World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Zaydiyyah

Article Id: WHEBN0007872825
Reproduction Date:

Title: Zaydiyyah  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Ziyadid dynasty, Islamic history of Yemen, Shia Islam in Saudi Arabia
Collection:
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Zaydiyyah

For the surname Zaidi and other uses, see Zaidi (disambiguation).

Zaidiyya, or Zaidism (Arabic: الزيدية az-zaydiyya, adjective form Zaidi or Zaydi) is a Shi'a Muslim school of thought named after Zayd ibn ʻAlī, the grandson of Husayn ibn ʻAlī. Followers of the Zaydi Islamic jurisprudence are called Zaydi Shi'a and are particularly prevalent in Yemen. The Zaydi Shi'a have a unique approach within Shi'a Islamic thought that has similarities with Sunni Islam. Its adherents are also known as Fivers.

Zaidi Imāms

The first three Zaidi Imams are ‘Alī ibn Abī Tālib, Hasan ibn ʻAlī, and Husayn ibn ʻAlī.[1] The Zaidi's believe that they are part of the Ahl al-Kisa (along with Prophet Muhammad and Fatima az-Zahra). After these three Imams, they Zaidis have a number of Imams beginning with Zayd ibn ʻAlī[1] followed by his son Yahya ibn Zayd.[2] They believe any descendent of Hasan or Husayn can be an Imam[3] if he exhibits two attributes: "excel[ing] in knowledge" and "call[ing] others to fight against oppressors."[1] If an individual possesses one of these two attributes, he can be considered an Imam of a lesser degree.[1] For example, they Zaydis consider the fourth, fifth, and sixth Twelver Imams, Zain al-Abidin, Muhammad al-Baqir and Ja'far al-Sadiq Imams in this lesser sense due to their high levels of knowledge, but the Zaydis do not consider them Imams in the absolute sense because they did not revolt against the oppressors of their time.[1] An example of an Imam from the lineage of Imam Hassan is Muhammad al-Nafs al-Zakiyya.[1][4]

Summary

Zaydis, the oldest branch of the Shia and the largest group amongst the Shia before the Safavid Dynasty in the sixteenth century and currently the second largest group, are the closest to the Sunnis and do not believe in the infallibility of Imāms after Husayn. Zaydis believe that on the last hour of Zayd ibn Ali, he was betrayed by the people in Kufa who said to him: "May God have mercy on you! What do you have to say on the matter of Abu Bakr and Umar ibn al-Khattab?" Zayd ibn Ali said, "I have not heard anyone in my family renouncing them both nor saying anything but good about them...when they were entrusted with government they behaved justly with the people and acted according to the Qur'an and the Sunnah.".[5][6] Since Imam Jafar al-Sadiq, Imam Zayd ibn Ali, Imams Abu Hanifa and Imam Malik ibn Anas worked together in Al-Masjid an-Nabawi in Medina along with over 70 other leading jurists and scholars. And Imam Jafar al-Sadiq and Imam Zayd ibn Ali did not them selves write any books. Therefore the Zaydis to this day and originally the Fatamids, use the Hanafi jurisprudence, as do most Sunnis.[7][8][9]

Law

In matters of Islamic jurisprudence, the Zaydis follow Zayd ibn ’Ali's teachings which are documented in his book Majmu’ al-Fiqh (Arabic: مجموع الفِقه‎). Zaydi fiqh is similar to the Hanafi school of Sunni Islamic jurisprudence.[10] Abu Hanifa, a Sunni madhab founder, was favorable and even donated towards the Zaydi cause.[11]

Theology

In matters of theology, the Zaydis are close to the Mu'tazili school, though they are not Mu'tazilite. There are a few issues between both schools, most notably the Zaydi doctrine of the Imamate, which is rejected by the Mu'tazilites. Of the Shi'a, Zaydis are most similar to Sunnis[12] since Zaydism shares similar doctrines and jurisprudential opinions with Sunni scholars.[13]

Beliefs

Like all Muslims, the Zaydi Shi'a affirm the fundamental tenet of Islam known as the Shahada or testament of faith  – "There is no deity (worthy of worship) but God and Muhammad is His Messenger." Traditionally, the Zaydi believe that Muslims who commit major sins without remorse should not be considered Muslims nor be considered kafirs but rather be categorized in neither group.

