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Youth International Party

Youth International Party
Leader None. Pigasus used as a symbolic leader.
Founded December 31, 1967 (1967-12-31) (as Yippies)
Headquarters New York City
Newspaper The Yipster Times
Youth International Party Line
Ideology Unofficial:
Libertarian socialism,
Green anarchism,
Free love,
Colors Black, green, red
Seats in the Senate
0 / 100
Seats in the House
0 / 435
0 / 50
State Upper Houses
0 / 1,921
State Lower Houses
0 / 5,410
Party flag

The Youth International Party, whose members were commonly called Yippies, was a radically youth-oriented and countercultural revolutionary offshoot of the free speech and anti-war movements of the 1960s. It was founded on December 31, 1967.[1][2] They employed theatrical gestures, such as advancing a pig ("Pigasus the Immortal") as a candidate for President in 1968, to mock the social status quo.[3] They have been described as a highly theatrical, anti-authoritarian and anarchist[4] youth movement of "symbolic politics".[5]

Since they were well known for street theater and politically themed pranks, many of the "old school" political left either ignored or denounced them. According to ABC News, "The group was known for street theater pranks and was once referred to as the 'Groucho Marxists'."[6]


  • Background 1
    • Origins 1.1
    • First press conference 1.2
  • The New Nation concept 2
  • Culture and activism 3
    • Early Yippie actions 3.1
    • House Un-American Activities Committee 3.2
  • Chicago '68 4
    • The Conspiracy Trial 4.1
  • The Yippie movement 5
    • Street protests 5.1
    • Alternative culture 5.2
    • Pranking the system 5.3
  • Writings 6
  • 2000s 7
  • Yippie Museum/Café 8
  • See also 9
  • References 10
  • External links 11


The Yippies had no formal membership or hierarchy. Phil Ochs, Robert M. Ockene, William Kunstler, Jonah Raskin, Steve Conliff, John Sinclair, Dana Beal, Matthew Landy Steen, Judy Gumbo, Ben Masel, Tom Forcade, David Peel, Tuli Kupferberg, Jill Johnston, Daisy Deadhead [8] and Bob Fass.[9]

A Yippie flag was frequently seen at anti-war demonstrations. The flag had a black background with a five-pointed red star in the center, and a green cannabis leaf superimposed over it. When asked about the Yippie flag, an anonymous Yippie identified only as "Jung" told the New York Times that "The black is for anarchy. The red star is for our five point program. And the leaf is for marijuana, which is for getting ecologically stoned without polluting the environment."[10] This flag is also mentioned in Hoffman's Steal This Book.[11]

Abbie Hoffman and Jerry Rubin became the most famous Yippies—and bestselling authors—in part due to publicity surrounding the five-month Chicago Seven Conspiracy trial of 1969. They both used the phrase "ideology is a brain disease" to separate the Yippies from mainstream political parties that played the game by the rules. Hoffman and Rubin were arguably the most colorful of the seven defendants accused of criminal conspiracy and inciting to riot at the August 1968 Democratic National Convention. Hoffman and Rubin used the trial as a platform for Yippie antics—at one point, they showed up in court attired in judicial robes.


YIP poster advertising the 1968 Festival of Life.

The term Yippie was invented by Krassner and Hoffman on New Year's Eve 1967. Paul Krassner wrote in a January 2007 article in the Los Angeles Times:

We needed a name to signify the radicalization of hippies, and I came up with Yippie as a label for a phenomenon that already existed, an organic coalition of psychedelic hippies and political activists. In the process of cross-fertilization at antiwar demonstrations, we had come to share an awareness that there was a linear connection between putting kids in prison for smoking pot in this country and burning them to death with napalm on the other side of the planet.[12]

Anita Hoffman liked the word, but felt that the New York Times and other "strait-laced types" needed a more formal name to take the movement seriously. That same night she came up with Youth International Party, because it symbolized the movement and made for a good play on words.[13]

Along with the name Youth International Party, the organization was also simply called Yippie!, as in a shout for joy (with an exclamation mark to express exhilaration).[14] "What does Yippie! mean?" Abbie Hoffman wrote. "Energy – fun – fierceness – exclamation point!"[15]

First press conference

The Yippies held their first press conference in New York at the Americana Hotel March 17, 1968, five months before the August 1968 Democratic National Convention in Chicago. Judy Collins sang at the press conference.[16][17][18] The Chicago Sun-Times reported it with an article titled: "Yipes! The Yippies Are Coming!"[12]

The New Nation concept

The Yippie "New Nation" concept called for the creation of alternative, counterculture institutions (food co-ops, underground newspapers, free clinics, etc.). Yippies believed these cooperative institutions and a radicalized hippie culture would spread until they supplanted the existing system.

