian Nanotechnology Corporation was established, aimed to boost the science and technology and high-tech industry in Russia.[164]

In 2005, Putin initiated an industry consolidation programme to bring the main aircraft producing companies under a single umbrella organization, the United Aircraft Corporation (UAC). The aim was to optimize production lines and minimise losses.[162] The UAC is one of the so-called national champions and comparable to EADS in Europe.[163]

[161] which discouraged imports.protectionist measuresUnder Putin as President and Premier, most of the world's largest automotive companies opened plants in Russia, which Putin encouraged via tax incentives, as well as
Under Putin, Russia strengthened its position as a key oil and gas supplier to much of Europe.

[160] After 18 years of trying, Russia joined the

A fund for oil revenue allowed Russia to repay all of the Soviet Union's debts by 2005.[12] Payments from the fuel and energy sector accounted for nearly half of the federal budget's revenues. The large majority of Russia's exports are made up of raw materials and fertilizers,[12] although exports as a whole accounted for only 8.7% of the GDP in 2007, compared to 20% in 2000.[159]

A central concept in Putin's economic thinking was the creation of so-called National champions, vertically integrated companies in strategic sectors that are expected not only to seek profit, but also to "advance the interests of the nation". Examples of such companies include Gazprom, Rosneft and United Aircraft Corporation.[158]

In 2001, Putin obtained approval for a flat tax rate of 13%;[155][156] the corporate rate of tax was also reduced from 35 percent to 24 percent;[155] Small businesses also get better treatment. The old system, with high tax rates, has been replaced by a new system where companies can choose either a 6-percent tax on gross revenue or a 15-percent tax on profits.[155] The overall tax burden is lower in Russia than in most European countries.[157]

During Putin's eight years in office, industry grew substantially, as did production, construction, real incomes, credit, and the middle class.[10][12][13][152][153] Putin has also been praised for eliminating widespread barter and thus boosting the economy.[154] Inflation remained a problem however.[12]

Under the Putin administration from 2001 to 2007, the economy made real gains of an average 7% per year,[151] making it the 7th largest economy in the world in purchasing power. Russia's nominal Gross Domestic Product (GDP) increased 6 fold, climbing from 22nd to 10th largest in the world. In 2007, Russia's GDP exceeded that of Russian SFSR in 1990, meaning it overcame the devastating consequences of the 1998 financial crisis and preceding recession in the 1990s.[12]

Russian GDP since the end of the Soviet Union.

Economic, industrial, and energy policies

Putin succeeded in codifying land law and tax law and promulgated new codes on labour, administrative, criminal, commercial and civil procedural law.[15] Under Medvedev's presidency, Putin's government implemented some key reforms in the area of state security, the Russian police reform and the Russian military reform.

[150] as well as significant reduction in the numbers of terrorist acts by the late 2000s (decade).[149] During his first term in office, Putin moved to curb the political ambitions of some of the Yeltsin-era

[147] In 2012, as proposed by Putin's successor Dmitry Medvedev, the direct election of governors was re-introduced.[146][145] This and other government actions effected under Putin's presidency have been criticised by many independent Russian media outlets and Western commentators as anti-democratic.[144] In July 2000, according to a law proposed by him and approved by the

According to Stephen White, Russia under the presidency of Putin made it clear that it had no intention of establishing a "second edition" of the American or British political system, but rather a system that was closer to Russia's own traditions and circumstances.[138] Putin's administration has often been described as a "sovereign democracy".[139] According to the proponents of that description, the government's actions and policies ought above all to enjoy popular support within Russia itself and not be determined from outside the country.[140][141]

On 13 May 2000, Putin introduced seven federal districts for administrative purposes. On 19 January 2010, the 8th North Caucasian Federal District (shown here in purple) was split from Southern Federal District. On 21 March 2014, the new 9th Crimean Federal District was formed after the accession of Crimea and Sevastopol to the Russian Federation.

Putin's domestic policies, especially early in his first presidency, were aimed at creating a vertical power structure. On 13 May 2000, he issued a decree putting the 89 federal subjects of Russia into seven administrative federal districts and appointed a presidential envoy responsible for each of those districts (whose official title is Plenipotentiary Representative).

