World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Zalău

Article Id: WHEBN0001060543
Reproduction Date:

Title: Zalău  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Sălaj County, Szilágy County, Babeș-Bolyai University, Treznea massacre, Jibou
Collection: Cities in Romania, Localities in Crișana, Populated Places in Sălaj County, Zalău
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Zalău

Zalău
County seat
Zalău City Hall in Iuliu Maniu Square
Coat of arms of Zalău
Coat of arms
Zalău is located in Romania
Zalău
Coordinates:
Country  Romania
County Sălaj County
Status County seat
Government
 • Mayor Radu Căpîlnăşiu (PNL)
Area
 • Total 90.09 km2 (34.78 sq mi)
Population (2011)[1]
 • Total 56,202
 • Density 623/km2 (1,610/sq mi)
Time zone EET (UTC+2)
 • Summer (DST) EEST (UTC+3)
Website .ro.zalausjwww

Zalău (Romanian pronunciation: ; German: Zillenmarkt or Waltenberg, Hungarian: Zilah, Turkish: Zile) is the seat of Sălaj County, Crișana, Romania. In 2011, its estimated population was 56,202.

Zalău within Sălaj County

Contents

  • History 1
    • Ancient times 1.1
    • Middle Ages 1.2
    • Modern times 1.3
  • Geography 2
  • Sights 3
  • Population 4
    • Ethnic structure 4.1
    • Confessional structure 4.2
  • Etymology 5
  • Politics 6
    • 2012 election 6.1
    • 2008 elections 6.2
    • 2004 elections 6.3
  • Sports 7
  • Media 8
  • Notable residents 9
  • International relations 10
    • Twin towns — Sister cities 10.1
  • Photo gallery 11
  • Works 12
  • References 13
  • External links 14

History

Ancient times

Zalău is situated in the area inhabited by "Free Dacians", 8 km (5.0 mi) away from the historical landmark of Porolissum, a well-preserved Roman Castrum with an imposing fortress, an amphitheater, temples, houses and a customs house in the ancient Roman province of Dacia. Zalău was the crossing point between Central Europe and Transylvania, along the so-called "Salt Route".

Porta Praetoria, the gate of ancient Roman castra at Porolissum

Archaeological discoveries revealed evidence of human existence in this area since the Neolithic, approx. 6500 years ago. Dacian coins found in archaeological perimeters of the city central area and on the Valea Mâții, west of the city, plus important items belonging to Roman culture, are evidence of free Dacian continuity in this area and of developing economic relations with the Roman ancient city of Porolissum.

After the conquest of Dacia by Trajan (106), the Roman Empire border stood atop the Meseş Mountains, just 5 km away from the city. Just north from the border, on the actual Zalău city area were the free Dacians tribes, and to the east, south-east (of Meseş Mountains) were Roman border fortifications, towers, walls, ditches and defense sides.

Roman relics at Zalău County Museum
Stâna is a part of Zalău
Măgura Stânii (716 m) in Stâna
On 1 August 1473, Matthias Corvinus certified Zalău as a town, "Oppidum Zilah".
Wooden church of Stâna (a district of Zalău) built in 1778, transferred to Bic Monastery in 1997
Zalău, 19th-century painting
The main square in Zalău
Assumption Cathedral was built in 1934 by the Greek Catholic community.
Catholic Church and City Centre
Ady Endre attended school in Zalău.
Reformed Church, Zalău built 1904–07
The main square in Zalău

Middle Ages

The first written mention about Zalău, was in the "Gesta Hungarorum", also called the "Chronicle of Anonymous" (probably notary of the King Béla III of Hungary), published around year 1200. According to this source, Zalău settlement would have been there as early as around 900. Later, Zalău is referred to as Villa Ziloc in 1220, Zylac in 1246, Zylah in 1282, Zyloh and oppidum Zylah in 1318, Zila in 1601, Zilahu in 1808, Sziláj / Szilágyi in 1839, Szilaju in 1850, and Zalău / Sziláju / Walthenberg in 1854. After the great Mongol invasion, which destroyed the city in 1241, Zalău came in 1246 under the administration of the Catholic Bishopric of Oradea. The trusteeship was maintained until 1542, when Zalău became part of Principality of Transylvania.

On August 1, 1473 Matthias Corvinus, king of Hungary and Bohemia, acknowledged Zalău as a market town for the first time (called oppidum Zilah – Zilah fort), a privilege that freed the city from the county domination, granted its citizens the right of free trade and gave it a larger degree of economic autonomy.