"We are a people. We are a new nation," YIP's New Nation Statement said of the burgeoning hippie movement. "We want everyone to control their own life and to care for one another... We cannot tolerate attitudes, institutions, and machines whose purpose is the destruction of life, the accumulation of profit."[19]

The goal was a decentralized, collective, anarchistic nation rooted in the borderless hippie counterculture and its communal ethos. Abbie Hoffman wrote:
We shall not defeat Amerika by organizing a political party. We shall do it by building a new nation – a nation as rugged as the marijuana leaf.[20][21]

The flag for the "new nation" consisted of a black background with a red five pointed star in the center and a green marijuana leaf superimposed over it (same as the YIP flag).[22]

The Chicago Museum shows a different flag for the new nation. [23] It is not the marijuana leaf. It has the word NOW under what looks like the all-seeing eye on a pyramid seen on the back of a dollar bill.

Culture and activism

The Yippies often paid tribute to rock 'n' roll and irreverent pop-culture figures such as the Marx Brothers, James Dean and Lenny Bruce. Many Yippies used nicknames which contained Baby Boomer television or pop references, such as Pogo or Gumby. Pogo is famous for creating the chant "No More Mindless Chants" in the mid-1970s. At demonstrations and parades, Yippies often wore face paint or colorful bandannas to keep from being identified in photographs. Other Yippies reveled in the spotlight, allowing their stealthier comrades the anonymity they needed for their pranks.

One cultural intervention that misfired was at Woodstock, with Abbie Hoffman interrupting a performance by The Who, trying to speak against the incarceration of John Sinclair, sentenced to 10 years in prison in 1969 after giving two joints to an undercover narcotics officer. Guitarist Pete Townshend used his guitar to bat Hoffman off the stage.[24]

The Yippies were the first on the New Left to make a point of exploiting mass media.[25] Colorful, theatrical Yippie actions were tailored to attract media coverage and also to provide a stage where people could express the "repressed" Yippie inside them.[26] "We believe every nonyippie is a repressed yippie," Jerry Rubin wrote in Do it! "We try to bring out the yippie in everybody."[26]

Early Yippie actions

a Yippie! button on display at the Chicago History Museum

Yippies were famous for their sense of humor.[27] Many

  • Stew Albert's Yippie Reading Room!
  • Pieman's Homepage (Aron Kay)
  • Abbie Hoffman's Wakeup Amerika
  • Yippie Speakers Bureau
  • Cures not Wars
  • Deoxyribonucleic Yippie!
  • The Chicago Seven Trial
  • Archive of the YIPL and TAP Newsletters
  • A 10 minute documentary on the Yippies, created as a National History Day entry.
  • Yippies shut down Disneyland (1970)
  • Flags of the World – Listing for the Youth International Party Flag
  • The Yippie Revolution
  • Vancouver Yippie
  • Yippies at 1980 Republican convention in Detroit, Michigan.
  • "Making Yippie!" an excerpt from Chicago '68 by David Farber.

