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Willie Brown (politician)

Willie Brown
Brown in February 2006
41st Mayor of San Francisco
In office
January 8, 1996 – January 8, 2004
Preceded by Frank Jordan
Succeeded by Gavin Newsom
58th Speaker of the
California State Assembly
In office
December 2, 1980 – June 5, 1995
Preceded by Leo McCarthy
Succeeded by Doris Allen
Member of the California State Assembly from District 13
In office
1992–1995
Member of the California State Assembly from District 17
In office
1974–1992
Member of the California State Assembly from District 18
In office
1965–1974
Personal details
Born Willie Lewis Brown, Jr.
(1934-03-20) March 20, 1934
Mineola, Texas
Political party Democratic
Spouse(s) Blanche Vitero, separated
Residence San Francisco, California
Alma mater San Francisco State University University of California, Hastings
Profession Attorney
Religion Methodist
Military service
Service/branch National Guard
Unit Reserves

Willie Lewis Brown, Jr. (born March 20, 1934) is an American politician of the Democratic Party. He served over 30 years in the California State Assembly, spending 15 years as its speaker, and later served as the 41st mayor of San Francisco, the first African American to do so. Under the current California term-limits law, no Speaker of the California State Assembly will be permitted to have a longer tenure than Brown's.[1] The San Francisco Chronicle called Brown “one of San Francisco’s most notable mayors” who had “celebrity beyond the city’s boundaries.”[2]

Brown was born in Mineola, Texas and attended a segregated high school. He moved to San Francisco in 1951, attending San Francisco State University and graduating in 1955 with a degree in liberal studies.[3] Brown earned a J.D. from University of California, Hastings College of the Law in 1958. He spent several years in private practice before gaining election in his second attempt to the California Assembly in 1964. Brown became the Democrats' whip in 1969 and speaker in 1980. He was known for his ability to manage people and maintain party discipline. According to The New York Times, Brown became one of the country's most powerful state legislators.[4] His long tenure and powerful position were used as a focal point of California's initiative campaign to limit the terms of state legislators, which passed in 1990. During the last of his three allowed post-initiative terms, Brown maintained control of the Assembly despite a slim Republican majority by gaining the vote of several Republicans. Near the end of his final term, Brown left the legislature to become mayor of San Francisco.

Brown served as San Francisco mayor from January 8, 1996 until January 8, 2004. His tenure as mayor is marked by a significant increase in real estate development, public works, city beautification, and other large-scale city projects. He presided over the "dot-com" era at a time when San Francisco's economy was rapidly expanding. Brown presided over the city’s most diverse administration with more Asian Americans, women, Latinos, gays, and African Americans than his predecessors.[2] He increased San Francisco's funding of MUNI by tens of millions of dollars and ended the city's policy of punishing people for feeding the homeless.

The SF Board of Supervisors opposed Brown's agenda and some of his initiatives, in particular office and housing development.[5] Brown was restricted by term limits from running for mayor and was succeeded by a political protege, Gavin Newsom. After being "termed out" of the mayor's office, Brown officially retired from politics, although he had often been associated with former California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger, who served for seven years after the end of Brown's Mayoral tenure,[6][7] and continues to participate in fundraising for and advising other politicians.[8]

Contents

  • Early life 1
  • California State Assembly 2
    • Peoples Temple investigation 2.1
  • Mayor of San Francisco 3
    • Crime and public safety 3.1
    • Social policy 3.2
    • Transportation 3.3
      • Mass Transit 3.3.1
      • Critical Mass 3.3.2
    • Urban Planning and Development 3.4
  • Favoritism and patronage criticisms, FBI investigations 4
  • Retinitis pigmentosa 5
  • Aesthetic style 6
  • Brown in the media 7
  • After mayorship 8
    • Transportation company 8.1
  • References 9
  • Bibliography 10
  • External links 11

Early life

Brown was born in Mineola, a small segregated town in east Texas marked by racial tensions,[9] to Minnie Collins Boyd and Lewis Brown. Brown was the fourth of five children.[10] During Brown's childhood, mob violence periodically erupted in Mineola, keeping African Americans from voting. His first job was as a shoeshine boy in a whites-only barber shop.[10] He later worked as a janitor, fry cook, and field hand.[11] He learned his work ethic at a young age from his grandmother.[10] He graduated from MacFarland High School, an all-black school he later described as substandard, and left for San Francisco in August 1951 at the age of 17 to live with his uncle.