At the end of the 16th century, the city had an independent administrative leadership, composed of 33 elected senators (one of whom was the mayor), a notary, a registrar and a treasurer.

Other important events in the development of the city occurred in 1571 during the reign of Prince Istvan Bathory and in 1600 under the reign of Michael the Brave. After Transylvania had been annexed to the Habsburg Empire, the city experienced an economic decline due to infusion of products from the Western Europe.

After Michael the Brave's victory in the Battle of Guruslău on August 3, 1601, Zalău received administrative, legislative, fiscal and military own rules, which provided real autonomy freedoms to citizens. A chronicle from the 17th century, first mentioned the main crafts of city residents: belt-makers, potters, wheelwrights, shoemakers, butchers, tailors, blacksmiths, carpenters, hat makers and armorers.

The city was under the rule Principality of Transylvania between 1526–1660. It was also controlled by the Ottomans between 1660–1692, the city being part of Varat Eyalet.

The Calvinist college was formed in the first half of the 17th century.

On 9 November 1714, Charles XII of Sweden rested for a night in a building on Király street (now named after Corneliu Coposu) with an acquaintance György Zoványi as is indicated by a notice still on the house.[2]

Until the administrative reform of 1876, the city had been the seat of Közép-Szolnok for centuries.

Modern times

Before the Treaty of Trianon, Zalău was one of the most important urban centers in the region. It had a Reformed college (Wesselényi college), a township school for civil service (for boys only), and a national civil school (for girls only). It had the largest hospital in the region and a tax revenue office.

In 1850, its population was 4,294 and, in 1910—8,062 (7,477 Hungarians, 19 Germans, 529 Romanians and 23 belonging to other ethnic groups). By religion, there were 1,333 Roman Catholics, 873 Greek Catholics, 5,363 members of the Reformed Church, and 415 Jews. The city had 1,427 households, and most of its inhabitants were working in manufacturing. The Reformed church was built in 1246. It is one of the city's oldest buildings and one of the largest in Eastern Europe.

In 1876, Zalău became the seat of the Szilágy County. Since union of Transylvania with Romania (1918) it has been part of Romania – except between 1940–1944 when Northern Transylvania was under the Hungarian rule after the Second Vienna Award. When entered in Zalău on September 8, 1940, the Hungarian Army troops killed 11 persons just outside the city, in Ciumărna;[3] Treznea massacre occurred in a nearby village in the next day.

Between 1892–1896, one of the most famous Hungarian poets Endre Ady attended the Protestant school in Zalău (since 1957 there is a statue of Endre Ady in the front of the school). The poet also published his first poem in the local newspaper "Szilágy" on March 22, 1896. A memorial plaque on the frontage of the building where he lived reminds of Ady Endre’s time spent here.

At the end of the 19th century, Zalău County Museum was officially inaugurated in 1951. On July 9, 1981, a new section of the Zalău County Museum was inaugurated and was named the "Ioan Sima" Arts Gallery.

The "Central Library," owning 7,000 Romanian and Hungarian books, was opened on the 23 the August 1950. In 1952 it became "District Library," coordinating all the Zalău District libraries. In 1957 it took the name of Ioniţă Scipione Bădescu. It became the "County Library" with the administrative reform of February 1968.

It was after the 1960s when the city became a regional industrial center for the first time. During the communist regime, industrial factories like Armătura Zalău, Silcotub Zalău and Anvelope Silvania (bought recently by Michelin) hired thousands of workers, which also sparked an increase in population. The Romanian communist regime saw that thousands of Romanians from the South were brought and established into the region in an effort to uproot and outnumber the Hungarian majority population – this was in effect a form of ethnic cleansing and had the desired result: the Hungarian-Romanian population ratio is nowadays completely changed from what it used to be in the past, with the Romanians being now the majority and the Hungarians reduced to the minority. However, in the surrounding countryside this artificial Romanianization has failed. Many of the surrounding communes (for example Vârşolţ) are still populated in majority by Hungarians; on the other hand, nearby villages such as Marin have a 100% ethnic Romanian population, basically unchanged for more than a century. This is the same for vast parts of Transylvania, and it is the same for the old German populations which were also effectively pushed out of the country by the Communists in the recent decades.