External links

  1. ^ Paul Krassner, Confessions of a raving, unconfined nut: misadventures in the counter-culture, Page 156, Simon & Schuster, 1993
  2. ^ Neil A. Hamilton, The ABC-CLIO companion to the 1960s counterculture in America, Page 339, ABC-CLIO, 1997
  3. ^
  4. ^ a b Abbie Hoffman, Soon to be a Major Motion Picture, page 128. Perigee Books, 1980.
  5. ^
  6. ^ ABC News
  7. ^ Jerry Rubin, DO IT! Scenarios of the Revolution, page 81, Simon and Schuster, 1970.
  8. ^ YIPster Times, p. 2, December 1977
  9. ^ David Lewis Stein, Living the Revolution: The Yippies in Chicago, Page 11, The Bobbs-merrill Company, 1969.
  10. ^
  11. ^ Abbie Hoffman, Steal This Book, page 73. Grove Press, 1971.
  12. ^ a b "'60s live again, minus the LSD". By Paul Krassner. January 28, 2007. Los Angeles Times.
  13. ^ David T. Dellinger, Judy Clavir and John Spitzer, The Conspiracy Trial, page 349. Bobbs-Merrill, 1970.
  14. ^ Jonah Raskin, For the Hell of It, page 129. University of California Press, 1996.
  15. ^ Abbie Hoffman, Revolution For the Hell of It, page 81. Dial Press, 1968.
  16. ^ Testimony of Judy Collins in the Chicago Seven Trial. Trial transcript.
  17. ^ Paul Krassner, Confessions of a Raving Unconfined Nut, p. 158.
  18. ^ NOW with Bill Moyers. November 2004 transcript [1]. PBS.
  19. ^ The New Yippie Book Collective (eds.), Blacklisted News: Secret Histories from Chicago to 1984, page 514. Bleecker Publishing, 1983.
  20. ^ Abbie Hoffman, Woodstock Nation, back cover. Vintage Books, 1969.
  21. ^ Today in Political History.
  22. ^ Flags of the World – Youth International Party listing
  23. ^ [2]
  24. ^ Audio in Youtube
  25. ^ Abbie Hoffman, Soon to be a Major Motion Picture, p. 86. Perigee Books, 1980.
  26. ^ a b Jerry Rubin, Do It!, page 86. Simon and Schuster, 1970.
  27. ^ Joseph Boskin, Rebellious Laughter: People's humor in America, page 98. Syracuse University Press, 1997.
  28. ^
  29. ^ Jonah Raskin, For the hell of it: The life and times of Abbie Hoffman, Page 117, University of California Press, 1996
  30. ^ Soon To Be A Major Motion Picture: The Autobiography of Abbie Hoffman, First Edition, Perigree Books, 1980, p. 101.
  31. ^
  32. ^ Neil Hamilton, The ABC-CLIO companion to the 1960s counterculture in America, Page 340, ABC-CLIO, 1997.
  33. ^ Youth International Party, 1992.
  34. ^ Jerry Rubin, A Yippie Manifesto.
  35. ^ Thomas Geogheghan, "By Any Other Name. Brass Tacks", 24 February 1969, The Harvard Crimson.
  36. ^ Norman Mailer, Miami and the Siege of Chicago, page 137. Signet Books, 1968.
  37. ^ David Farber, Chicago '68, page 177-8, University of Chicago Press, 1988.
  38. ^
  39. ^ The Walker Report, Rights in Conflict, page 5. Bantam Books, 1968.
  40. ^ The Mess We Made: An Oral History of the '68 Convention, GQ magazine, page 191, August 2008.
  41. ^ David T. Dellinger, Judy Clavir and John Spitzer, The Conspiracy Trial, page 601. Bobbs-Merrill, 1970.
  42. ^ Abbie Hoffman, Soon to be a Major Motion Picture, page 170. Perigee Books, 1980.
  43. ^ Ken Wachsberger, The Ballad of Ken and Emily, or, Tales from the Counterculture, Page 54, Azenphony Press, 1997
  44. ^ The New Yippie Book Collective, Blacklisted News: Secret Histories from Chicago to 1984, Page 16. Bleecker Publishing, 1983.
  45. ^ "Yippies Pelt Police with Eggs, Rocks." April 5, 1971, The Rock Hill Herald.
  46. ^ "TEAR GAS REPELS RADICALS' ATTACK," By John Kifner. New York Times, November 16, 1969.
  47. ^
  48. ^
  49. ^