Brown originally wanted to attend

California Assembly
Preceded by
Edward M. Gaffney
California State Assemblyman, 18th District
1965-1974
Succeeded by
Leo T. McCarthy
Preceded by
John J. Miller
California State Assemblyman, 17th District
1974-1992
Succeeded by
Dean Andal
Preceded by
Barbara Lee
California State Assemblyman, 13th District
1992-1995
Succeeded by
Carole Migden
Political offices
Preceded by
Frank Jordan
Mayor of San Francisco
1996–2004
Succeeded by
Gavin Newsom
  • Will & Willie podcast
  • Willie Brown at the Internet Movie Database
  • New York Times - Topics: Willie L Brown, Jr. collected news stories
  • Biographer captures mayor in print SF Chronicle, October 14, 1996
  • Mayor's patronage army SF Chronicle, April 30, 2001
  • Gamed by the System: Wherein Willie Brown details his valiant attempts to conquer homelessness and bring Muni into submission SF Chronicle, January 20, 2008

External links

Bibliography

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  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o
  3. ^ a b c
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  5. ^ a b c d
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  9. ^ In 1930s, the "tensions" were undoubtedly less than they would have been than if anyone had attempted to enforce integration.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k
  11. ^ a b
  12. ^ a b c
  13. ^ SFSU Public Affairs Press Release, May 28, 2001, "San Francisco Mayor Willie Brown challenges SFSU Class of 2001", accessed July 4, 2007
  14. ^ a b
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  21. ^ a b c
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  23. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p
  24. ^ a b c
  25. ^ Tim Reiterman (1982) "Raven: The Untold Story of The Rev. Jim Jones and His People" ISBN 0-525-24136-1 page 308
  26. ^ Nancy Dooley & Tim Reiterman, "Jim Jones: Power Broker", San Francisco Examiner, August 7, 1977
  27. ^ Layton, Deborah. Seductive Poison. Anchor, 1999. ISBN 0-385-48984-6. p. 105.
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  30. ^ a b
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  65. ^ http://articles.latimes.com/2006/dec/31/opinion/op-richardson31 San Francisco Weekly. July 30, 2008.
  66. ^
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  68. ^
  69. ^ a b
  70. ^ a b
  71. ^

References

In late 2012, Brown became an investor and lawyer for Wingz, a Real-time ridesharing service.[69][70] In that capacity, Brown represented the company before the California Public Utilities Commission, which was creating new regulations to legalize the ability of Transportation Network Companies to operate ridesharing services in California.[69][70][71]

Transportation company

In September 2013, the western span of the Bay Bridge was officially named for Willie Brown.[67] In early 2015, Brown was named to the board of directors of the San Francisco-based biopharmaceutical company Global Blood Therapeutics.[68]

In 2009, Brown was defending general construction contractor Monica Ung, 49 of Alamo, California. Accused of flouting labor laws and defrauding immigrant construction workers of their wages from laboring on Oakland municipal construction projects, Ung was arraigned for dozens of felony fraud charges on 24 August 2009 in Alameda County Superior Court. Brown's decision to defend Ung angered many in the East Bay's labor community.[66]

On February 5, 2008, Simon and Schuster released Brown's hardcover autobiography, Basic Brown: My Life and Our Times, with collaborator P. J. Corkery. The book release coincided with California's Democratic Presidential Primary on the same day. On July 20, 2008, Brown began writing a column for the San Francisco Chronicle, a move that has drawn the ire of some Chronicle staffmembers and ethicists for the failure to disclose the multiple conflicts of interest Brown has.[65]

After leaving the mayor's office, Brown considered running for the San Francisco State University.[5] The center trains students for careers in municipal, county and regional governments. The center will be one of the first to focus on local government in the country. Brown gave the center's library a collection of his artifacts, videotapes and legislative papers from his 40 years in public office. He is also planning to mentor students, teach a course on leadership, and recruit guest speakers.[5]

After mayorship

Brown remained neutral throughout the 2008 presidential campaign. Brown has been working in recent years as a radio talk show host and as a pundit on local and national political television shows and is seen as attempting to build credibility by abstaining from endorsing candidates for office. "I've never been high on endorsements," Brown said. "When you get one, all it does is keep the other guy from getting one. Really, what did getting John Kerry's endorsement do to help Barack Obama?"[63]

In 1998, Brown contacted the Japanese television cooking competition Iron Chef, suggesting San Franciscan Chef Ron Siegel to battle one of the Iron Chefs. Brown appeared on the telecast himself, enthusiastically promoting the Chef. Siegel won the battle, in a rare clean sweep against Iron Chef Hiroyuki Sakai.