Domestic policies

In his annual speech on 4 December 2014 Putin stated that the March 2014 annexation of Crimean was a “historic event” that would not be reversed because Crimea is Russia's spiritual ground "the same as Temple Mount in Jerusalem for those who confess Islam and Judaism. And this is exactly how we will treat it from here for ever".[137] In the speech Putin also stated "Every nation has an inalienable, sovereign right to its own path of development ... Russia always has and always will respect that. This applies fully to Ukraine, the brotherly Ukrainian nation".[137] He again called the 2014 Ukrainian revolution a "coup", a "forcible seizure of power in Kiev in February" and "lawlessness".[137] According to Putin the War in Donbass was armed forces suppressing "the people in the southeast who did not agree with this lawlessness".[137] He also stated "the tragedy in the southeast fully confirms that our position is right".[137]

In a mid-November ARD interview Putin indicated Russia would not allow a military defeat of the pro-Russian side in the War in Donbass when he stated that Russia would not allow "Ukraine to destroy all their political opponents" what, according to Putin, "the west the central authorities in Ukraine want".[136] Putin also once again called the Euromaidan Revolution a political coup and claimed that by supporting President Poroshenko and his Yatsenyuk Government western governments were supporting Russophobes.[136] In the interview Putin again admitted that during the 2014 Crimean crisis “Our armed forces blocked literally the Ukrainian forces located in Crimea, but it was not in attempt to force anyone to vote, it’s impossible to do so. It was done in order to prevent the bloodshed”.[136]

Putin called on separatists to postpone their referendum on independence, and expressed support for Ukraine's presidential election on 25 May.[135]

On 10 September 2014 Putin said he had lit candles at a Russian Orthodox church in Moscow for "those who suffered and who gave their lives defending the people in Novorossiya".[133][134]

On 14 August 2014, on a visit to Crimea, Putin called for calm and efforts to put an end to the conflict in Ukraine. "We must calmly, with dignity and effectively, build up our country, not fence it off from the outside world," he told Russian ministers and Crimean parliamentarians.[131] On 26 August 2014 Putin met with Ukraine President Petro Poroshenko in Minsk where he expressed a willingness to discuss the situation while calling on Ukraine not to escalate its offensive. Poroshenko responded by demanding Russia halt its supplying of arms to separatist fighters. He said his country wanted a political compromise and promised the interests of Russian-speaking people in eastern Ukraine would be considered.[132]

Supporters of the self-proclaimed Donetsk People's Republic, 9 May

Following the Crimean referendum unrest increased in eastern Ukraine apart from Crimea.[126] On 17 April 2014 Putin stated he hoped not to send Russian troops into Ukraine but didn't rule it out, accusing the Kiev government of committing 'a serious crime' by using the military to quell unrest.[127] Putin added that he reserves the right to use armed force to protect ethnic Russians in "Novorossiya".[128] On 7 May 2014, after discussions with Switzerland's President Didier Burkhalter in an attempt to de-escalate mounting tensions of Russian troop massing on the border of southeast Ukraine during and following the Crimean intervention, Putin announced a pullback of these forces.[129] In a reference to the 25 May 2014 presidential elections in Ukraine, Putin indicated that the Ukrainian elections were a step in the right direction.[129] Putin pledged to respect the result the 25 May 2014 Ukrainian presidential election and also maintained that Russia wanted to continue negotiations with the West over Ukraine, but that Russia's offer to do so was turned down by the West.[130] Putin's main concern expressed in St Petersburg on 23 May 2014 was with Ukraine's failure for pay its large financial debts to Russia, with Putin referring to the $3 billion loaned to Ukraine by Russia before Yanokovych was ousted.[130]

Putin laying wreaths at a monument to the defenders of Sevastopol in World War II, 9 May 2014