  50. ^ Lester Friedman, American cinema of the 1970s: themes and variations, Page 49, NJ Rutgers University Press, 2007
  51. ^ The New Yippie Book Collective (eds.), Blacklisted News: Secret Histories from Chicago to 1984, page 354. Bleecker Publishing, 1983.
  52. ^ Abbie Hoffman, Soon to be a Major Motion Picture, page 278. Perigee Books, 1980.
  53. ^
  54. ^ "Police charge yippie plot," by Jes Odam, Vancouver Sun, Oct. 1, 1971.
  55. ^ The New Yippie Book Collective (eds.), Blacklisted News: Secret Histories from Chicago to 1984, page 487. Bleecker Publishing, 1983.
  56. ^
  57. ^ Jonah Raskin, For the Hell of It, page 132. University of California Press, 1996.
  58. ^
  59. ^ Jeff Kisseloff, Generation on fire: voices of protest format he 1960s: an oral history, Page 64 University Press of Kentucky, 2006
  60. ^ Lorraine Code, Encyclopedia of Feminist Theories, Page 350, Routledge Press, 2000
  61. ^ YIPster Times, Summer Convention Issue, June 1976
  62. ^ John Powers, "A Letter at 3 pm," L.A. Weekly, Dec. 4, 2008
  63. ^ ^ a b c library of america/berkeley tribe ^ a b c University of newspapers/microfilm collection
  64. ^ Jonah Raskin, For the Hell of It, University of California Press, Page 228, 1996.
  65. ^
  66. ^
  67. ^
  68. ^
  69. ^ Adrian Boot, Chris Salewizc, Punk: the illustrated history of a music revolution, Page 104, Penguin Studio, 1996.
  70. ^
  71. ^ The New Yippie Book Collective, Blacklisted News: Secret Histories from Chicago to 1984, Page 321. Bleecker Publishing, 1983.
  72. ^
  73. ^ Stew Albert, Who the Hell is Stew Albert?, Page 131. Red Hen Press, 2003.
  74. ^ The New Yippie Book Collective, Blacklisted News: Secret Histories from Chicago to 1984, Page 414. Bleecker Publishing, 1983.
  75. ^ Robin Morgan, Sisterhood is Powerful, page 538. Vintage Books, 1970.
  76. ^ Jerry Rubin, We Are Everywhere, Page 248, Harper and Row, 1971
  77. ^ Laurence Leamer, The Paper Revolutionaries, page 72. Simon and Schuster, 1972.
  78. ^ James A Schnell, Case Studies in Culture and Communication: a group perspective, Page 17, Lexington Books, 2003.
  79. ^ a b The New Yippie Book Collective, Blacklisted News: Secret Histories from Chicago to 1984, Page 292. Bleecker Publishing, 1983.
  80. ^ The New Yippie Book Collective (eds.), Blacklisted News: Secret Histories from Chicago to 1984, page 288. Bleecker Publishing, 1983.
  81. ^ "Isla Vista Archives".SBHC Mss.41.Department of Special Collections, Davidson Library.University of California Santa Barbara
  82. ^ Archive of 9779p11z
  83. ^
  84. ^ Barbara News and "Why None of the Above?"
  85. ^
  86. ^
  87. ^
  88. ^
  89. ^ Buy This Too, by Pete Wagner, Minne HA! HA! Publishing, Minneapolis 1987
  90. ^
  91. ^ "Yippies in Love: Exploring the Vancouver Riot of 40 years ago," by Tom Hawthorn, The Globe and Mail, June 22, 2011.
  92. ^
  93. ^
  94. ^ New York Times article Abbie Hoffman Committed Suicide Using Barbiturates, Autopsy Shows published April 19, 1989
  95. ^
  96. ^
  97. ^ "Yippies Apply for a Piece of Establishment". By Deborah Kolben. March 16, 2006. New York Sun.
  98. ^ "Museum will have Abbie’s trash, Rubin’s road kill". By Lincoln Anderson. The Villager. February 1–7, 2006.
  99. ^ a b The Yippie Museum/Café and Gift Shop. Official website.
  100. ^ "At the Yippie Museum, It’s Parrots and Flannel". By Jennifer Bleyer. January 20, 2008. New York Times.
  101. ^ NY Board of Regents – Charter Applications for March 2006
  102. ^
  103. ^