Brown was criticized in 1996 for his comments that 49ers backup quarterback Elvis Grbac was "an embarrassment to humankind." He was criticized in 1997 for responding to Golden State Warriors player Latrell Sprewell choking his coach P. J. Carlesimo by saying, "his boss may have needed choking."[23]

Brown's flamboyant style made him so well known as the consummate politician that when an actor playing a party politician in 1990's The Princess Diaries, and the 2003 Universal release Hulk as the mayor of San Francisco. He appeared as himself, alongside Geraldo Rivera, in an episode of Nash Bridges.

As Mayor of San Francisco, Brown was often portrayed mockingly but affectionately by political cartoonists and columnists as a vain emperor, presiding in a robe and crown over the inconsequential kingdom of San Francisco.[61] He enjoyed the attention this brought to his personal life, disarming friends and critics with humor that directed attention away from the policy agendas he was pursuing.[62]

Brown in the media

In his 2008 autobiography, Basic Brown, he described his taste for US$6,000 Brioni suits and his search for the perfect chocolate Corvette to add to his car collection. In one chapter titled: "The Power of Clothes: Don’t Pull a Dukakis", Brown explains that men should acquire a navy blazer for each season: one with “a hint of green” for springtime, another with more autumnal threading for the fall.[59] He further remarks, "You really shouldn't try to get through a public day wearing just one thing. ... Sometimes, I change clothes four times a day."[60]

Mayor Willie Brown at an event in the San Francisco City Hall rotunda in the 1990s.

Brown has had an ostentatious sense of personal style from the beginning that he later parlayed into a political advantage. Even in high school he was fastidious about his appearance.[17] In office he became famous for British and Italian suits, sports cars, nightclubbing, and a collection of dressy hats.[57] He was once called "The Best Dressed Man in San Francisco" by Esquire magazine.[58]

Aesthetic style

While serving as Assembly Speaker, Brown was diagnosed with retinitis pigmentosa (RP), a disease that still has no cure and that would slowly steal his eyesight. RP is a hereditary disease that causes a continual loss of peripheral vision and often leads to total blindness. Brown’s two sisters were also diagnosed with RP. Brown remarked, "Having RP is a challenge, as Speaker of the Assembly it was very important that I recognize people in the halls of the Legislature. But I couldn’t see people unless they were right in front of me. I needed to have the security people give me notes to tell me who was in the room. Reading is also very difficult so I use larger print notes and memos. Living with RP means having to use more of your brain function—I listen more intently, I memorize vast amounts of information, and I have trained my computer to recognize numerous verbal commands."[56] Brown has worked with the Foundation Fighting Blindness to raise awareness of the disease.

Retinitis pigmentosa

The Federal Bureau of Investigation investigated Brown when he was Speaker. One investigation was a sting operation concerning a fake fish company attempting to bribe Brown; he was not charged with any criminal act. The FBI further investigated Brown from 1998 to 2003 over his appointees at the Airport Commission for potential conflicts of interests. Brown friend, contributor, and former law client, Charlie Walker was given a share of city contracts. He had served jail time in 1984 for violating laws concerning minority contracting. The FBI also investigated Brown’s approval of expansion of Sutro Tower and SFO. Scott Company, with one prominent Brown backer, was accused of using a phony minority front company to secure an airport construction project. Robert Nurisso was sentenced to house arrest. During Brown’s administration, there were two convictions of city officials tied to Brown. The FBI investigated Brown’s friend Charlie Walker, who won several city contracts. Walker had previously thrown several parties for Brown and was among his biggest fund raisers.[23] Brown reassigned Parking and Traffic chief Bill Maher to an airport job when his critics claimed Maher should have been fired.[23] Brown put his former girlfriend, Wendy Linka, on the city payroll.[2] Brown was known for his strong loyalty to his supporters.