In the wake of the 2014 Ukrainian revolution, exiled Ukrainian President Viktor Yanukovych put into writing his request that Putin initiate Russia's use of military forces "to establish legitimacy, peace, law and order, stability and defending the people of Ukraine".[114] On the same day, Putin requested and received authorization from the Russian Parliament to deploy Russian troops to Ukraine in response to the crisis.[115] Russian troops accordingly mobilized throughout Crimea and the southeast of Ukraine. By 2 March, Russian troops had complete control over Crimea.[116][117][118] Then a 16 March Crimean status referendum was held in which an majority of 93 percent of voters voted to secede from Ukraine and join Russia; but Western leaders had declared the referendum illegal and vowed to punish Russia with economic sanctions.[119] This vow lead to the first sanctions issued against Russia (more followed after pro-Russian unrest spread to the south and east of Ukraine).[120][121] Although Putin at the time stated that no Russian troops were active in Crimea but only "local forces of self defence" on 17 April 2014 he stated "Of course our troops stood behind Crimea's self-defence forces".[122] Putin outlined his Crimean views on March 18 in his so-called "Crimean speech". In this speech he claimed that the ousting of Yanukovych was "coup" perpetrated by "nationalists, neo-Nazis, Russophobes and anti-Semites".[123] In the speech he also referred to the (then new) Yatsenyuk Government and the (then) acting Ukrainian President Oleksandr Turchynov as "so-called Ukrainian authorities" who had "introduced a scandalous law on the revision of the language policy, which directly violated the rights of the national minorities".[124] In the speech he also claimed that Russia and Ukraine were "one nation" and that Russia would always protect the millions of Russian speakers in Ukraine but that Ukrainians should "not believe those who want you to fear Russia, shouting that other regions will follow Crimea".[125] Also on 18 March Putin and the new leadership of Crimea signed a bill that lead to the annexation of Crimea by Russia.[125]

Vladimir Putin speaks to the press on March 4 about the 2014 Crimean crisis

Intervention in Ukraine and annexation of Crimea

Also in June 2013, Putin attended a televised rally of the All-Russia People's Front where he was elected head of the movement,[111] which was set up in 2011.[112] According to journalist Steve Rosenberg, the movement is intended to "reconnect the Kremlin to the Russian people" and one day, if necessary, replace the increasingly unpopular United Russia party that currently backs Putin.[113]

In 2012 and 2013, Putin and the United Russia party backed stricter legislation against the LGBT community, in Saint Petersburg, Archangelsk and Novosibirsk; a law against "homosexual propaganda" (which prohibits such symbols as the rainbow flag as well as published works containing homosexual content) was adopted by the State Duma in June 2013.[104][105][106][107][108] Responding to international concerns about Russia's legislation, Putin asked critics to note that the law was a "ban on the propaganda of pedophilia and homosexuality" and he stated that homosexual visitors to the 2014 Winter Olympics should "leave the children in peace" but denied there was any "professional, career or social discrimination" against homosexuals in Russia.[109] He publicly hugged openly bisexual ice-skater Ireen Wust during the games.[110]

Putin's presidency was inaugurated in the Kremlin on 7 May 2012.[101] On his first day as President, Putin issued 14 Presidential decrees, which are sometimes called the "May Decrees" by the media, including a lengthy one stating wide-ranging goals for the Russian economy. Other decrees concerned education, housing, skilled labor training, relations with the European Union, the defense industry, inter-ethnic relations, and other policy areas dealt with in Putin's program articles issued during the presidential campaign.[102][103]

Anti-Putin protesters march in Moscow, 2012

Anti-Putin protests took place during and directly after the presidential campaign. The most notorious protest was the Pussy Riot performance on 21 February, and subsequent trial.[96] Also, an estimated 8,000–20,000 protesters gathered in Moscow on 6 May,[97][98] when eighty people were injured in confrontations with police,[99] and 450 were arrested, with another 120 arrests taking place the following day.[100]

[95] On 4 March 2012, Putin won the

Putin taking the presidential oath at his 3rd inauguration ceremony, 7 May 2012

Third Presidential term (2012–present)

After the colour revolution in society, and a number of "anti-Orange" counter-protests (the name alludes to the Orange Revolution in Ukraine) and rallies of Putin supporters were carried out, surpassing in scale the opposition protests.[92][93][94]

At the United Russia Congress in Moscow on 24 September 2011, Medvedev officially proposed that Putin stand for the Presidency in 2012, an offer which Putin accepted. Given United Russia's near-total dominance of Russian politics, many observers believed that Putin was all but assured of a third term. The move was expected to see Medvedev stand on the United Russia ticket in the parliamentary elections in December, with a goal of becoming Prime Minister at the end of his presidential term.[89] During the 2012 presidential campaign, Putin published 7 articles to present his vision for the future.[90]

[68] between 2008–2011 following the long period of demographic collapse started in the 1990s.stabilisation of the size of Russia's population The other named achievement was the [68]Putin has named the overcoming of consequences of the world economic crisis one of the two main achievements of his 2nd Premiership.
Vladimir Putin with Dmitry Medvedev, March 2008

However, the large financial reserves, accumulated in the Stabilization Fund of Russia in the previous period of high oil prices, alongside the strong management helped the country to cope with the crisis and resume economic growth since mid-2009. The Russian government's anti-crisis measures have been praised by the World Bank, which said in its Russia Economic Report from November 2008: "prudent fiscal management and substantial financial reserves have protected Russia from deeper consequences of this external shock. The government's policy response so far—swift, comprehensive, and coordinated—has helped limit the impact."[88]

The Georgia populated by less than 5 million people.