See also

As of Summer 2013, The Yippie Cafe is officially closed, but the Yippie building (Museum) at #9 Bleecker, remains. The future of the enterprise remains unclear going forward.[103]

In 2004, the Yippies, along with the National AIDS Brigade, purchased 9 Bleecker Street for their headquarters in New York City for $1.2 million.[97] It was converted into the "Yippie Museum/Café and Gift Shop".[98][99] It housed an independently operated café that featured live music on scheduled nights.[100] Performers at the café included both nationally known figures and local bands, including Roseanne Barr, Ed Rosenthal, The Fiction Circus, and Joel Landy. The museum is chartered by the Board of Regents of the University of the State of New York.[101] According to the curator's message at the official website the museum "exists to preserve the history of the Youth International Party and all of its offshoots."[99] The Board of Directors consists of Dana Beal, Aron Kay, David Peel, William Propp, Paul DeRienzo, and A. J. Weberman.[102]

Yippie Museum/Café

Two of the best-known original Yippies met untimely ends. Abbie Hoffman committed suicide in 1989 with alcohol and about 150 phenobarbital pills,[94] while Jerry Rubin became a stockbroker, and in 1994 was fatally injured by a car while jaywalking.[95] By the age of 50, Rubin had broken with many of his previous countercultural views; he was interviewed by the New York Times, which described him as a "yippie-turned-conspicuous-yuppie." In the interview, he stated that "Until me, nobody had really taken off their clothes and screamed out loud, 'It's O.K. to make money!'"[96]

The Yippies have continued as a small movement into the early 2000s. The New York chapter no longer publishes a newspaper, but is known for their annual marches for decades in New York City to legalize Jewish Defense Organization.


Vancouver Yippie Bob Sarti's play "Yippies in Love" premiered in June 2011.[91][92]

In 1983, a group of Yippies published Blacklisted News: Secret Histories from Chicago, '68, to 1984 (Bleecker Publishing), a large 'phone-book sized anthology' (733 pages) of Yippie history, including journalistic accounts from both alternative and mainstream media, as well as many personal stories and essays. Includes countless photographs, old leaflets and posters, 'underground' comics, newspaper clippings, and various other historical ephemera. The editors (often doubling as authors) officially called themselves "The New Yippie Book Collective" but some signed their names inside, including Dana Beal, Steve Conliff, Grace Nichols, Daisy Deadhead, Karen Wachsman, Ben Masel and Aron Kay. [90]

"Buy This Book," written and illustrated by political cartoonist and post-'60s Yippie activist Pete Wagner (ME Publications, 1980) who distributed copies of the Yipster Times on the University of Minnesota campus in the mid-1970s, was promoted by Hoffman, who said the book "manages to reach to the limits of bad taste." "Buy This Too" (Wagner, Minne HA! HA!/Brain Trust, 1987) recounted efforts by the guerrilla street theater gang, the 1985 Brain Trust, a group inspired by a series of meetings and interviews between Wagner and Krassner in May 1981, when Krassner was in Minneapolis to perform standup comedy at Dudley Riggs ETC Theater, to fight the New Right with Yippie-like myth-making tactics in the Midwest during the early 1980s.[89]

Books on Yippie by Yippies include Woodstock Nation and Soon to Be a Major Motion Picture (Abbie Hoffman), We Are Everywhere (Jerry Rubin), Trashing (Anita Hoffman), Who the Hell is Stew Albert? (Stew Albert), Confessions of a Raving, Unconfined Nut (Paul Krassner) and Shards of God (Ed Sanders). Some other books about that era: Woodstock Census: The Nationwide Survey of the Sixties Generation (Deanne Stillman and Rex Weiner),[79] The Panama Hat Trail (Tom Miller),[87] Medicine Ball Caravan (Tom Forcade), The Ballad of Ken and Emily: or, Tales from the Counterculture (Ken Wachsberger).[88]

Jerry Rubin published his account of the Yippie movement in his book Do IT!: Scenarios of Revolution.