In the context of the Shi'a Muslim belief in spiritual leadership or Imamate, Zaydis believe that the leader of the Ummah or Muslim community must be Fatimids: descendants of Muhammad through his only surviving daughter Fatimah, whose sons were Hasan ibn ʻAlī and Husayn ibn ʻAlī. These Shi'a called themselves Zaydi so they could differentiate themselves from other Shi'is who refused to take up arms with Zayd ibn Ali and the later Zaydi Imams.

Zaydis believe Zayd ibn Ali was the rightful successor to the Imamate because he led a rebellion against the Umayyad Caliphate, who he believed were tyrannical and corrupt. Muhammad al-Baqir did not engage in political action and the followers of Zayd believed that a true Imām must fight against corrupt rulers.[14] The renowned Muslim jurist Abū Ḥanīfa who is credited for the Hanafi school of Sunni Islam, delivered a fatwā or legal statement in favour of Zayd in his rebellion against the Umayyad ruler. He also urged people in secret to join the uprising and delivered funds to Zayd.[15]

In contrast to other Shi'a Muslims, the Zaydis do not believe in the infallibility of Imāms after Husayn. Zaydis also do not believe that the Imāmate must pass from father to son but believe it can be held by any descendant from either Hasan ibn ʻAlī and Husayn ibn ʻAlī. It should be noted that orthodox Shi'is, does not necessarily believe in Imamate passing from father to son either, as can be seen from the transition of Imamate from the second Imam, Hasan ibn Alī, after his death, to his brother, Husayn ibn Alī. Template:Cquote

Zaydis, like Sunni Muslims, further reject the notion of Occultation (ghayba) of the Imām. Like the Nizaris, they believe in a living visible Imām.[16] Template:Cquote

The Twelver Imam Ali al-Ridha narrated how his grandfather Ja'far al-Sadiq also supported Zayd ibn Ali's struggle: Template:Cquote Jafar al-Sadiq's love for Zayd ibn Ali was so immense, he broke down and cried upon reading the letter informing him of his death and proclaimed: Template:Cquote

History

Status of Caliphs and the Sahaba

There was a difference of opinion among the companions and supporters of Zayd ibn 'Ali, such as Abu al-Jarud Ziyad ibn Abi Ziyad, Sulayman ibn Jarir, Kathir al-Nawa al-Abtar and Hasan ibn Salih, concerning the status of the first three Caliphs who succeeded to the political and administrative authority of Muhammad. The earliest group, called Jarudiyya (named for Abu al-Jarud Ziyad ibn Abi Ziyad), was opposed to the approval of certain companions of Muhammad. They held that there was sufficient description given by the Prophet that all should have recognised 'Ali as the rightful Caliph. They therefore consider the Companions wrong in failing to recognise 'Ali as the legitimate Caliph and deny legitimacy to Abu Bakr, 'Umar and 'Uthman; however, they avoid denouncing them. They further condemn two other companions of Muhammad, Talhah and Zubayr ibn al-Awam, for their initial uprising against Caliph Ali.

The Jarudiyya were active during the late Umayyad Caliphate and early Abbasid Caliphate. Its views, although predominant among the later Zaydis, especially in Yemen under the Hadawi sub-sect, became extinct in Iraq and Iran due to forced conversion to Shi'ism by the Safavid Dynasty.

The second group, the Sulaymaniyya, named for Sulayman ibn Jarir, held that the Imamate should be a matter to be decided by consultation. They felt that the companions, including Abu Bakr and 'Umar, had been in error in failing to follow 'Ali but it did not amount to sin.

The third group is known as the Tabiriyya, Butriyya or Salihiyya for Kathir an-Nawa al-Abtar and Hasan ibn Salih. Their beliefs are virtually identical to those of the Sulaymaniyya, except they see Uthman also as in error but not in sin.[17]

Zaidis accounts state the term Rafida was a term used by Zayd ibn Ali on those who rejected him in his last hours for his refusal to condemn the first two Caliphs of the Muslim world, Abu Bakr and Umar.[18] Zayd bitterly scolds the "rejectors" (Rafidha) who deserted him, an appellation used by Sunnis and Zaydis to refer to Twelver Shi'ites to this day.[19]

Template:Cquote

Empires

Idrisid dynasty

The Idrisid dynasty was a mostly Berber Zaydi dynasty centered around modern-day Morocco. It was named after its first leader Idriss I.