Putin was barred from a third term by the Constitution. First Deputy Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev was elected his successor. On 8 May 2008, only a day after handing the presidency to Medvedev, Putin was appointed Prime Minister of Russia, maintaining his political dominance.[87]

Second Premiership (2008–2012)

In his last days in office Putin was reported to have taken a series of steps to re-align the regional bureaucracy to make the governors report to the prime minister rather than the president.[85][86] Putin's office explained that "the changes... bear a refining nature and do not affect the essential positions of the system. The key role in estimating the effectiveness of activity of regional authority still belongs to the President of the Russian Federation."

In December 2007, United Russia won 64.24% of the popular vote in their run for State Duma according to election preliminary results.[82] United Russia's victory in December 2007 elections was seen by many as an indication of strong popular support of the then Russian leadership and its policies.[83][84]

On 12 September 2007, Putin dissolved the government upon the request of Prime Minister Mikhail Fradkov. Fradkov commented that it was to give the President a "free hand" in the run-up to the parliamentary election. Viktor Zubkov was appointed the new prime minister.[81]

In 2007, "The Other Russia,[78] led by former chess champion Garry Kasparov and national-Bolshevist leader Eduard Limonov. Following prior warnings, demonstrations in several Russian cities were met by police action, which included interfering with the travel of the protesters and the arrests of as many as 150 people who attempted to break through police lines.[79] The Dissenters' Marches have received little support among the Russian general public, according to polls.[80]

Putin was criticized in the West and also by Russian liberals for what many observers considered a wide-scale crackdown on media freedom in Russia. On 7 October 2006, Anna Politkovskaya, a journalist who exposed corruption in the Russian army and its conduct in Chechnya, was shot in the lobby of her apartment building. The death of Politkovskaya triggered an outcry in Western media, with accusations that, at best, Putin has failed to protect the country's new independent media.[74][75] When asked about the Politkovskaya murder in his interview with the German TV channel ARD, Putin said that her murder brings much more harm to the Russian authorities than her writing.[76] By 2012 the performers of the murder were arrested and named Boris Berezovsky and Akhmed Zakayev as possible clients.[77]

A study by Bank of Finland's Institute for Economies in Transition (BOFIT) in 2008 found that state intervention had made a positive impact on the corporate governance of many companies in Russia: the governance was better in companies with state control or with a stake held by the government.[73]

The continued criminal prosecution of Russia's then richest man, President of YUKOS company Mikhail Khodorkovsky, for fraud and tax evasion was seen by the international press as a retaliation for Khodorkovsky's donations to both liberal and communist opponents of the Kremlin. The government said that Khodorkovsky was corrupting a large segment of the Duma to prevent tax code changes such as taxes on windfall profits and closing offshore tax evasion vehicles. Khodorkovsky was arrested, Yukos was bankrupted and the company's assets were auctioned at below-market value, with the largest share acquired by the state company Rosneft.[69] The fate of Yukos was seen in the West as a sign of a broader shift of Russia towards a system of state capitalism.[70][71] This was underscored in July 2014 when shareholders of Yukos were awarded $50 billion in compensation by the Permanent Arbitration Court in The Hague.[72]

In 2005, the National Priority Projects were launched to improve Russia's health care, education, housing and agriculture.[67][68]

On 14 March 2004, Putin was elected to the presidency for a second term, receiving 71% of the vote.[59] The Beslan school hostage crisis took place in September 2004, in which hundreds died. In response, Putin took a variety of administrative measures.

With Black Sea, in Sochi, 5 April 2008
Putin with Chancellor of Germany Angela Merkel in March 2008
Speaking at the 2005 Victory Day Parade on Red Square

Second Presidential term (2004–2008)

Throughout the war, Russia severely disabled the Chechen rebel movement. However, sporadic violence continued to occur throughout the North Caucasus.[66]

In 2003, a referendum was held in Chechnya adopting a new constitution which declares the Republic as a part of Russia. Chechnya has been gradually stabilized with the establishment of the parliamentary elections and a regional government.[64][65]

A few months before elections, Putin fired Prime Minister Kasyanov's cabinet and appointed Mikhail Fradkov to his place. Sergey Ivanov became the first civilian in Russia to take the Defense Minister position.