In the 1970s with the working-class population expanding, housing estates of high-rise blocks of flats were built in the centre as well as on the outskirts of the town. Because of inappropriate infrastructure development, a such block of flats exploded in 2007.[4][5] Many beautiful traditional buildings were destroyed and the town lost not only some of its architectural treasures but also its cultural identity. This sadly is once again the norm throughout most of Transylvania, and is part of the region's all too common story of devastation and destruction brought by Communism.

Today Zalău is crossed by European road E81 and the national road DN 1F. A new motorway (Transylvania Highway) is being built to connect Zalău to Western Europe. The town has two nationally accredited University colleges, a public library, one museum, an art gallery, more than four hotels, a motel, and two student halls of residence.

Geography

Zalău lies in the Zalău Valley, at the junction of the Apuseni mountains and the Eastern Carpathians, in Sălaj County, at . Zalău is in the central part of Sălaj County, in Zalău River watershed where the depression of the same name and the Meseş Peak meet.

It neighbours Ţara Maramureşului and the county of Satu Mare, in the northwestern part of the historical region of Transylvania, which in the past was a mainly independent small state but since 1918 has belonged to Romania. It lies along the bank of the small Zalău River, between three narrow valleys in the Meseş Mountains. It is the county seat and the largest city in Sălaj County.

The city includes a total surface of 90.09 km2 (34.78 sq mi). This includes the one village it administers, Stâna (Felsőnyárló), situated south-east of Meseş, in the hydrographic basin of Agrij. Măgura Stânii has 716 m (2,349 ft).

Sights

The most important of the 24 monuments and buildings in the county capital of Zalău are: "Transilvania" (theatre in 1895), the city hall (court and seat of the prefects office in 1889), the Roman Catholic Church (1878), the reformed church (1904–1907), the Greek Catholic church "Adormirea Maicii Domnului" (1930–1934), the Orthodox deanery (built in the late 19th century), the Historical Museum (built about 1900 – casino of the artisans fellowship), the primary school "Simion Bărnuţiu" (girls' school in 1895) and the National College Silvania (Reformed College in 1860), all these being valuable urbanistic elements for the historical and cultural patrimony of the land. The famous statuary group Wesselényi Monument of the heroic Hungarian nobleman with the same name (1902) by János Fadrusz, and the bust made in the honour of Simion Bărnuţiu by Romul Ladea are worth visiting as well.

Zalău hosts lively pageants each year, including a summer festival known as the "Zalău Days". There is a statue of Baron Wesselényi in Iuliu Maniu Square of the town center; the Tuhutum Memorial (both made by János Fadrusz in 1902); the Zalău County Museum of History and Art displays artifacts ranging from neolithic times to modern times, with a focus on the Roman period and hosts works of modern art. There are several churches, including the Calvinist cathedral, which is one of the most beautiful and largest in Transylvania.

Population

The population of Zalău went through important evolutions throughout times (see above), and at present the data indicated by the 2011 census are the following: 56,202 inhabitants.[1]

From an ethnical point of view according to the census in 2002 the population had the following structure: 80.89% Romanians, 17.50% Hungarians, 1.36% Gypsies, 0.25% others. At the 2011 census, Zalău had 81.58% Romanians, 16.40% Hungarians, 1.5% Gypsies, 0.52% others.

Ethnic structure

2002:[6]

1992:

1910:

Confessional structure

Zalău confessional structure
Confession 1930[8] 2002[9]
Reformed Church in Romania 52.41% 15.24%
Greek Catholics 18.98% 03.07 %
Roman Catholics 11.46% 01.72 %
Romanian Orthodox 06.01 % 73.29%
Jews 05.14 % < 0.1%
Baptists 00.91 % 02.01 %
Pentecostals < 0.1 % 03.29 %

Etymology

The location had various names: "Ziloc" in 1220, "Oppidum Zilah" in 1473, "Zila" in 1601, and "Zilahu" and "Zalahu" in the 19th century, or forms of German toponimy "Waltenberg" and "Zillenmarkt".

Politics

At the end of the 16th century, the town had an independent administrative rule made of 33 elected senators, from whom one of them was the mayor. There were also a notary, an archivist and a treasurer.

Formed by 21 members, the Local Council has the following attributes: to approve the local budget, loans, credit transfers and the means of use of the budgetary reserve; it establishes local taxes as well as special taxes; to elect the vice-mayors, to decide on the staff of attendants number.