Banu Ukhaidhir

The Banu Ukhaidhir was a dynasty that ruled in al-Yamamah (central Arabia) from 867 to at least the mid-eleventh century.

Hammudid dynasty

The Hammudid dynasty was a Zaydi dynasty in the 11th century in southern Spain.

Muttawakili

Muttawakili Kingdom, also known as the Kingdom of Yemen or, retrospectively, as North Yemen, existed between 1918 and 1962 in the northern part of what is now Yemen. Its capital was Sana`a until 1948, then Ta'izz.

Community and former States

Since the earliest form of Zaydism was Jarudiyyah,[17] many of the first Zaidi states were supporters of its position, such as those of the Iranian Alavids of Mazandaran Province and the Buyid dynasty of Gilan Province and the Arab dynasties of the Banu Ukhaidhir of al-Yamama (modern Saudi Arabia) and the Rassids of Yemen. The Idrisid dynasty in the western Maghreb were another Arab[20] Zaydi[21][22][23][24][25][26] dynasty, ruling 788-985 CE.

The Alavids established a Zaydi state in Deylaman and Tabaristan (northern Iran) in 864 CE;[27] it lasted until the death of its leader at the hand of the Sunni Samanids in 928 CE. Roughly forty years later, the state was revived in Gilan (Northwest Iran) and survived until 1126 CE.

From the 12th-13th centuries, Zaydi communities acknowledged the Imams of Yemen or rival Imams within Iran.[28]

The Buyid dynasty was initially Zaidi[29] as were the Banu Ukhaidhir rulers of al-Yamama in the 9th and 10th centuries.[30]

The leader of the Zaidi community took the title of Caliph. As such, the ruler of Yemen was known as the Caliph. Al-Hadi ila'l-Haqq Yahya, a descendant of Imam Hasan ibn Ali, founded this Rassid state at Sa'da, al-Yaman, in c. 893-7 CE. The Rassid Imamate continued until the middle of the 20th century, when a 1962 revolution deposed the Imam.

The Rassid state was founded under Jarudiyya thought,;[10] however, increasing interactions with Hanafi and Shafi'i schools of Sunni Islam led to a shift to Sulaimaniyyah thought, especially among the Hadawi sub-sect.

Currently, the most prominent Zaidi movement is the Shabab Al Mu'mineen, commonly known as Houthis, who have been engaged in an uprising against the Yemeni Government in which the Army has lost 743 men and thousands of innocent civilians have been killed or displaced by government forces and Houthi, causing a grave humanitarian crisis in north Yemen. [31][32]

Some Persian and Arab legends record that Zaidis fled to China from the Umayyads during the 8th century ce.[33]

Houthi rebels

Since 2004 in Yemen, there have been Houthi rebels who have been fighting against the government. The Houthis have asserted that their actions are for the defense of their community from the government and discrimination, though the Yemeni government has in turn accused them of wishing to bring it down and institute religious law[34]

Some contemporary Zaidi scholars

  • Ali bin Mohammed Al-Mua'dy
  • Majid Al-Dien Al-Mua'dy
  • Badr Al-Dien al-Huthi
  • Mohamed bin Mohamed Al-Mansour
  • Hamoud Abbas Al-Mua'dy
  • Mohammed Abdullazim Al-Huthi
  • Abdulrahman bin Hussein Al-Mua'dy
  • Dr. Matrudi bin Zaid Al-Muhattury
  • Dr. Taha Al-Mutawakkil
  • Mohammad Muphtah

See also

Al-Zaidi

Main article: Al-Zaidi (surname)

Zaidi Wasitis

Main article: Zaidi (surname)

Zaidi Wasitis are Twelver Shias who claim descendancy from Imam Zayd bin Ali.

Literature

  • Cornelis van Arendonk : Les débuts de l'imamat zaidite au Yemen, Leyden, Brill 1960 (French)

References

External links

  • Zayiddiyah
  • Zaydism
  • Majlais Al Mohammed

Template:Islamic Theology

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.