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Zonguldak

Zonguldak
Municipality
Zonguldak is located in Turkey
Zonguldak
Zonguldak
Coordinates:
Country Turkey
Province Zonguldak
Government
 • Mayor Muharrem Akdemir (CHP)
Area[1]
 • District 632.98 km2 (244.39 sq mi)
Elevation 60 m (200 ft)
Population (2012)[2]
 • Urban 109,080
 • District 213,544
 • District density 340/km2 (870/sq mi)
Postal code 67 000
Area code(s) (+90) 372
Vehicle registration 67
Climate Cfb
Website .tr.bel.zonguldakwww

Zonguldak is a city and the capital of Zonguldak Province in the Black Sea region of Turkey. It was established in 1849 as a port town for the nearby coal mines in Ereğli and the coal trade remains its main economic activity. According to the 2009 census, Zonguldak has a population of 108,792. The current mayor is Muharrem Akdemir, representing the CHP. Zonguldak is one of the highest income economies among Turkish cities.

Contents

  • Etymology 1
  • History 2
  • Climate 3
  • Transportation 4
  • International relations 5
    • Twin towns — Sister cities 5.1
  • See also 6
  • References 7
  • External links 8

Etymology

There are several different theories concerning the origin of the city's name.

One is that it comes from Zone Geul-Dagh, the name given to the area by French and Belgian mining companies[3][4] to refer to the zone near "Geul-Dagh" or Göldağı ("Lake Mountain"), the highest mountain in the vicinity of the Devrek district.

Another theory is that the name originates from the Turkish zongalık which means swamp, or zongura.

Another is that the name may derive from the name of the nearby ancient settlement of Sandraka or Sandràke (in Ancient greek Σανδράκη).

According to another theory the name may have come from the compound word Jungle-Dagh, composed of jungle, which the French entrepreneurs called the area due to its uneven and wooded geography, plus dağ meaning "a mountain" in Turkish.

In a 1920 report, the British Foreign Office spelled Zonguldak Zunguldak.[5]

History

The port city of Zonguldak suffered a heavy bombardment by the Russians during World War I, according to the caption of a Lubok popular print.[6]

As of 1920, the port was under the control of the Heraclea Coal Company. The northern part of the bay featured a man made harbor, for steamship use. At that time, they had two cranes which distributed coal to exporting vessels.[5]

Climate

Zonguldak has an oceanic climate (Köppen climate classification: Cfb); with high and evenly distributed rainfall the year round. Summers are warm and humid, and the average temperature is around 21 °C in July and August. Winters are cool and damp, and the average temperature is around 6 °C in January and February.

Precipitation is heaviest in autumn and early winter and lightest in spring. Snowfall is quite common between the months of December and March, snowing for a week or two, and it can be heavy once it snows.

The water temperature like in the whole Turkish Black Sea coast is always cool and fluctuates between 8° and 20 °C throughout the year.

Climate data for Zonguldak
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 9.1
(48.4)
9.1
(48.4)
10.9
(51.6)
15.0
(59)
18.7
(65.7)
23.1
(73.6)
25.1
(77.2)
25.2
(77.4)
22.3
(72.1)
18.5
(65.3)
14.7
(58.5)
11.2
(52.2)
16.91
(62.45)
Average low °C (°F) 3.6
(38.5)
3.2
(37.8)
4.8
(40.6)
8.2
(46.8)
12.0
(53.6)
16.0
(60.8)
18.2
(64.8)
18.4
(65.1)
15.5
(59.9)
12.3
(54.1)
8.5
(47.3)
5.6
(42.1)
10.53
(50.95)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 133.1
(5.24)
85.8
(3.378)
87.8
(3.457)
57.5
(2.264)
51.3
(2.02)
71.2
(2.803)
81.3
(3.201)
88.4
(3.48)
122.5
(4.823)
153.3
(6.035)
147.3
(5.799)
153.8
(6.055)
1,233.3
(48.555)
Average rainy days 18.1 15.5 14.6 12.3 10.5 9.1 7.7 7.2 9.5 13.2 13.9 17.8 149.4
Mean monthly sunshine hours 65.1 78.4 127.1 162 232.5 288 316.2 291.4 225 155 99 68.2 2,107.9
Source: Devlet Meteoroloji İşleri Genel Müdürlüğü [7]

Transportation

Zonguldak old coal Port constructed in 1848
Zonguldak port and breakwater, Turkey Ottoman era postcard

The city is the terminus of a railway line to Irmak, with the terminating station Zonguldak Railway Station built in 1937.

International relations

Twin towns — Sister cities

Zonguldak is twinned with:

See also

References

  1. ^
  2. ^
  3. ^ Governorship of Zonguldak - A Brief History (Turkish)
  4. ^ Financial Manager's Office of Zonguldak - A General Description (Turkish)
  5. ^ a b
  6. ^ “The Russian-Turkish War. Sinking Four Turkish Cargo Ships.” World Digital Library. Accessed May 11, 2015.
  7. ^

External links

  • Zonguldak Municipality official website (Turkish) (English)
  • Provincial governor's official website (Turkish)
  • History of Zonguldak
  • History of Mind
  • Zonguldak Documentary
Videos
  • Video 1 Zonguldak Akşamları
  • Video 2 Resimlerle Zonguldak
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