The most famous writing to come out of the Yippie movement is Abbie Hoffman’s Steal This Book, which is considered to be a guidebook in causing general mischief and capturing the spirit of the Yippie movement. Hoffman is also the author of Revolution for the Hell of It which has been called the original Yippie book. This book claims that there were no actual yippies, and that the name was just a term used to create a myth.[86]

A YIP-related newspaper, The Yipster Times, was founded by Dana Beal in 1972 and published in New York City. It changed its name to Overthrow in 1979. The Open Road, an internationally known journal of the anti-authoritarian left, was founded by a core of Vancouver Yippies. Milwaukee Yippies published Street Sheet, the first of the anarchist zines later to become so popular in many cities. Tom Forcade founded High Times magazine. The New Yippie Press Collective published Blacklisted News: Secret Histories from Chicago to 1984 in 1983. It is still in print.

In June 1971 Abbie Hoffman and Al Bell started the pioneer phreak magazine The Youth International Party Line (YIPL). Later, the name was changed to TAP for Technological American Party or Technological Assistance Program.

[85] "An exegesis on women's liberation" by the Women's Caucus within the Youth International Party was included in the 1970 anthology


In 1976, Yippies took a cue from Isla Vistans, running "Nobody" for President. Meanwhile, in a strange twist of Yippie fate, Steen had become treasurer of the student campaign to elect Jerry Brown for President, competing against "Nobody" and Jimmy Carter during the presidential campaign that year. And, so, from the experimental political workshop of Isla Vista spread across the nation the name and spirit of this unexpected ballot initiative in the form of None of the Above musical festivals, radio and television shows, musical groups and other social phenomenon associated with the counter-cultural youth movement into a new century and succeeding generations. Political theater would live on into the 21st century with newer activist groups such Code Pink.

Perhaps one of the swan songs of [81][82][83] having a ripple effect across the country, with voters in Nevada approving this option in a change to state election laws in 1986. And in 2000 a citizen initiative to place None of the Above on the official state ballot in California was qualified although the proposition was voted down 62% to 38% in the general election that year.[84] The most recent addition, internationally, are for state elections in India where this option must be made available in electronic voting machines.

Pie-throwing as a political act was invented by Yippies.[77] The first political pieing was carried out by Tom Forcade, when he pied a member of the President's Commission on Obscenity and Pornography in 1970. Columbus Yippie Steve Conliff pied Ohio Governor James Rhodes in 1977 to protest the Kent State shootings.[78] Milwaukee Yippie Pat Small was the first person to be arrested for a pieing, following a hit on a Miami alderman prior to the convention protests in 1972.[79] Aron "The Pieman" Kay became the best-known Yippie pie-thrower, with his targets including Sen. Daniel Moynihan, conservative activist Phyllis Schlafly, ex-CIA head William Colby and conservative columnist William F. Buckley.[80]

On November 7, 1970, Jerry Rubin and London Yippies took over The Frost Programme when he was the guest on the popular British TV program. In all the chaos, a Yippie fired a water pistol into host David Frost's open mouth, the broadcaster called for a commercial break and the show was over. The Daily Mirror's banner headline: "THE FROST FREAKOUT."[76]

Some Yippies, including Women's International Terrorist Conspiracy from Hell), which combined "theatricality, humor, and activism."[75] Others had their start in early performance art with the San Francisco Mime Troupe and the Diggers.

Yippies mocked the system and its authority. The Youth International Party, having nominated a pig for U.S. president in 1968, ran "Nobody" as its presidential candidate in 1976. The Yippie campaign slogan: "Nobody's perfect."[71] When Vancouver Yippie Betty "Zaria" Andrew ran as the Youth International Party's candidate for mayor in 1970, one of her campaign promises was to repeal every law, including the law of gravity so everyone can get high.[72] That year, Berkeley Yippie Stew Albert ran for sheriff of Alameda County, challenging the incumbent sheriff to a high-noon duel and receiving 65,000 votes.[73] Detroit Yippies went to city hall and applied for a permit to blow up the General Motors building in 1970. After the permit was denied, the Yippies said that it just goes to show you can't work within the system to change the system. "This destroys my last hope for legal channels," said Detroit Yippie Jumpin' Jack Flash.[74]