Brown increased the city’s special assistants payroll from US$15.6 to US$45.6 million between 1995 and 2001.[55] Between April 29, 2001 and May 3, 2001, San Francisco Chronicle reporters Lance Williams and Chuck Finnie released a 5 part story concerning Brown and his relations with city contractors, lobbyists, and city appointments and hires he had made during his tenure as Mayor. The report concluded that there was an appearance of favoritism and conflicts of interest in the awarding of city contracts and development deals, a perception that large contracts had an undue influence on city hall, and patronage with the hiring of campaign workers, contributors, legislative colleagues, and friends to government positions.[24]

Allegations of political patronage followed Brown from the State Legislature through his tenure as San Francisco mayor. Former Los Angeles County GOP Assemblyman Paul Horcher, who voted in 1994 to keep Brown as Speaker, was reassigned to a position with a six-figure salary as head San Francisco's solid waste management program. Brian Setencich also was appointed to a position by Brown.[23] Both were hired as special assistants after losing their assembly seats because of their support of Brown. Former San Francisco Supervisor Bill Maher was also hired as a special assistant after campaigning for Brown in his first mayoral race.[53] Brown is also criticized for favoritism to Ms. Carpeneti, the lobbyist with whom he had a child. In 1998 Brown arranged for Carpeneti to obtain a rent-free office in the city-owned Bill Graham Civic Auditorium. Between then and 2003, a period that spans the birth of their daughter, Carpeneti was paid an estimated $2.33 million by nonprofit groups and political committees controlled by then Mayor Brown and his friends.[14][54]

Favoritism and patronage criticisms, FBI investigations

Due to vacancies on the Board of Supervisors prior to 2000, Brown was able to appoint 8 of the 11 members of the board. Due to a change in San Francisco's election laws that took effect in 2000, the board changed from at-large to district based elections, and all seats on the board were up for election. The voters elected a new group of supervisors that ran on changing the city’s development policy. Voters also passed a measure that weakened the mayor’s control over the Planning Commission and Board of Appeals. The new majority limited Brown's power over the Elections Department, the Police Commission, and extending San Francisco International Airport's runways into the bay to reduce flight delays.[2] In July 2001, the Board of Supervisors overrode Brown’s veto for the first time, creating legislation that created the new home ownership option of tenancies in common.

During his time as Mayor, Brown hoped to build a new stadium for the San Francisco 49ers and worked with the 49ers to create a plan.[23] No new facility was built for the team during his tenure.[52] Brown worked with the San Francisco Giants to build a new stadium in the China Basin after previous stadium measures had failed on the ballot.[2] The stadium gained approval by San Francisco voters in 1996 and opened in 2000.[23]

Brown was known for his shrewd and strategic use of the details of the planning process to affect and facilitate development projects on his watch. In regards to a parking garage on Vallejo Street desired by North Beach and Chinatown merchants, Brown circumvented neighborhood resident opponents of the garage by ordering demolition of the site's existing structure to commence on a Friday night and be done by Monday morning, when the group was certain to try to obtain a restraining order. "It was with the demolition permit I outsmarted them," Brown recounts proudly, claiming that as the critics rushed toward court, "someone shouted out to them that the building had disappeared over the weekend. They've never recovered from that little maneuver."[51]

Under Brown, San Francisco’s city hall was restored from damages sustained during the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake. Brown insisted on restoring the light courts and having the dome gilded with more than US$400,000 in real gold. The Embarcadero was redeveloped and the Mission Bay Development project began. Brown also oversaw the approval of the Catellus Development Corp., US$100 million restoration of the century-old Ferry Building, new Main Library, the new Asian Art Museum, the new M. H. de Young Memorial Museum, the expansion of the Moscone Convention Center and San Francisco International Airport's new international terminal.[2] Brown worked to restructure the Housing Authority.[23] Brown helped established an AFL-CIO housing trust to build affordable housing and he worked to increase the city’s share of federal and state grants. He oversaw declining crime rates and improvements in the city’s economy, finances, and credit ratings during his first term.[23]

As San Francisco mayor, Brown was criticized for aggregating power, and for favoring certain business interests at the expense of the city as a whole. Supporters point to the many development projects completed or planned under his watch, including the restoration of City Hall and historic waterfront buildings; the setting in motion of one of the city's largest ever mixed use development projects in Mission Bay, and the development of a second campus for the University of California, San Francisco. In contrast, critics objected to the construction of many live-work loft buildings in formerly working-class neighborhoods that they believed lead to gentrification and displacement of residents and light industry.[50]

