Voiced labial-velar approximant

The voiced labio-velar approximant is a type of consonantal sound, used in certain spoken languages, including English. It is the sound denoted by the letter ⟨w⟩ in the English alphabet;[1] likewise, the symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨w⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is w. In most languages it is a labialized velar approximant [ɰʷ], and the semivocalic counterpart of the close back rounded vowel [u]. As labio-velar consonants do not easily fit into consonant charts with only labial and velar columns, [w] may be put in either the velar column, (bi)labial column, or both, though the latter is rare outside of the official IPA chart; the placement may have more to do with phonological criteria than phonetic ones.[2]

Features

Features of the voiced labialized velar approximant:

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Abkhaz ауаҩы [awaˈɥə] 'human' See Abkhaz phonology
Adyghe уэ [wa] 'you'
Arabic Standard[3] وَرْد [ward] 'roses' See Arabic phonology
Basque lau [law] 'four'
Catalan[4] creuar [kɾəˈwa] 'to cross' See Catalan phonology
Chinese Cantonese wu4 [wuː˨˩] 'lake' See Cantonese phonology
Mandarin wáng [wɑŋ˧˥] 'king' See Mandarin phonology
Dutch Belgium welp [wɛɫp] 'cub' Standard Belgian pronunciation, may be realised as ] in some dialects. See Dutch phonology
English weep [wiːp] 'weep' See English phonology
French[5] oui [wi] 'yes' See French phonology
Hawaiian[6] wikiwiki [wikiwiki] 'fast' May also be realized as [v]. See Hawaiian phonology
Hebrew כוח [ˈkowaħ] 'power' See Modern Hebrew phonology
Irish vóta [ˈwoːt̪ˠə] 'vote' See Irish phonology
Italian[7] uomo [ˈwɔːmo] 'man' See Italian phonology
Japanese わたし watashi [ɰᵝataɕi] 'I' Pronounced with lip compression. See Japanese phonology
Kabardian уэ [wa] 'you'
Korean 왜가리 waegari [wɛɡɐɾi] 'heron' See Korean phonology
Malay wang [waŋ] 'money'
Pashto ﻭﺍﺭ [wɑr] 'one time'
Polish[8] łaska ) 'grace' See Polish phonology. Corresponds to [ɫ] in older pronunciation and eastern dialects.
Portuguese[9] quando [ˈkwɐ̃d̪u] 'when' Non-syllabic allophone of // except when after velar occlusives. Brazilian dialects that have ] prefer [ʊ̯] when in coda position.[9] See Portuguese phonology
Romanian dulău [duˈləw] 'mastiff' See Romanian phonology
Seri cmiique [ˈkw̃ĩːkːɛ] 'person' Allophone of /m/
Sesotho sewa [ˈsewa] 'epidemic' See Sesotho phonology
Spanish[10] cuanto [ˈkwãn̪t̪o̞] 'as much' See Spanish phonology
Swahili mwanafunzi [mwɑnɑfunzi] 'student'
Tagalog araw [ɐˈɾaw] 'day' See Tagalog phonology
Thai[11] แห waen [wɛn˩˩˦] 'ring'
Ukrainian вона [wɔˈnɑ] 'she' See Ukrainian phonology
Vietnamese[12] tuần [t̪wən˨˩] 'week' See Vietnamese phonology
Welsh gwae [ɡwaɨ] 'woe' See Welsh phonology
West Frisian skowe [skoːwǝ] 'to shove'

See also

References

Bibliography

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