Pranking the system

Yippies were active in alternative music and movies. Singer-songwriters Phil Ochs and David Peel were Yippies. "I helped design the party, formulate the idea of what Yippie was going to be, in the early part of 1968," Ochs testified at the Chicago Eight trial.[66] The Youth International Party founded the U.S. branch of the Rock Against Racism movement in 1979. YIP-affiliated John Sinclair managed Detroit's proto-punk band the MC5.[67] Vancouver Yippies Ken Lester and David Spaner were the managers of Canada's two most notorious political punk bands, D.O.A. (Lester) and The Subhumans (Spaner).[68] New York Yippie Tom Forcade was the producer of one of the first movies about punk rock, D.O.A., featuring footage of the Sex Pistols' 1978 tour of America.[69] Baltimore Yippie John Waters became a renowned independent filmmaker.[70]

[65]If I Can't Dance You Can Keep Your Revolution. New York Yippie Coca Crystal hosted the popular cable TV program [64]).Alternative Media) and Gabrielle Schang (Underground Press Syndicate Tom Forcade ([63]),Berkeley Tribe Matthew Landy Steen ([62]),L.A. Weekly Mayer Vishner ([61]),Sour Grapes Steve Conliff ([60] Yippies organized alternative institutions in their counterculture communities. In

Alternative culture

Yippies organized marijuana "smoke-ins" across North America through the 1970s and into the 1980s. The first YIP smoke-in was attended by 25,000 in Washington, D.C. on July 4, 1970.[53] There was a culture clash when many of the hippie protesters strolled en masse into the nearby "Honor America Day" festivities with Billy Graham and Bob Hope. On Aug. 7, 1971, a Yippie smoke-in in Vancouver was attacked by police, resulting in the Gastown Riot, one of the most famous protests in Canadian history.[54] The annual July 4 Yippie smoke-in in Washington, D.C., became a counterculture tradition.[55]

In 1972, Yippies and Zippies (a younger YIP offshoot whose "guiding spirit" was Tom Forcade) staged protests at the Republican convention in Miami.[51] Some of the Miami protests were larger and more militant than the ones in Chicago in 1968. After Miami, the Zippies evolved back into Yippies.[52]

YIP was a member of the coalition of anti-Vietnam War activists who, over several days in early May 1971, tried to shut down the U.S. government by occupying intersections and bridges in Washington, D.C. The May Day protests resulted in the largest mass arrest in American history.[50]

On the final day of the Madison conference, April 4, 1971, hundreds of riot police broke up a block party organized by local Yippies to cap the event, resulting in a street clash between Yippies and police.[45] During an anti-war protest in Washington, D.C., on November 15, 1969, East Coast Yippies led thousands of youths in the storming of the Justice Department building.[46] On August 6, 1970, L.A. Yippies invaded Disneyland, hoisting the New Nation flag at City Hall and taking over Tom Sawyer's Island. While riot police confronted the Yippies, the theme park was closed early for the first time in the park's history. As many as 23 of 200 Yippies that came were arrested. It was the park's second unscheduled closing, the first being shortly after the Assassination of John F. Kennedy.[47] Vancouver Yippies invaded the U.S. border town of Blaine, Washington, on May 9, 1970, to protest Richard Nixon's invasion of Cambodia and the shooting of students at Kent State.[48] Columbus Yippies were charged with inciting the rioting that occurred in the city on May 11, 1972, in response to Nixon's mining of North Vietnam's Haiphong harbor.[49] They were acquitted. Chicago organized local events and hosted national events well into the 1980s. A frequent complaint was that New York acted as if other chapters did not exist and kept them out of the decision making process.