Urban Planning and Development

Since 1992, cyclists riding in San Francisco's monthly Critical Mass bicycle rides had used the "corking" technique at street intersections to block rush-hour cross-traffic.[38][39][40][41] In 1997, Brown approved San Francisco Police Department Chief Fred Lau's plan to conduct a crackdown on the rides,[42] calling them "a terrible demonstration of intolerance".[43] and "an incredible display of arrogance."[44] Brown said after arrests were made when a Critical Mass event became violent "I think we ought to confiscate their bicycles"[45] and that "a little jail time" would teach Critical Mass riders a lesson.[46] On the night of the July 25, 1997 ride 115 riders were arrested for unlawful assembly, jailed, and had their bicycles confiscated by the police.[47][48] By 2002, Brown and the city's relations with Critical Mass had changed. On the 10th anniversary of Critical Mass on September 27, 2002, the city officially closed down four blocks to automobile traffic for the annual Car-Free Day Street Fair. Brown remarked concerning the event: "I'm delighted. A new tradition has been born in our city."[49]

Critical Mass

In 1998, The Berkeley, California-based Bicycle Civil Liberties Union, produced a two-hour documentary film in the muckraker journalism tradition, "July 25th: The Secret is Out," which gives evidence of Brown's designs for the Transbay Terminal site.

During his first term as mayor, Brown quietly favored the demolition and abolition of the Transbay Terminal[37] to accommodate the redevelopment of the site for market-rate housing. Centrally located at First and Mission Streets near the Financial District and South Beach, the terminal originally served as the San Francisco terminus for the electric commuter trains of the East Bay Electric Lines, the Key System of streetcars and the Sacramento Northern railroads which ran on the lower deck of the San Francisco – Oakland Bay Bridge. Following the termination of streetcar service in 1958, the terminal has seen continuous service as a major bus facility for East Bay commuters; AC Transit buses transport riders from the terminal directly into neighborhoods throughout the inner East Bay. The terminal also serves passengers traveling to San Mateo County and the North Bay aboard SamTrans and Golden Gate Transit buses respectively, and to tourists arriving by bus motorcoach. Today, the terminal is being planned for redevelopment as a region wide mass transit hub maintaining the current bus services, but with a new tunnel that would extend the Caltrain commuter rail line from its current terminus at Fourth and Townsend Streets to the site. Once completed, Caltrain riders would no longer need to transfer to Muni in order to reach the downtown financial district. Additionally, the heavy rail portion of the terminal would be designed to accommodate the planned High Speed Rail lines to Los Angeles.

Brown helped mediate a settlement to the 1997 BART strike.[23]

One of Brown’s central campaign promises was his “100-Day Plan for Muni”, in which he boasted he would fix the city's municipal bus system in that many days.[23] Brown supported the "Peer Pressure" Bus Patrol program, which paid former gang members and troubled youth to patrol Muni buses. Brown claimed the program helped reduce crime.[36] He fired Muni chief Phil Adams and replaced him with his chief of staff Emilio Cruz. In 1998, Brown was Mayor during the summer of the Muni meltdown as Muni implemented the new ATC system and Brown promised riders there would be better times ahead. A voter approved initiative in the following year would help improve Muni services. Brown increased Muni's budget by tens of millions of dollars over his tenure.[2] Brown later said he made a mistake in over promising with his 100-Day Plan.[23]

Mass Transit

Transportation

In 1996, Brown approved the Equal Benefits Ordinance that required city contractors to provide domestic partner benefits to their employees.[2] In 1998, Brown wrote a letter to President Clinton urging him to halt a federal lawsuit aimed at closing medical marijuana clubs.[35]

Brown ended San Francisco’s policy of punishing people for feeding the homeless. San Francisco continued to enforce its policy regarding the conduct of the homeless in public places.[34] In 1998, Brown supported forcibly removing homeless people from Golden Gate Park and police crackdowns on the homeless for drunkenness, urinating, defecating, or sleeping on the sidewalk. Brown introduced job training programs and a $11 million drug treatment program. San Francisco, then the United States' 13th largest city, had the nation's third largest homeless population at a peak of 16,000.[30] In November 1997, he requested nighttime helicopter searches in Golden Gate Park.[2] The Brown administration spent hundreds of millions of dollars creating new shelters, supportive housing, and drug treatment centers to address homelessness, but these measures did not end San Francisco’s problem with homelessness.[2]

Social policy

In February 2003, Brown's appointed Police Chief, Earl Sanders, and several top officials at the San Francisco Police Department were arrested for conspiring to obstruct the police investigation into an incident involving off-duty officers that was popularly called "Fajitagate".[2]