2012 election

The Zalău Council, elected in the 2012 local government elections, is made up of 21 councilors, with the following party composition: 3-Democratic Union of Hungarians in Romania, 12-Social Liberal Union, 3-Democratic Liberal Party, 3-People's Party – Dan Diaconescu. The Mayor Radu Căpîlnăşiu was re-elected.[10]

  Party Seats 2012 Zalău Council
  Social Liberal Union 12                        
  Democratic Union of Hungarians in Romania 3                        
  Democratic Liberal Party 3                        
  People's Party – Dan Diaconescu 3                        

2008 elections

Mayor Radu Căpîlnăşiu was elected first time in 2004 as member of Democratic Party and re-elected in 2008 and 2012 as member of National Liberal Party.

The Zalău Municipal Council, elected in the 2008 local government elections, was made up of 21 councilors, with the following party composition:

  Party Seats 2008 Zalău Council
  National Liberal Party 9                  
  Democratic Liberal Party 4                  
  Social Democratic Party 4                  
  Democratic Union of Hungarians in Romania 4                  

2004 elections

The Zalău Municipal Council, elected in the 2004 local government elections, was made up of 21 councilors, with the following party composition:

  Party Seats 2004 Zalău Council
  National Liberal Party 5            
  Democratic Party 5            
  Social Democratic Party 6            
  Democratic Union of Hungarians in Romania 3            
  Greater Romania Party 2            

Sports

Zalău also had a great handball team, coached by

  • (Romanian) http://www.salaj.insse.ro/main.php
  • (Romanian) and (English) http://www.insse.ro/cms/files/pdf/ro/cap2.pdf

External links

  1. ^ a b "Sălaj County at the 2011 census" (PDF) (in Romanian).  
  2. ^ "Zalău, Zoványi house". Welcometoromania.ro. Retrieved 2012-09-30. 
  3. ^ Magazin sălăjean, Ceremonii comemorative la Treznea și Ip
  4. ^ "Explosion in Romania on Saturday, 15 September, 2007". Hisz.rsoe.hu. 2007-09-15. Retrieved 2012-09-30. 
  5. ^ România Liberă, Explozie devastatoare la Zalau: 2 morti, 15 raniti
  6. ^ http://www.edrc.ro/recensamant.jsp?regiune_id=2140&judet_id=2508&localitate_id=2509
  7. ^ Atlas and Gazetteer of Historic Hungary 1914, Talma Kiadó
  8. ^ Recensământul general al populaţiei României din 29 Decemvrie 1930, vol. II, pag. 713.
  9. ^ "Recensământ 2002". Recensamant.referinte.transindex.ro. Retrieved 2012-09-30. 
  10. ^ Dacă vrei să râzi, apasă aici!. "Alegerile locale in Salaj, rezultate finale!". Magazinsalajean.ro. Retrieved 2012-09-30. 
  11. ^ http://www.zalausj.ro/ro/orase.htm

References

  • János Kovács Kuruc, Zilah vallási életéről, In: Limes, 2000, 3, nr. 1-2, p. 138–143.
  • Éva Lakóné Hegyi; Wagner, Ernő. A zilahi kalandosok, In: EM, 2001, 63, nr. 1-2, p. 30–41.
  • Florin Mirgheşiu, Modernitatea Zalăului. In: AMPZ, 2001, 2, nr. 4, p. 11–19.
  • Moroti, Elisabeta. Scurtă privire istorică asupra dezvoltării economice a oraşului Zalău. In: AMPZ, 2001, 2, nr. 4, p. 36–39.
  • Municipiul Zalău. Prezentare. In: AMPZ, 2002, 3, nr. 7-8, p. 154–161.
  • Elena Muscă, Meşteşugari zălăuani şi locul lor în structurile administraţiei publice locale, In: AMP, 2003, 25, p. 325–332.
  • L. Nicoară; Puşcaş, Angelica. Rolul municipiului Zalău în zona de contact dintre depresiunea Transilvaniei şi Dealurile de Vest. In: Studia geogr., 1999, 44, nr. 1, p. 99–112.

Works

Photo gallery

Zalău is twinned with:[11]

Twin towns — Sister cities

International relations

Notable residents

Graiul Sălajului, Magazin Sălăjean, Sălajeanul, Țara Silvaniei (1940, 1989), Năzuința (1960–1989), Sălajul Orizont, Gazeta de Duminică, Glasul copilăriei, Repere transilvane, Sălajul european, Acta mvsei porolissensis, Caiete silvane, Limes (Romanian magazine)|Limes, Árkád, Szilágy, Szilágyság.

Media
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.