World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Women in Tonga

Article Id: WHEBN0040783569
Reproduction Date:

Title: Women in Tonga  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Women in the Marshall Islands, Women in Kiribati, Women in the Federated States of Micronesia, Women in Vanuatu, Women in Guam
Collection: Tongan People, Tongan Women, Women in Oceania
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Women in Tonga

Women in Tonga
Two modern-day young Tongan women, both dressed with the clothing accessory known as the kiekie or "ornamental girdle".
Gender Inequality Index[1]
Value 0.458 (2013)
Rank 90th out of 152
Maternal mortality (per 100,000) 110 (2010)
Women in parliament 3.6% (2013)
Females over 25 with secondary education 87.5% (2012)
Women in labour force 53.5% (2012)

As female residents of Tonga, women in Tonga had been described in 2000 by the Los Angeles Times as members of Tongan society who traditionally have a "high position in Tongan society" due to the country's partly matriarchal foundation but "can't own land", "subservient" to husbands in terms of "domestic affairs" and "by custom and law, must dress modestly, usually in Mother Hubbard-style dresses hemmed well below the knee". Based on the "superficial dealings" of LA Times Travel Writer, Susan Spano with the women of Tonga in 2000, she found that Tongan women were a "little standoffish", while Patricia Ledyard, former headmistress of a missionary school for girls in Tonga, confirmed that such "aloofness" of Tongan women were due to the nation's "rigid class system" and the country's "efforts to retain its cultural identity". There were presence of Tongan women who are professionals engaged in jobs as travel agents, as vendors selling an "exotic cornucopia of root vegetables and tropical fruit(s)", and as basket weavers.[2]

Contents

  • Traditional position in society 1
  • Royal line 2
  • Education 3
  • Roles in society 4
  • Traditional dress 5
  • Lifestyle 6
  • Families without girls 7
  • See also 8
  • References 9
  • External links 10

Traditional position in society

A young girl in Tonga, 1901.
A picture of Mrs. Dyer, an Australian music publisher and patron of the arts, during the visit of the Premier Richard Seddon to Tonga. Taken from the supplement to the Auckland Weekly News 31 August 1900, page 5, 31 August 1900.

The LA Times further described that Tongan women have a mehekitanga (meaning "auntie") or "fahu" (the eldest aunt), a senior women who shared with a brother the authority and power over a family group. The mehekitanga has a special position during "weddings, funerals and birthday parties". The mehekitanga is usually seated in front during these special occasions. Prior to getting married, permission was to be asked from the mehekitanga.[2]

Royal line

Two young Tongan women in 1925.

The LA Times mentioned that the royal Tongan line "descends through women".[2]

Education

During her reign from 1918 to 1965, Queen Salote supported providing education to women. Present-day Tongan women can go to foreign countries to complete their college education.[2]

Roles in society

Traditional Tongan women perform activities such as cooking, sewing, weaving and jobs that are entrepreneurial in nature.[2]

Traditional dress

A young woman in Tonga, c. 1885.

In the 1800s, before the arrival of Methodist missionaries, Tongan women dress in a topless manner.[2]

Lifestyle

During 1806 to 1810, English author and sailor William Mariner described Tongan women in his book entitled "Tonga Islands" as liberal, who upon marriage lived as faithful wives; as single women, Tongan females may take lovers; Tongan women can divorce their husbands and may remarry "without the least disparagement to [their] character."[2]

Upon the arrival of Christianity and the eventual conversion of most Tongan women, the female members of Tongan society became described as "deeply religious" and "respectable girls" never walked alone with Tongan boys. The practice of cannibalism also disappeared. In terms of the Miss Tonga beauty pageant, the annual contest does not involve a portion of the program that displays the wearing of swimsuits.[2]

In general, Modern-day Tongan women work outside the home. They are not obliged to perform manual labor.[2]

Families without girls

Sometimes, in Tongan family units that do not have female children, the families had been described by the LA Times to "let a boy dress and act like a girl" who may later "grow up as a transvestite, with little social stigma".[2]

See also

References

  1. ^
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j

External links

  • The WISE Women of Tonga
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.