Many in the Russian press and in the international media warned that the death of some 130 hostages in the special forces' rescue operation during the 2002 Moscow theater hostage crisis would severely damage President Putin's popularity. However, shortly after the siege had ended, the Russian president was enjoying record public approval ratings – 83% of Russians declared themselves satisfied with Putin and his handling of the siege.[63]

Between 2000 and 2004, Putin set about reconstruction of the impoverished condition of the country, apparently winning a power-struggle with the Russian oligarchs, reaching a 'grand-bargain' with them. This bargain allowed the oligarchs to maintain most of their powers, in exchange for their explicit support – and alignment with – his government.[61][62] A new group of business magnates, such as Gennady Timchenko, Vladimir Yakunin, Yury Kovalchuk, Sergey Chemezov, with close personal ties to Putin, also emerged.

The first major challenge to Putin's popularity came in August 2000, when he was criticized for his alleged mishandling of the Kursk submarine disaster.[60] That criticism was largely because it was several days before he returned from vacation, and several more before he visited the scene.[60]

as his Prime minister. Mikhail Kasyanov Minister of FinanceVladimir Putin was inaugurated president on 7 May 2000. He appointed
Taking presidential oath beside Yeltsin, May 2000

First Presidential term (2000–2004)

While his opponents had been preparing for an election in June 2000, Yeltsin's resignation resulted in the Presidential elections being held within three months, on 26 March 2000; Putin won in the first round with 53% of the vote.[59]

The first Presidential Decree that Putin signed, on 31 December 1999, was titled "On guarantees for former president of the Russian Federation and members of his family".[56][57] This ensured that "corruption charges against the outgoing President and his relatives" would not be pursued.[58] Later, on 12 February 2001, Putin signed a similar federal law which replaced the decree of 1999.

On 31 December 1999, Yeltsin unexpectedly resigned and, according to the Constitution of Russia, Putin became Acting President of the Russian Federation. On assuming this role, Putin went on a previously scheduled visit to Russian troops in Chechnya.

Putin landing in Grozny in a Su-27 fighter jet, 20 March 2000

Acting Presidency (1999–2000)

While not formally associated with any party, Putin pledged his support to the newly formed Unity Party,[55] which won the second largest percentage of the popular vote (23.3%) in the December 1999 Duma elections, and in turn he was supported by it.

Yeltsin's main opponents and would-be successors were already campaigning to replace the ailing president, and they fought hard to prevent Putin's emergence as a potential successor. Putin's law-and-order image and his unrelenting approach to the Second Chechen War, soon combined to raise Putin's popularity and allowed him to overtake all rivals.

On 16 August, the State Duma approved his appointment as Prime Minister with 233 votes in favour (vs. 84 against, 17 abstained),[53] while a simple majority of 226 was required, making him Russia's fifth PM in fewer than eighteen months. On his appointment, few expected Putin, virtually unknown to the general public, to last any longer than his predecessors. He was initially regarded as a Yeltsin loyalist; like other prime ministers of Boris Yeltsin, Putin did not choose ministers himself, his cabinet being determined by the presidential administration.[54]

On 9 August 1999, Vladimir Putin was appointed one of three First Deputy Prime Ministers, and later on that day was appointed acting Prime Minister of the Government of the Russian Federation by President Boris Yeltsin.[51] Yeltsin also announced that he wanted to see Putin as his successor. Still later on that same day, Putin agreed to run for the presidency.[52]

First Premiership (1999)

On 25 July 1998, Yeltsin appointed Vladimir Putin head of the FSB (one of the successor agencies to the KGB), the position Putin occupied until August 1999. He became a permanent member of the Security Council of the Russian Federation on 1 October 1998 and its Secretary on 29 March 1999.