Although scheduled on a flight to New York City the day of the September 11, 2001 attacks, Brown received an alert from his SFO security detail and cancelled. After learning of the attacks, he ordered the city to close schools and courts, concerned over the potential for terrorist attacks in the city, and recommended to representatives of the Bank of America Tower and Transamerica Pyramid that they should also close.[33]

Crime and public safety

Brown's opponents in his 1999 mayoral reelection campaign were former Mayor Frank Jordan and Clint Reilly. They criticized Brown for spending the city’s US$1 billion in budget growth without addressing the city’s major problems and creating an environment in city hall of corruption and patronage.[23] Tom Ammiano was a late write-in candidate and he faced Brown in the runoff election. Brown won reelection by a 20 percent margin. He was supported by most major developers and business interests. Ammiano campaigned on a promise that he would raise the minimum wage to US$11 per hour and scrutinize corporate business taxes. Brown repeatedly claimed that Ammiano would raise taxes. President Clinton recorded a telephone message on Brown’s behalf. Brown’s campaign spent US$3.1 million to Ammiano’s US$300,000.[31] The 1999 mayoral race was the subject of the documentary See How They Run.[32]

In 1996, more than two thirds of San Franciscans approved of Brown's job performance.[30] As mayor, Brown made several appearances on national talk shows.[2] Brown called for expansions to the San Francisco budget to provide for new employees and programs. In 1999, Brown proposed hiring 1,392 new city workers and proposed a second straight budget with a US$100 million surplus. He helped to oversee the settling of a two-day garbage strike in April 1997.[23] During Brown's tenure, San Francisco’s budget increased to US$5.2 billion and the city added 4,000 new employees. Brown tried to develop a plan for universal health care, but there wasn’t enough in the budget to do so.[2] Brown put in long days as mayor, scheduling days of solid meetings and, at times, conducting two meetings at the same time.[23] Brown opened City Hall on Saturdays to answer questions.[18] He would later claim of his mayorship that he helped restore the city’s spirit and pride.[23]

Brown's inaugural celebration included an open invitation party with 10,000 attendees and local restaurants providing 10,000 meals to the homeless.[2][29] President Bill Clinton called Brown to congratulate him, and the congratulations were broadcast to the crowd. He delivered his inaugural address without notes and led the orchestra in “Stars and Stripes Forever". He arrived at the event in a horse-drawn carriage.[2] According to the New York Times, Brown was one of the nation’s few liberal big city mayors when he was elected in 1996.

In 1995, Brown ran for Mayor of San Francisco. In his announcement speech, Brown said San Francisco needed a “resurrection” and that he would bring the “risk-taking leadership” the city needed.[24] Brown placed first in the first round of voting, but because no candidate received 50 percent of the vote, he ran against incumbent Frank Jordan in the December runoff. Brown gained the support of Supervisor Roberta Achtenberg who had placed third in the first round of voting. Brown campaigned on working to address poverty and problems with Muni. He called Jordan the "inept bumbler" and criticized his leadership. Jordan criticized Brown for his relations with special interests during his time in the State Assembly.[4] Brown easily defeated Jordan in the runoff.

Mayor of San Francisco

From 1975 to 1978, Brown supported the Peoples Temple, led by Jim Jones, while it was being investigated for alleged criminal wrongdoing. Brown attended the Temple perhaps a dozen times and served as master of ceremonies at a testimonial dinner for Jones where he stated in his introduction "[l]et me present to you a combination of Martin King, Angela Davis, Albert Einstein ... Chairman Mao."[25][26][27] Brown later said "If we knew then he was mad, clearly we wouldn't have appeared with him."[28]

Peoples Temple investigation

Brown had a reputation in the Assembly for his ability to manage people. Brown attained the vote of Doris Allen by treating her with the respect she thought she deserved. Republican State Senator Ken Maddy of Fresno noted Brown’s ability to “size up the situation and create, sometimes on the spot, a winning strategy.” According to Hobson, "He was a brilliant day care operator. ... He knew exactly how to hold the hand of his Assembly members. He dominated California politics like no other politician in the history of the state".[10]

Brown led efforts in the Assembly for state universities to divest from South Africa and to increase AIDS research funding. Brown helped attain state funds for San Francisco, including funding for public health and mental health funds. Brown held the 1992 state budget for 63 days until Governor Pete Wilson added another US$1.1 billion for public schools.[10]