Street protests

The Youth International Party quickly spread beyond Rubin, Hoffman and the other founders. YIP had chapters all over the US and in other countries, with particularly active groups in New York, Vancouver, Milwaukee, Los Angeles, Columbus, Chicago and Madison.[43] There were YIP conferences through the 1970s, beginning with a "New Nation Conference" in Madison, Wisconsin in 1971.[44]

The Yippie movement

Following the convention, eight protesters were charged with conspiracy to incite the riots, and there was a heavily publicized, five-month trial. The Chicago Seven represented a cross-section of the New Left, including three Yippie defendants: Abbie Hoffman, Jerry Rubin, and Lee Weiner.[40] Several other Yippies – including Stew Albert, Wolfe Lowenthal, Brad Fox and Robin Palmer – were among another 18 activists named as "unindicted co-conspirators" in the case.[41] While five of the defendants were initially convicted of crossing state lines to incite a riot, all convictions were soon reversed in appeal court. Defendants Hoffman and Rubin became popular authors and public speakers, spreading Yippie militancy and comedy wherever they appeared. When Hoffman appeared on The Merv Griffin Show, for example, he wore a shirt with an American flag design, prompting CBS to black out his image when the show aired.[42]

The Conspiracy Trial

In response to the Festival of Life and other anti-war demonstrations during the Democratic convention, Chicago police repeatedly clashed with protesters, as many millions of viewers watched the extensive TV coverage of the events. "The whole world is watching," protesters chanted.[38] "A police riot," concluded the National Commission on the Causes and Prevention of Violence.[39] "On the part of the police there was enough wild club swinging, enough cries of hatred, enough gratuitous beating to make the conclusion inescapable that individual policemen, and lots of them, committed violent acts far in excess of the requisite force for crowd dispersal or arrest."

Yippie organizers hoped that well-known musicians would participate in the Festival of Life and draw a crowd of tens if not hundreds of thousands from across the country. The city of Chicago refused to issue any permits for the festival and most musicians withdrew from the project. Of the rock bands who had agreed to perform, only the MC5 came to Chicago to play and their set was cut short by a clash between the audience of a couple thousand and police. Phil Ochs and several other singer-songwriters also performed during the festival.[37]

Yippie theatrics culminated at the 1968 Democratic National Convention in Chicago. YIP planned a six-day Festival of Life – a celebration of the counterculture and a protest against the state of the nation. This was supposed to counter the "Convention of Death." This promised to be "the blending of pot and politics into a political grass leaves movement – a cross-fertilization of the hippie and New Left philosophies." Yippies' sensational statements before the convention were part of the theatrics, including a tongue-in-cheek threat to put LSD in Chicago's water supply. "We will fuck on the beaches! ... We demand the Politics of Ecstasy! ... Abandon the Creeping Meatball! ... And all the time 'Yippie! Chicago – August 25–30.'" First on a list of Yippie demands: "An immediate end to the war in Vietnam."[36]

Chicago '68

In the fifties, the most effective sanction was terror. Almost any publicity from HUAC meant the 'SDS activist. Witnesses like Jerry Rubin have openly boasted of their contempt for American institutions. A subpoena from HUAC would be unlikely to scandalize Abbie Hoffman or his friends.[35]

According to The Harvard Crimson:

On another occasion, police stopped Hoffman at the building entrance and arrested him for wearing an American flag. Hoffman quipped for the press, "I regret that I have but one shirt to give for my country", paraphrasing the last words of revolutionary patriot Nathan Hale; meanwhile Rubin, who was wearing a matching Viet Cong flag, shouted that the police were Communists for not arresting him also.[34]

The House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) subpoenaed Jerry Rubin and Abbie Hoffman of the Yippies in 1967, and again in the aftermath of the 1968 Democratic National Convention. The Yippies used media attention to make a mockery of the proceedings: Rubin came to one session dressed as an American Revolutionary War soldier, and passed out copies of the United States Declaration of Independence to people in attendance. Then Rubin "blew giant gum bubbles while his co-witnesses taunted the committee with Nazi salutes".[33] Rubin also attended HUAC dressed as Santa Claus and a Viet Cong soldier.

House Un-American Activities Committee

There was a clash with police on March 22, 1968, where a large group of countercultural youths led by the Yippies descended into [32]

The visitors' gallery was closed until a glass barrier could be installed, to prevent similar incidents. [30] below, some of whom booed, while others began to scramble frantically to grab the money as fast as they could. traders, where they threw fistfuls of real and fake US$ from the balcony of the visitors' gallery down to the New York Stock Exchange and a group of future Yippies managed to get into a tour of the Abbie Hoffman event in New York City in 1967. guerrilla theater Another famous prank just before Yippie was coined was a [29]

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