On 25 May 1998, Putin was appointed First Deputy Chief of Presidential Staff for regions, replacing Viktoriya Mitina; and, on 15 July, was appointed Head of the Commission for the preparation of agreements on the delimitation of power of regions and the federal center attached to the President, replacing Sergey Shakhray. After Putin's appointment, the commission completed no such agreements, although during Shakhray's term as the Head of the Commission there were 46 agreements signed.[50] Later, after becoming president, Putin canceled all those agreements.[30]

On 27 June 1997, at the [47] The dissertation committee denied the accusations.[48][49]

On 26 March 1997, President Boris Yeltsin appointed Putin deputy chief of Presidential Staff, which he remained until May 1998, and chief of the Main Control Directorate of the Presidential Property Management Department (until June 1998). His predecessor on this position was Alexei Kudrin and the successor was Nikolai Patrushev, both future prominent politicians and Putin's associates.[30]

In 1996, Mayor Anatoly Sobchak lost his bid for reelection in Saint Petersburg. Putin was called to Moscow and in June 1996 became a Deputy Chief of the Communist Party to the Russian Federation.[30]

Putin as FSB director, 1 January 1998

Early Moscow career (1996–1999)

In March 1994, Putin was appointed as First Deputy Chairman of the Government of Saint Petersburg. In May 1995, Putin organized the Saint Petersburg branch of the pro-government Our Home Is Russia political party, the liberal party of power founded by Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin. During the summer and autumn of 1995, Putin managed legislative election campaign of Our Home Is Russia. From 1995 through June 1997, Putin led the Saint Petersburg branch of Our Home Is Russia.[44]

Less than one year later, Putin was investigated by the city legislative council, and the investigators concluded that Putin had understated prices and permitted the export of metals valued at $93 million, in exchange for foreign food aid that never arrived.[40][41] Despite the investigators' recommendation that Putin be fired, Putin remained head of the Committee for External Relations until 1996.[42][43] From 1994 to 1996, Putin held several other political and governmental positions in Saint Petersburg.[44][44]

In May 1990, Putin was appointed as an advisor on international affairs to Mayor Anatoly Sobchak. Then, on 28 June 1991, he became head of the Committee for External Relations of the Saint Petersburg Mayor's Office, with responsibility for promoting international relations and foreign investments.[39] That Committee headed by Putin also registered business ventures.

Saint Petersburg administration (1990–1996)

Political career

Putin resigned from the active state security services with the rank of [37] In 1999, he described communism as "a blind alley, far away from the mainstream of civilization."[38]

Following the collapse of the communist East German government, Putin was recalled to the Soviet Union and returned to Leningrad, where in June 1991 he assumed a position with the International Affairs section of Leningrad State University, reporting to Vice-Rector Yuriy Molchanov.[32] In his new position, Putin maintained surveillance on the student body and kept an eye out for recruits. It was during his stint at the university that Putin grew reacquainted with his former professor Anatoly Sobchak, then mayor of Leningrad.[35]

Putin and his colleagues were reduced mainly to collecting press clippings, thus contributing to the mountains of useless information produced by the KGB. Former agents estimate they spent three-quarters of their time writing reports. Putin's biggest success in his stay in Dresden appears to have been in...[contacting] a U.S. Army Sergeant, who sold them an unclassified Manual for 800 marks.[34]

From 1985 to 1990, the KGB stationed Putin in Dresden, East Germany.[33] During that time, Putin was assigned to Directorate S, the illegal intelligence-gathering unit (the KGB's classification for agents who used falsified identities) where he was given cover as a translator and interpreter.[34] One of Putin's jobs was to coordinate efforts with the Stasi to track down and recruit foreigners in Dresden, usually those who were enrolled at the Dresden University of Technology, in the hopes of sending them undercover in the United States. Despite this, Putin biographer Masha Gessen disputes the "KGB Spymaster" image that has been built around him and instead says that Dresden was essentially a backwater job that Putin himself resented:

Putin joined the KGB in 1975 upon graduation, and underwent a year's training at the 401st KGB school in Okhta, Leningrad. He then went on to work briefly in the Second Chief Directorate (counter-intelligence) before he was transferred to the First Chief Directorate, where among his duties was the monitoring of foreigners and consular officials in Leningrad.[31][32]

Putin in KGB uniform

KGB career

Putin graduated from the International Law branch of the Law Department of the Leningrad State University in 1975, writing his final thesis on international law.[27] His thesis was titled "The Most Favored Nation Trading Principle in International Law".[28] While at university he had to join the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, and remained a member until the party was dissolved in December 1991.[29] Also at the University he met Anatoly Sobchak who later played an important role in Putin's career. Anatoly Sobchak was at the time an Assistant Professor and lectured Putin's class on Business Law (khozyaystvennoye pravo).[30]

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