Brown gained a reputation for knowing what was occurring in the state legislature at all times.[23] In 1992, he gave US$1.18 million to the Democratic Party to help with voter registration and several campaigns, some of which was from contributions from tobacco companies and insurance companies. As Speaker, he worked to defeat the Three Strikes Law. Critics have claimed Brown did not do enough to raise the legislature’s ethical standards or to protect the environment.[10] During his time in Sacramento, Brown estimates he raised close to US$75 million to help elect and reelect state Democrats.[24]

Brown was extremely popular in his home of San Francisco, though less so in the rest of the state.[19] Nevertheless, he wielded great control over statewide legislative affairs and political appointments, making it difficult for his conservative opponents to assail his power. Partially to remove Brown from his leadership position, a state constitutional amendment initiative was proposed and passed by the electorate in 1990, imposing term limits on state legislators.[5][20] Brown became the focus of the initiative. Brown raised just under US$1 million to defeat the initiative.[21] The California Legislature challenged the law but it was upheld by the courts.[21][22] California Proposition 140 also cut the legislature's staff budget by 30 percent, causing Brown to reduce legislative staff by at least 600.[21] After term limits forced Brown out of office, the Assembly re-structured its rules to give most of the powers formerly held by the Speaker to a leadership committee made up of senior members of both major parties.

Brown's long service in the Assembly and political connections, his strong negotiation skills, and the Assembly's tenure system for leadership appointments, combined to give Brown nearly complete control over the California Legislature by the time he became Assembly Speaker. According to The New York Times, Brown became one of the country's most powerful state legislators.[4] He nicknamed himself the "Ayatollah of the Assembly".[18]

Brown was California's first African American Speaker of the Assembly, and served in the office from 1981 to 1995. In 1990, Brown helped negotiate an end to a 64-day budget standoff. In 1994, Brown gained the vote of a few Republicans to maintain the Speakership when the Democrats lost control of the Assembly to the Republicans led by Jim Brulte. Brown regained control in 1995 by making a deal with Republican defectors Doris Allen and Brian Setencich, both of whom were elected Speaker by the Democratic minority.[16] During their tenures, Brown was the de facto Speaker. During the 1990s, Brown dated Kamala Harris, then an Alameda County Deputy District Attorney. There was speculation the two would marry, but Brown broke up with her shortly after being elected Mayor of San Francisco.[17]

Brown was one of four African Americans in the Assembly in 1964. He continued to be reelected to the Assembly until 1995. In the 1960s, Brown served as the Chair of the Legislative Representation Committee, a powerful Assembly position that helped Brown climb the Assembly ranks.[3] He became the Democrats' Assembly whip in 1969.[3] Brown also served on the Assembly Ways and Means Committee.[15] In 1972, he delivered a speech at the Democratic National Convention. He lost his bid for the speakership in 1972. In 1975, Willie Brown authored and lobbied the successful passing of the Consenting Adult Sex Bill that legalized homosexuality in California, thus earning the strong and lasting support of San Francisco's gay community. Similarly, he voted against AB 607, which banned same-sex marriage in 1977, further building his reputation as a supporter of the civil rights of gays and lesbians. During the 1970s, Brown continued to expand his legal practice, including the representation of several major real estate developers. He won the Speakership in 1980 with 28 Republican and 23 Democratic votes.

California State Assembly

Brown began his first run for the Assembly by having local African American ministers pass around a hat, collecting US$700.[10] He lost the election to the California State Assembly in 1962 by 600 votes before winning a second election in 1964.[15]

During the late 1950s and early 1960s, Brown was one of a few African Americans practicing law in San Francisco when he opened his own practice.[10] He practiced criminal defense law, representing pimps, prostitutes, and other clients that more prominent attorneys would not represent.[10] One early case was to defend Mario Savio on his first civil disobedience arrest. He quickly became involved in the civil rights movement, leading a well-orchestrated sit-in to protest housing discrimination after a local real estate office refused to work with him because of his race.[11] Brown helped organize the public protest and helped attract media coverage. His role in the protests gave him the notoriety to run for the Assembly.

In September 1958, Brown married Blanche Vitero, with whom he had three children, Susan, Robin, and Michael. He has four grandchildren, Besia, Matea, Mateo, and Lordes, and a step-granddaughter, Tyler. The couple separated in approximately 1976 but remain married. He has a daughter, Sydney Brown, by political fund raiser Carolyn Carpeneti.[14]

in 1958 and was class president at Hastings. J.D. Brown earned a [12]

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